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The present paper is an attempt to examine relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation. It also studies the emotional intelligence of students with high, average and low academic achievement motivation. Sample for the study includes 105 students (48 boys and 57 girls) of class XII of Patna. The data were analyzed with the help of product moment coefficients of correlation. The findings of the study reveal positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation. The study also reveals that students with high, average and low academic achievement motivation differ from one another on emotional intelligence.
KEYWORDS: Emotional intelligence, Academic achievement motivation. ______________________________________________________________________________
The rapid development of the era is challenging the adolescents to face the wave of globalization. Thus, the ability to control the emotions has become important for not carried away by the flow of negative and evil elements. A high emotional intelligence helps to maintain a state of harmony in oneself and finally be more self-confident in dealing with the challenges of living and learning in educational institutions. Emotional Intelligence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands and pressures (Bar-On, 2006). It is that part of the human spirit which motivates us to perform, which gives us energy to demonstrate behaviours such as intentionality, persistence, creativity, impulse control, social deftness, compassion, intuition and integrity (Kapp, 2002). Lam and Kirby (2002) are of the opinion that emotional intelligence involves perceiving, understanding, and regulating emotions.
High emotional intelligence can contribute to a student in the learning process (Goleman, 1996; Elias, Ubriaco, Reese et al., 1992, Svetlana, 2007). Students low on emotional intelligence may find failure more difficult to deal with, which undermines their academic motivation (Drago, 2004). Academic motivation is defined as enthusiasm for academic achievement which involves the degree to which students possess certain specific behavioural characteristics related to motivation (Hwang et al, 2002). It is the orientation to the actions which is important to compel with the perfect standards. Goc (2010) has stated the factors affecting studentsââ‚¬â„¢ achievement motivation as; effectiveness of the teacher, friends, the individual's attitude towards school, students' perceptions about their own abilities, past experiences (positive or negative), the importance given to the student's success, parents approaches towards their children and school.
For many years educators, professionals and the public alike have been focusing on the intellectual achievement of individuals. In the past, perceived cognitive potential, more than any other factor has been seen as a predictor of academic achievement. It has, however, been established that despite an individual having the intellectual potential to succeed at institutions of higher education, he/she may experience difficulty dealing with emotional issues, have poor relationships, and be ineffective in his/her decision making (Goleman,1995). These observations, among others, have led to the realization that individuals from changing populations may require more than intellectual abilities to exist and thrive academically.
All students experience frustration and failure to achieve their goals. They depend on the strength of fortitude to control their negative thoughts and feelings. If they are able to control emotions, they will achieve the academic goals as well (Dweck, 1996). Finnegan (1998) argued that school should help students learn the abilities underlying the emotional intelligence. This he believes could lead to achievement from formal education years of the child. Likewise, Abisamra (2000) reported that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. He therefore canvassed for inclusion of emotional intelligence in the schoolsââ‚¬â„¢ curricula. Parker et al (2004) in their study found that highly successful students scored higher than the unsuccessful group on emotional intelligence. In the same vein, Low and Nelson (2004) reported that emotional intelligence skills are key factors in the academic achievement and test performance of high school and college students respectively. A study conducted by Rode et al (2007) predicted that emotional intelligence was related to academic performance for two reasons. First, academic performance involves a great deal of ambiguity. Second, majority of academic work is self-directed, requiring high levels of self-management. Therefore, individuals with high emotional intelligence would perform better academically. Similarly, a study conducted on children aged 4 years found that controlling the impulses of action have shown their ability in achieving good academic and good social skills when they are in their adolescence (Shoda, Mischel, and Peake, 1990). Contribution of emotional management to academic performance was also supported by research done by MacCann et al (2011). The results suggest that better educational outcomes might be achieved by targeting skills relating to emotion management and problem-focused coping. Svetlana (2007) suggests the need to incorporate emotional intelligence training into secondary education curricula, due to a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement.
The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic achievement motivation among adolescents. Scant research exists on the relationship of emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation in India. There are two major reasons for this. First, the emotional intelligence [EI] construct is relatively new (Mayer & Salovey, 1990). Second, a century of research on general intelligence and cognitive performance has overshadowed the role of non-cognitive EI factors that may effect academic achievement. This has led to a consensus among educators that cognitive factors, like high scores on intelligence tests, predict student performance in college (Jensen, 1998). Yet, many students still fail to live up to their true potential despite their IQ or previous academic performance. Conversely, some college students with mediocre grades have managed to complete a college or university education. Both of these examples suggest that other factors, specifically non-cognitive EI factors, may be at work.
