Effects of Implementation of a School Uniform Policy

Published:

Donohue (1996) states in response to growing levels of violence in schools, teachers, parents, and school officials have come to see school uniforms as one positive and creative way to reduce discipline problems and increase safety. They believe that the adoption of school uniform policies can promote school safety, improve discipline and enhance the learning environment.

In the Washington (District of Columbia) schools, a study of the impact of uniform/dress codes and practices on school climate, educational attainment, and student affective and cognitive domains was conducted. The results of the data indicate the following: (1) reasons cited for interest in a uniform policy were based on the need to teach students that cloths do not make a person, financial savings for family, and parent concern that children might participate in an illicit act to purchase designer clothing; (2) elementary schools were more likely than secondary schools to be planning to implement a uniform policy; (3) parents were usually involved in developing a uniform policy in elementary schools; (4) there was no significant change in the overall attendance or educational attainment after implementing a policy; and (5) parents an school staff believe that wearing uniforms has had a positive impact on school climate (Stevenson 1991).

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Purpose of the Study:

The purpose of this proposal is to determine if school uniforms, if implemented, will produce a perception of a safer and more disciplined learning environment for students, parents, and teachers at Southport Middle School in St. Lucie County.

Research Questions:

The research questions which will attempt to examine: How will school uniforms reduce violent occurrences in middle schools- Who will benefit the most from a school uniform policy, -What effect will school uniforms have towards designer clothing and peer pressure- Are there any benefits or financial savings if school uniforms are implemented -What affect will school uniform policies have on safety and discipline in middle school.

Hypothesis:

The above information indicates that school uniform polices appear to have value. A research study concerning the effects of these policies on perception of safety and discipline is important and should be pursued. The proposed study, therefore, will be based on the following hypothesis:

Perceptions of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers in middle schools are affected by the implementation of school uniform policies. The null hypothesis is stated as follows:

School Uniform Policies have no affect on teacher's, parent's and student's perceptions of safety at South port middle school.

Rationale and Significance of the Study:

There have been a number of studies on the implementation of a school uniform policy, and all of those published have been successful in meeting some goal or purpose. This study serves as another stepping-stone that will offer insight so that researcher can test the opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the concern of the middle school population.

on perceptions of safety and discipline on a sample population limited to middle school students, parents and teachers in St. Lucie County, Florida. A disciplined and safe learning environment should b a priority requirement for a good school, as students who are safe and secure are better students (Donohue 1996). In response to growing levels of violence in schools, teachers, parents, and school officials have come to see school uniforms as one positive and creative way to reduce discipline problems and increase safety. They believe that the adoption of school uniform policies can promote school safety, improve discipline and enhance the learning environment.

Nature of the Study:

In order to provide evidence of a causal link between variables, this study attempts to establish a statistical relationship between the following variables.

The design of the study is descriptive, with a cross sectional design. The research is expected to link the dependent variable, perception of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers at middle schools with the independent variable, implementation of school uniforms. This design appears to be appropriate so that the researcher can test the opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the concern of the middle school population.

Assumptions and Limitations:

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It is expected that the study will have high internal validity as it tests opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the survey participants. There is, however, a threat of bias since students, parents and teachers are aware of others involved in the research and may change their answers accordingly. The research also may have high external validity if the students are considered to be representative of all middle school students in St. Lucie County.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this proposal is to examine if implementing school uniforms will produce a safer and more disciplined learning environment for students, parents, and teachers at Southport Middle School in St. Lucie County.

Theoretical Framework:

The data introduced in the literary review provides the basis for a link between school uniform policies and the perception of safety and discipline in the school environment. This data was collected from administrators and journalists who performed their own experiments or observed others who had seen the changes first-hand. In addition, primary data has been collected from survey distributed to all students, parents and teachers at South Port Middle School. Thus, this study will utilize a descriptive, cross-sectional design. The findings in the literary review, thereafter, will be compared with answers to questionnaire on the implementation of school uniforms in the middle school environment. A convenience sampling of subjects who basically "select themselves" by returning the questionnaire will subsequently provide the primary data to be analyzed.

