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Childhood is the most beautiful of all life seasons.An imaginative and creative period , a time of innocence, an exquisite time of beauty and growth, a time where one can see the world through untainted eyes ,a delicate and flexible period in which he can be moulded in to any shape just like clay in the hands of a potter.Play is a natural ,child-directed way for child to learn new concepts and to develop new skills that will provide the basis for success2
Play is a cherished part of childhood that offers children important developmental benefits3.It is the way by which child explores his world by imitation, exploration, testing and construction.4 School children usually engage in cooperative play which help his all round development and help him to be a socialbeing.5 However, multiple forces are interacting to effectively reduce many children's ability to reap the benefits of play.As we strive to create the optimal developmental milieu for children, it remains imperative that play be included along with academic and social-enrichment opportunities and that safe environment be made available to all children.3
Play is involved in the development of personality. It encourages interpersonal relations, stimulates creativity, adds to the joy of living, and advances learning . A famous quote says that "I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand". Children need to gain first hand first·hand
first experience to construct knowledge, develop abstract thinking, and generalize their knowledge to new situations.4Research studies conducted in Canada on using dramatic play for teaching social science to students of elementary school have to be found highly effective as it provide child with an opportunity to act upon the roles .children approached their schoolwork with the genuine interest it deserves and with the natural curiosity and love of learning that children are endowed with.5
A longitudinal study conducted among11,000 third-graders. revealed that better classroom behavior are observed among those who had atleast 15minutes break during the school day. The children, ages 8 to 9, were divided into two categories: those with no or minimal recess (less than 15 minutes a day) and those with more than 15 minutes a day. There were an equal number of boys and girls. The children's classroom behavior was assessed by their teachers using a questionnaire. Children with minimum recess misbehaved occasionally compared to those who have recess.6
Schools and the education system plays a major role in determining the day to day activities of the child. Now early childhood programs shifted their emphasis from play, to a more academic curriculum. Schools and their teachers have always been under pressure for instance, pressure to cover the curriculum, to perform well in comparison to other schools, and to avoid the stigma of being "soft" or "spoiling" toward students. Recently, due to state and national emphasis on proficiency test performance, even the small segments of play time that have been allowed in school are disappearing. The press for "academic readiness" through concentrated and direct teaching of alphabet, number, color, and other skills is now affecting the amount of time allocated for play in preschools. This trend has had a negative effect on play 7
A survey of 1,275 children aged 7 to 16 found that 33% of children avoided playing outdoors because they did not want to get their designer clothes or trainers dirty, and 72% of children were told off for getting their clothes dirty, which sometimes influenced their decision to stay indoors. The survey found that only 33% of children played in the garden every day compared to 88% watching TV and 41% playing video games. The report is aimed at changing parents and teacher's attitudes towards play, and includes ideas for active games 8Children are active and they need play. More and more schools, under pressure to improve math and reading scores, are cutting recess time to allow for more reading and math time. Not only is this depriving children of exercise and social time, students that lean toward ADHD, particularly active little boys, absolutely need the break from sitting. Recess is their safety valve6
A comparative study done on the performance of children attending academic preschools with those attending play-oriented preschools showed no advantage in reading and maths achievement for children attending the academic preschools. The study revealed that there was evidence that those children had higher levels of test anxiety, were less creative, and had more negative attitudes toward school than did the children attending the play preschools9
Investigator felt a need for this study as most of the present research evidence has come from small-scale cross-sectional studies that may seem irrelevant to educators and policy makers; but the knowledge of teachers regarding importance of play can literally change the world of child. Educators should resist policies that reduce time for play experiences in preschool and primary grades .Teachers can plan the learning activity giving adequate importance for free play and can change the world of school children. Creating awareness among school teachers regarding play will help to apply their knowledge for the betterment of their students.