In essence, the importance of emotional intelligence on academic achievement motivation has been found to be very significant. Nevertheless, and in spite of the studies reviewed, there is still a need to further investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence to academic achievement motivation most especially in country like India, where most researchers are yet to show interest in the construct. Investigations that address the interrelatedness of emotional intelligence and elements of academic achievement at institutions of higher education will strengthen the relationships between these constructs. The research findings may also support the need to incorporate emotional intelligence curriculum into college academic programs.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were-
1. To study the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation.*
2. To study emotional intelligence of students with high, average and low academic achievement motivation.*
METHODOLOGY: The sample for the present study consisted of 105 class XII students. Out of which 48 were boys and 57 were girls. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select the sample. Academic Achievement Motivation Test of Dr. T. R. Sharma and Emotional Intelligence Inventory by Dr. S. K. Mangal and Mrs. Shubra Mangal were used as tools for the study. High, average and low groups of academic achievement motivation were formulated on the basis of the norms set by the Academic Achievement Motivation Test of Dr. T. R. Sharma. Product moment coefficients of correlation were computed for the analysis of the data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
VALUES OF COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
Perusal of Table 1 shows that the values of coefficient of correlation between emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation for total sample, boys and girls are .275, .225 and .344 respectively. It means that there is low positive correlation between emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation among total sample and both boys and girls. It may be due to the reason that as they are better motivated to handle, manage and control their emotions, their academic achievement motivation also increases. The above finding draws support from the findings of Mahyuddin, Elias and Noordin (2009). They also found significant correlation between EQ and academic achievement motivation. However, Bissessar (2008) and Drago (2004) found no relationship between emotional intelligence and intrinsic motivation and achievement motivation respectively.
* This objective was achieved with reference to total sample, boys and girls separately.
LEVEL WISE VALUES OF COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
Level of Academic Achievement Motivation
Values of coefficient correlation depicted in table 2 reveal that there is low positive correlation between emotional intelligence scores and high and average levels of academic achievement motivation i.e. (= .320 and .198 respectively). Value -0.320 depicts the negative correlation between the emotional intelligence and low level of academic achievement motivation for the total sample. In case of boys, there is positive correlation between emotional intelligence and high, average and low levels of academic achievement motivation i.e. (= .422, .104 and .127 respectively). In case of girls, there is negative correlation between emotional intelligence and high and low levels of academic achievement motivation i.e. (= -0.012 and -0.770 respectively). Average level of academic achievement motivation is positively correlated with emotional intelligence (= .200) for the selected sample of girls.
There is low positive correlation between emotional intelligence and academic achievement motivation among both boys and girls that indicates with increase in emotional intelligence, the students are academically motivated.
There is low positive correlation between emotional intelligence scores and high and average levels of academic achievement motivation. Emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with low level of academic achievement motivation for the total sample. In case of boys, there is positive correlation between emotional intelligence and high, average and low levels of academic achievement motivation. High and low levels of academic achievement motivation are negatively correlated and average level of academic achievement motivation is positively correlated with emotional intelligence for the selected sample of girls.
Excellent performance in academic is the key target and goal for each student regardless of ethnic group. In order to obtain good results, apart from effective learning techniques, students should be able to recognize themselves in particular of self emotions, so that it does not become a stumbling to success. Hence the need to identify oneself, emotional intelligence should be noted not only for academic interest but also for success in life.
The key to obtain success of learning is to give full attention and concentration during the process of teaching learning. High level of emotional intelligence can help calm the mind and thus to increase the absorption of information received. As a result it will contribute to their academic achievement. It is recommended that studentsââ‚¬â„¢ academic achievement should be enhanced with the use of emotional intelligence training.
The inclusion of emotional intelligence as part of the curriculum could lead to a variety of positive personal, social and societal outcomes. Increasing emotional intelligence may not only facilitate the learning process and improve career choice and likelihood of success, but could also enhance the probability of better personal and social adaptation in general. The educational experience would be more balanced or holistic as it would focus on educating the whole person. There could also be beneficial effects for the institutions, improving the environment in which the educational experience occurs.
Students need the ability to appraise a situation correctly, react appropriately in difficult circumstances and exercise stress tolerance or display impulse control when making judgments about academic decisions. Students need activities and advising sessions that help establish proactive patterns that increase awareness about emotional intelligence. The goal is to foster skills that lead to academic success.