Introduction to the Literature Review:

There is a considerable amount of literature concerning school uniform policies and their effect upon student behavior. Violence has recently, been labeled by many health professionals as a potential threat to the overall health and academic success of children (Stephen 1996). Stemming violence, therefore, has become a priority concern of school administrators, especially in the middle school environment. Approximately one in four student's worries about becoming a victim of crime or threats at school, and one in eight students report having been victimized on a school campus (Chandler 1996). As a result of such reports, schools have implemented violence prevention programs, but these programs have shown little success (McAllister 1995).

As the violence prevention programs continue, however, administrators, teachers, parents, and students have noted a possible connection between the types of clothing students wear in school and school violence. Students wearing gang-related or gang-like clothing tend to dominate the fashion trend at schools, especially those in urban areas. When students are wearing gang-related clothing, the actual gang members often take the opportunity to enter unnoticed into schools. A student, therefore, based on the color or type of clothing he wears, can become the target of intentional or unintentional violence (Gursky 1996). In addition, the style of clothing currently popular with middle school student's baggy pants and oversized shirts can become a means of transporting weapons or drugs into school and thus indirectly increases the chance of school violence.

As students engage in the eagerness to be fashionable many also establish a connection between clothing style and school violence. Students may envy other student's clothing but lack financial resources to purchase similar styles. Consequently, students who do own these valuable items have been violently injured or even murdered for their designer clothes or sneakers. In Detroit, a fifteen year-old was shot for his eighty-dollar basketball shoes. In Oxon Hill, Maryland, a seventeen year-old male honor student was killed at a bus stop, caught in a cross fire during the robbery of another student's designer jacket (Woods 1996). Accordingly, school uniforms may reduce these violent occurrences, requiring children to wear the same clothing could send a message that all players are on the same team.

Uniform Benefits:

Historically, uniforms have been worn for a variety of circumstance. Nurses wear their sanitary whit work attire; athletic teams put on their sport clothes, complete with team logo; and military personnel dress out in fatigues or dress uniform to fit the occasion. Uniforms may be associated with positive or negative roles. According to Majestic (1995), uniforms can serve several functions. First, uniforms define group boundaries, promote group goals, and reduce role conflict. Football team member, for example, do not compete against each other, but they work cooperatively to achieve the goal of winning the game. Second, uniforms can reveal role models. These clothing symbols tell observers that the wearer can be categorized as a student, security guard, or Boy Scout. Third, uniforms legitimize roles in given situations by clarifying membership and role. For instance, persons dressed in fire fighting uniforms would be expected to be firemen who would extinguish firs. Finally, uniforms act as a symbol of group membership. Group members, even if they do not know each other personally, can identify with each other by wearing a similar uniform.

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In the past, school uniforms have been used to illustrate that clothing does not make a person. This is especially true in the parochial school setting. However, opponents of school uniforms have challenged dress regulation by claiming a violation of the liberty interest to control one's appearance which is set forth under the Fourteenth Amendment (Stephen 1996). In 1969, the Supreme Court affirmed, in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, that official are "stat" actors whose discipline of students is constrained by the federal constitution (Majestic 1995), that the case established, the right of students "to freedom of expression in school unless the exercise of that right would materially and substantially interfere with the requirements of appropriate discipline or collide with the rights of others in the school"(Majestic 1995).

Another pronouncement was established in the "Kelly Decision". This decision establishes a method for analyzing personal appearance cases. According to Potner, (1996), who believed that "a person has a basic liberty interest in their personal appearance that cannot be infringed with some showing of a rational basis related to a legitimate government interest" (Majestic 1991). It appears that reasoning for this case is based on the theory that students are subject numerous restrictions o their personal freedoms as an inherent part of the educational process.