A descriptive study conducted to assess the attitude of parent towards play activities in schools revealed that eight in ten (80%) men don't think kids are getting enough physical play on a regular basis, compared to slightly less than three in four (74%) women who feel the same. Nearly nine in ten (89%) Americans agree that schools should be responsible for ensuring that children partake in a healthy amount of physical activity during the school day. Older Americans are particularly adamant about schools taking responsibility for their pupils' physical activity, as nearly six in ten (59%) ages 35 and over strongly agree with this statement, compared to just under half (47%) of those ages 18-34. Americans with children in their households are especially against the cutbacks on recess, as nearly three-quarters (73%) of them disagree with the changes, compared to 67% of those without children in the home.10
An exploratory study conducted on attitude of physical education teacher towards physical activity in schools of Pakistan revealed that The physical education teachers have positive attitude towards physical education and sports (t=18.59, df=51,p< .000). There is no difference in attitude towards physical education of male and female physical education teachers of government secondary schools (t=.241, df=50, p<.81). similarly, No difference was found in the attitude towards physical education of respondents with different qualifications (f=.945, df=5,46, p<.461).The respondents considered the following barriers in the promotions of physical education: no funds (62%), No space(50%), No facilities (38%), No interest of physical education teachers (25%), No interest of teaching staff(13%), Community disinterest(12%), No interest of head teachers (10%), Parental disinterest (10%),Untrained PE teachers(8%), Religious restrictions (6%) , No interest of students (2%), and Govt. disinterest(2%).It was concluded that the attitude of school principals and teachers towards physical education were positive. It was also noted that the attitude were not affected by age, sex, or type of schools (private and government). Lack of funds, space, facilities coupled with no interest of physical education teachers were the main barriers in the development of physical education.11
A 2007 report from the American Academy of Pediatrics documents that play promotes not only behavioral development but brain growth as well. The University of North Carolina's Abecedarian Early Child Intervention program found that children who received an enriched, play-oriented parenting and early childhood program had significantly higher IQ's at age five than did a comparable group of children who were not in the program (105 vs. 85 points).3
A 2005 survey conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics showed that the 83 percent to 88 percent of children in public elementary schools have recess of some sort. But the number of recess sessions per day and the duration of the recess periods have been steadily declining. Since the 1970s, children have lost about 12 hours per week in free time, including a 25 percent decrease in play and a 50 percent decrease in unstructured outdoor activites, according to another study.10
A correlational study to assess the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance reveled a significant relationship between students' academic achievement and physical fitness Researchers examined the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement in a racially and economically diverse urban public school district of children enrolled in grades 4 - 8 during the 2004 - 2005 academic year. The odds of passing both standardized math and English tests increased as the number of fitness tests passed increased math and English tests increased as the number of fitness tests passed increased6
A study conducted in United Nation about activities of children in the age group 6-12 years revealed that in the past twenty years, structured sports time has doubled, unstructured children's activities have declined by 50%, household conversations have become far less frequent, family dinners have declined 33%, and family vacations have decreased by 28% 13
A longitudinal study conducted by U.S. the researchers among thirty-nine low-income children, ages three and four, who were considered to be at risk of future school failure were divided into three groups. One, called the High/Scope group, was offered a program with much child-initiated activity, including play. Another, called the Direct Instruction group, received much instruction in academic subjects. The third, called the Nursery Program, was a combination of the other two. As the children grew up, those who had been in the High/Scope and Nursery programs succeeded in school and life significantly better than the children in the more academic, Direct Instruction program. At age fifteen, the following results were noted: Initially, all three curriculum approaches improved young children's intellectual performance substantially, with the average IQs of children in all three groups rising twenty-seven points. By age fifteen, however, students in the High/Scope group and the Nursery School group reported only half as much delinquent activity as the students in the Direct Instruction group (High/Scope).6
A Phenomenological study conducted on teacher's experience on play among 20 teachers revealed two characteristic perspectives-the idealized and the pragmatic.This study explored how they remember their own childhood play and how they perceive children's play today. Twenty Swedish preschool teachers were interviewed regarding their views of play. Teachers who held idealized view said that ideal play was their own play from childhood. They related play to "the child as nature" In this view, play is perceived as an expression of children's inherent need to express themselves through play-something that is natural and needing an outlet. Those with pragmatic view believes that children's play as an expression of culture, something that is constituted and created within the culture and therefore appears differently in different periods of time and in different societies. Teachers who held this view recognized their role in the children's games. They reflected upon themselves and exhibited a better understanding and awareness of the impact that play has on children's development. Furthermore, they were open to new perspective.12
Effectiveness Of Video Assisted Teaching Program (VATP) On Knowledge Of Play In School Children Among Teachers In Selected Primary Schools Of Mangalore.