Affects on Safety and Discipline:

The clash between students' individual rights to free expression and the obligation of public school authorities to provide a safe and supportive learning environment helps to fuel the debate over dress-code policy. In 1988, in the Hazelwood School District v. Kuhllmeier case, the Supreme Court found that public schools generally are not open public forums in the same sense as streets or parks and that school officials may therefore impose reasonable restrictions on free speech (Potner 1996). This ruling was consistent with earlier Supreme Court pronouncements that the "school's unique role in promoting respect for authority and traditional values and in preparing individuals for participation as citizens justifies greater latitude in regulating speech on school property" (Futrerell 1996).

A ruling on mandatory uniform policy in public schools came from Maricopa County Arizona. In a 1995 case and Arizona state judge upheld that a strict mandatory-uniform policy regulated free expression whether the school's reason for the uniform policy was reasonable.

Local school districts and individual schools usually adopt a uniform policy. According to the Manual on School Uniforms sent to schools by the United States Secretary of Education. Riley (1996), determining whether to adopt a school uniform policy involves the following:

First, get parents involved from the beginning. Parental support of a uniform policy is critical for success. The strongest push for school uniforms in recent years has come from parent groups who want better discipline.

Second, protect students' religious expression. A school uniform policy must accommodate students whose religious beliefs are substantially burdened by a uniform requirement.

Third, protect students' other rights of expression. A uniform policy may not prohibit students from warring or displaying expressive items as long as such items do not independently contribute to disruption by substantially interfering with discipline or with the rights of others.

Forth, determine whether to have a voluntary or mandatory school uniform policy. Some schools have adopted voluntary school uniform policies that permit students freely to choose whether and under what circumstances they will wear school uniforms.

Fifth, do not require students to wear a message. Schools should not impose a form of expression on students by requiring them to wear uniforms bearing a substantive message, such as a political message.

Sixth, assist families that need financial help. School districts with uniform policies should make provisions for students whose families are unable to afford uniforms.

Finally, treat school uniforms as part of an overall safety program.

Uniform policy and its benefits:

School districts across the country are considering school uniform policies because they appear to provide ready solutions to some of the aspects of school safety, gang violence, weapons in school, and assaults associated with theft of expensive clothing. Gang attire causes gangs to be openly hostile to each other and creates and atmosphere of intimidation or disruption, and accidental wearing of the wrong color can put a student's life at risk (Jolly, 1994). Also, in recent years, some youth fashions have encourage wearing "baggy" clothes where weapons can be and have been hidden in oversized pants or overalls. These kinds of offenses according to Jolly would be favorably affected by encouraging or requiring uniformity in student school wear.

School Reduction of Violence:

Nolin (1996) suggests seven benefits historically cited by proponents of school uniforms; namely, the belief that (a) discipline and (b) respect for the teacher are increased, (c) group spirit is promoted; (d) academic standards are maintained through uniformity; (e) strain on parental begets is eased and (f) there is a decrease in the race for social status, accompanied by an ability to de-emphasize socioeconomic difference by limiting "fashion statements", and (g) intruders on the school campus can be more easily identified.

School uniforms can also reduce the emphasis on fashion wars and reinforce the acceptability of less costly school clothing. Uniforms can ease the strain on parental budgets, a particular advantage in low-income families. Uniforms can also reduce the use of clothing as indicator of status and wealth (Futrell 1994).

In addition to encouraging students to focus on learning rather than on what to wear, uniforms can promote peer acceptance, as well as school spirit and school pride. By wearing uniforms, students can take ownership in school membership, bridge the differences among widely economic levels of students, and become more unified through the reduction in cultural and ethnic tensions (Cohn 1996). Further, uniforms can support the connection between school, professional setting, learning, and future success. Some experts suggest that students who come to school "dressed for success" and ready to learn a higher probability of achieving their goals (Riley 1996).

In the survey of the United Teachers of Dade County, Florida, approximately sixty percent of the group's members supported mandatory uniforms for school children (Gursky 1996). Similarly, of the five thousand five hundred principals surveyed as attendees of the National Association of Secondary School Principals' Annual Conference in February 1996, more than seventy percent believed that requiring students to wear uniforms to school would reduce violent incidents and discipline problems (Portner 1996). Moreover, greater than eighty percent of Long Beach Press-Telegram readers supported school uniforms (Chandler 1996).

Long Beach, California, United School District, comprising fifty-six elementary schools and nearly sixty thousand students, was the first large urban school district in the United States to require school uniforms for all students, kindergarten through grade eight. Since 1994, when mandatory uniform policies were adopted in this school district, officials have found that violence and discipline problems dramatically decreased (Potner 1996). In the first year following implementation, overall school crime decreased by thirty-six percent; sex offenses, by seventy-four percent; physical fights between students, by fifty-one percent; school suspensions, by thirty-two percent; and vandalism, by eighteen percent (Cohn 1996).

Uniform Safety and Discipline:

In the Washington (District of Columbia) schools, a study of the impact of uniform/dress codes and practices on school climate, educational attainment, and student affective and cognitive domains was conducted. The results of the data indicate the following: (1) reasons cited for interest in a uniform policy were based on the need to teach students that cloths do not make a person, financial savings for family, and parent concern that children might participate in an illicit act to purchase designer clothing; (2) elementary schools were more likely than secondary schools to be planning to implement a uniform policy; (3) parents were usually involved in developing a uniform policy in elementary schools; (4) there was no significant change in the overall attendance or educational attainment after implementing a policy; and (5) parents an school staff believe that wearing uniforms has had a positive impact on school climate (Stevenson 1991).

Another study conducted by Woods (1992) in a Chicago public school surveyed the attitudes of parents toward a uniform student dress code. Seventy- Seven percent of parents agreed that children are pressured by their peers over clothing and approximately 80% believed that uniforms eliminated so competition. Sixty percent disagreed that wearing uniforms promoted positive interactions among students. No parents thought that uniform dress provided any protection against gangs and identification with gang clothing, but most felt that uniforms were more economical than the purchase of school clothes. Ninety-three percent felt that wearing uniforms helps children realize that clothes do not make the person.

Finally, the few public schools that have implemented school uniforms have done so in the belief that there will be a variety of benefits for students and that uniforms by themselves cannot solve all the problems of school discipline, but they can be one positive contributing factor to discipline and safety.

Based on the survey questionnaire, the sample population felt that a school uniform policy would have a positive impact on faculty and students perceptions of safety and discipline. Any policy with such a positive impact on the faculty and students is beneficial to the school.

Conclusions:

The results of this study will help assist parents, teachers and school leaders in determining whether to adopt a school uniform policy. The strongest push for school uniforms in recent years has come from parent groups who want better discipline. School uniforms can reduce the emphasis on fashion wars and reinforce the acceptability of less costly school clothing. Uniforms can ease the strain on parental budges, a particular advantage I low-income families. Uniforms also reduce the use of clothing as indicators of status and wealth. In addition to encouraging students to focus on learning, rather than on what to wear, uniforms can promote peer acceptance, as well as school spirit and school pride. Finally, narrow and/or bridge the differences among widely economic levels of students, and become unified through the reduction in cultural and ethnic tensions.

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

Introduction:

The purpose of this proposal is to investigate if school uniforms, if implemented, would reduce violence in a school environment for students, parents, and teachers at Southport Middle School in St. Lucie County.

Research Questions:

The Research questions will attempt to examine: How will school uniforms reduce violent occurrences in middle schools- Who will benefit the most from a school uniform policy, -What effect will school uniforms have towards designer clothing and peer pressure- Are there any benefits or financial savings if school uniforms are implemented -What affect will school uniform policies have on safety and discipline in middle school.

Hypothesis:

Perceptions of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers in middle schools are affected by the implementation of school uniform policies.

School Uniform Policies have no affect on teacher's, parent's and student's perceptions of safety at South port middle school.

Theoretical Framework:

There have been a number of studies on the implementation of a school uniform policy, and all of those published have been successful in meeting some goal or purpose.

This research examines the perception toward designer clothing and peer pressure, uniform colors as a measure of safety, uniform dress as a financial savings, and the impact of the dress code on self-expression (which includes measures of discipline). This study will begin the process of translating important administrative concerns

that investigate perceptions of safety and discipline on a sample population limited to middle school students, parents and teachers in St. Lucie County, Florida. A disciplined and safe learning environment should be a priority requirement for a good school, as students who are safe and secure are better students (Donohue 1996). In response to growing levels of violence in schools, teachers, parents, and school officials have come to see school uniforms as one positive and creative way to reduce discipline problems and increase safety. They believe that the adoption of school uniform policies can promote school safety, improve discipline and enhance the learning environment.

Research Design:

The survey questionnaire was administered to the sample population to determine if the benefits identified in the current literature review were important enough to consider implementing a school uniform policy. The results of the teacher survey indicate that school uniforms had a positive impact on the faculty and students. Parents' responses to the survey questionnaire findings show that parents believe that buying uniforms provide potential financial savings on the purchasing of school clothing.

The results of the student survey indicate that students are pressured by their peers over the type of clothes they wear and are sometimes ridiculed about their clothes.

All relevant descriptive statistics have been reported. A likert scale will be constructed, and the relationship of each question to the total score will be examined. An alpha of .05 will be utilized to insure a 95% level of confidence.

All ratio level data will be collapsed so that a chi-square test can be used to show that a relationship exists. If the resulting statistics reach the level of statistical significance the hypothesis will be rejected.

Sampling Design:

The population chosen for this study includes all middle school students, their teachers, their parents and teachers in St. Lucie County Florida. Subjects include convenience sampling of thirty teachers (seventeen Blacks and thirteen Caucasian), thirty parents (fifteen Blacks, ten Haitians and five Hispanics) and thirty students (fifteen Blacks, ten Haitians and five Hispanics) at Southport Middle School who answered a questionnaire concerning school uniforms. The survey examines toward designer clothing and peer pressure, uniform colors as a measure of safety, uniform dress as a financial savings, and the impact of the dress code on self-expression (which includes measures of discipline). This study will begin the process of translating important administrative concerns. Then data collected from teacher, parent, and student surveys, and the total size of the sample and the response data returned will be reported. The random selection will warrant an equitable distribution. The validity of the questions will fall within the variables to derive at a reliable analysis by the answers given.

The design of the questionnaire consisted of several statements. Each party was asked to respond to the questions by circling one of the three letters that "most nearly reflects" their attitude o the subject. The questionnaire provided specific statements about school uniforms and their affects on certain behavior in school. The respondents were asked to provide an answer indicating the degree to which they supported the statement (i.e. agree, disagree, or uncertain). In response to increasing school violence several Teachers, Principals, Parents, and Students indicated a belief that uniforms could help reduce violence. Many people also felt that the adoption of school uniform policies would lead to an increased school safety, student discipline, and student learning.

The design of this study is descriptive, with a cross sectional design. The research is expected to link the dependent variable, perceptions of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers in middle schools with the independent variable, implementation of school uniforms. The study includes secondary data from the literary review along with primary data gathered from the survey examining if a relationship exist between the variables

It is expected that the study will have high internal validity as it tests opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the survey participants. There is, however, a threat of bias since students, parents and teachers are aware of others involved in the research and may change their answers accordingly. The research also may have high external validity if the students are considered to be representative of all middle school students in St. Lucie County.

Measures:

This quantitative study is descriptive, with a cross sectional design. The research is expected to link the dependent variable, perception of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers at middle schools with the independent variable, implementation of school uniforms.

This design appears to be appropriate so that the researcher can test the opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the concern of the middle school population.

In order to provide evidence of a causal link between variables, this study attempts to establish a statistical relationship between the following variables: The dependent variable is the perception of safety and discipline at schools where uniforms are required and the independent variable implementation of a school uniform policy. A likert scale was constructed, and the relationship of each question to the score will be examined. An alpha level of .05 will be utilized to insure a 95% level of confidence.

Data Collection:

The data introduced in the literary review provides the basis for a link between school uniform policies and the perception of safety and discipline in the school environment. This data was collected from administrators and journalists who performed their own experiments or observed others who had seen the changes first-hand. In addition, primary data has been collected from survey distributed to all students, parents and teachers at South Port Middle School.

The researcher met with each group, teachers, parents and students, at a regular meeting at the school. At that time, the surveys were discussed and all questions were answered. The researcher noted that surveys will be sent to parents and students who are not present at the school during meeting.

The questionnaire was then distributed to all attendees; respondents were given a deadline for completion and asked to return the data by placing it in a drop box located in the main office of South Port Middle School. If not enough survey questionnaires received, a second questionnaire will be given to the respondents. The random selection will warrant an equitable distribution. The validity of the questions will fall within the variables to derive at a reliable analysis by the answers given.

The questionnaire provided specific statements about school uniforms and their affects on certain behavior in school. The respondents were asked to provide an answer indicating the degree to which they supported the statement (i.e. agree, disagree, or uncertain). In response to increasing school violence several Teachers, Principals, Parents, and Students indicated a belief that uniforms could help reduce violence. Many people also felt that the adoption of school uniform policies would lead to an increased school safety, student discipline, and student learning.

Data Analysis:

The survey questionnaire was administered to the sample population to determine if the benefits identified in the current literature review were important enough to consider implementing a school uniform policy. The results of the teacher survey indicate that school uniforms had a positive impact on the faculty and students. Parents' responses to the survey questionnaire findings show that parents believe that buying uniforms provide potential financial savings on the purchasing of school clothing.

The results of the student survey indicate that students are pressured by their peers over the type of clothes they wear and are sometimes ridiculed about their clothes.

All relevant descriptive statistics have been reported. A likert scale was constructed, and the relationship of each question to the total score will be examined. An alpha of .05 will be utilized to insure a 95% level of confidence.

All ratio level data will be collapsed so that a chi-square test can be used to show that a relationship exists. If the resulting statistics reach the level of statistical significance the hypothesis will be rejected.

Internal Validity:

This research is expected to link the dependent variable, perception of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers at middle schools with the independent variable, implementation of school uniforms. It is expected that the study will have high internal validity as it tests opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the survey participants. There is, however, a threat of bias since students, parents and teachers are aware of others involved in the research and may change their answer accordingly.

External Validity:

The research also may have high external validity if the students are considered to be representative of all middle school students. It is anticipated that the data gathered will result in the null-hypothesis being rejected.

Sampling Design:

The population chosen for the study includes middle school students, their parents and teachers in St. Lucie County. Subjects include a non-probability convenience sampling of students, parents, and teachers at South Port Middle School, in Port Saint Lucie, Florida, who answered a questionnaire concerning the implementation of school uniforms.

South port Middle consists of approximately 50 teachers and 1,216 students. Teachers in this school represent a wide variety of ages and years of experience in the teaching field. Parents also represent a wide variety of ages that come from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Students are ages twelve through sixteen and represent different racial backgrounds.

Peer Review Discussion:

The research study will investigates if school uniforms, if implemented, would reduce violence in a school environment for students, parents, and teachers at Southport Middle School in St. Lucie County. The population chosen for the study will include all middle school students, their parents and teachers. Subjects include a non-probability convenience sampling of thirty teachers (seventeen Blacks and thirteen Caucasian), thirty parents (fifteen Blacks, ten Haitians and five Hispanics) and thirty students (fifteen Blacks, ten Haitians and five Hispanics) at Southport Middle School who answered a questionnaire concerning school uniforms. The survey examines how will school uniforms reduce violent occurrences in middle schools-who will benefit the most from a school uniform policy-are there any benefits or financial savings if school uniforms are implemented-what affect will school uniform policies have on safety and discipline in middle school.

The study began the process of translating important administrative concerns into the following hypothesis: Perceptions of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers in middle schools are affected by the implementation of school uniform policies. The primary data will be collected from teacher, parent, and student surveys, and the total size of the sample and the response data returned was reported. The results of the survey include the following: A great majority of teachers believe that clothes do not make a person. The majority of parents believe that uniforms provide potential financial savings on school clothes for the future. Eighty percent of students believe that there is peer pressure based on the type of clothes children wear.

The design of the study will be a descriptive study, with a cross sectional designed. An alpha level .05 was used to assure a 95% level of confidence. The ordinal level data was collapsed so that a chi-square test can be used to determine whether a relationship exists. The variables in the study attempts to support the research that linked the dependent variable, perception of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers at middle schools with the independent variable, implementation of school uniforms. The study also include secondary data from literary review along with primary data gathered from the survey limited to information complied by teachers, parents and students, which is expected that the study will have high internal validity as it tests opinions about a policy that may actually be implemented and is of great interest to the survey participants. There is, however, a threat of bias since students, parents and teachers are aware of others involved in the research and may change their answers accordingly. The research also may have high external validity if the students are considered to be representative of all middle school students in St. Lucie County. Thus, it is anticipated that the data gathered will result in the null-hypothesis being rejected.

Expected Findings:

It is anticipated that the null hypothesis will be rejected and the research perceptions of safety and discipline among students, parents and teachers in middle schools are affected by the implementation of school uniform policies, will be supported. According to Jolly (1999) school districts across the country are considering school uniform policies because they appear to provide ready solutions to some of the aspects of school safety, gang violence, weapons in school, and assaults associated with theft of expensive clothing.

Ethical Issues:

To protect from harm the researcher will acknowledge respect for person the participant's autonomy and obligation to respect that autonomy to protect participants with diminished autonomy from possible exploitation, and example of this would be the children. In this study Beneficence will also be applied, which obligates the researcher to protect participants from harm as well as minimize risks resulting from the research. Confidentiality, privacy, and anonymity: The researcher will make adequate provisions to ensure that participant's identities will not be revealed in the course of the research ore dissemination of research results. Then, there is Informed consent/assent, which may also be needed referring to "Assent" if the potential research participants are children of appropriate aged and have the ability to comprehend it means agreement to participate in research is needed and or waiver of assent due to age if the research involves no more than minimal risk. Finally, Justice, that requires equitable distribution by avoiding selected participants solely because they are accessible or easy to influence.

Conclusion:

According to Jolly (1999) school districts across the country are considering school uniform policies because they appear to provide ready solutions to some of the aspects of school safety, gang violence, weapons in school, and assaults associated with theft of expensive clothing. Research also indicates the few public schools that have implemented school uniforms have done so in the belief that there will be a variety of benefits for students.

As the violence prevention programs continue, however, administrators, teachers, parents, and students have noted a growing level of violence in schools. School officials have come to see school uniforms as one positive and creative way to reduce violence, discipline problems, and increase safety. They believe that the adoption of school uniform policies can promote school safety, improve discipline and enhance the learning environment. Any policy with such a positive impact on the faculty and students is beneficial to the school.

Finally, since school districts determine whether to adopt school uniform policies, each district should review the literature presented in the study and the data created for this research study to determine if they want to implement a school uniform policy. In addition, schools that utilize school uniforms should always report their progress so that future researchers will be able to make decisions on school uniform policy with minimum effort.