The objectives of the study are:
to determine the level of knowledge on play in school children among school teachers using structured knowledge questionnaire.
to find the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programme on play in terms of gain in knowledge scores
to find the association between pretest knowledge scores and selected baseline characteristics(age, gender, years of experience, educational qualification, source of information ,number of children, type of family)
Effectiveness: In this study it refers to the extent to which VATP on knowledge of play in school children has achieved the intended results in terms of gain in mean knowledge scores as measured using structured knowledge questionnaire.
Knowledge: In this study it refers to the correct responses of school teachers regarding play in school children as measured using structured knowledge questionnaire.
Video assisted teaching program: In this study it refers to the systematically designed teaching program by the investigator to educate teachers on play in school children with the help of video clippings on meaning of play, types of play, purposes of play, impact of lack of play and teachers role in promoting play in school children
Play: In this study it refers to any physical or mental leisure activity that is undertaken by school children spontaneously or as a part of planned activity in the school
School children: In this study it refers to both boys and girls aged group 6-12 years studying in primary classes in selected primary schools of Mangalore
School teachers: In this study it refers to both male and female teaching staff with BEd, DEd or TCH teaching in primary classes in selected primary schools of Mangalore
School children have various play needs
School teachers may have some knowledge regarding play for school children
All hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of significance
H1:There will be significant difference between the mean pre-test and post-test
knowledge scores of school teachers on play among school children
H2:There will be significant association between the pre-test knowledge scores of school teachers on play among school children and selected base line characteristics(age ,gender, year of experience, educational qualification ,source of information ,marital status ,number of children ,type of family)
Study is delimited to teachers teaching in primary classes of selected schools of Mangalore.
Materials and methods
7.1 Source of data
Data will be collected from 60 primary school teachers who fulfill inclusion criteria, working in selected primary schools of Mangalore.
7.1.1 Research design
Pre-experimental ( one group pre-test post-test) design will be used for the present study.
7.1.2Setting of the study
The study will be undertaken in selected primary schools of Mangalore.This include both government and private schools which have a population of approximately 100 teachers.
In the study population consist of all school teachers teaching in primary schools of Mangalore.
7.2Method of data collection
In view of the nature of the problem and to accomplish the objectives of the study
purposive sampling will be used to select participants
In the study the sample consist of 60 primary school teachers .
7.2.3 Inclusion criteria:
Male and female teachers who are teaching in primary classes.
Teachers who are willing to participate.
Teachers who are not available during data collection
7.2.5Instruments intended to be used
The tool developed for study will be Structured knowledge questionnaire consisting of
Part 1-Baseline characteristics
Part 2-Structured knowledge questionnaire
7.2.6Material intended to be used
Video assisted teaching program (VATP) on play including meaning of play, purposes of play, impact of lack of play and teachers role in promotion of play.
7.2.7Data collection method
Data from participants will be collected after obtaining prior permission from authorities of selected primary schools of Mangalore.
The investigator will introduce herself to the teachers
The objectives of the study will be explained to the teachers
Informed consent will be obtained from teachers.
Data will be collected by administering structured knowledge questionnaire
Video assisted teaching program(VATP) will be administered to school teachers
Seven days after administration of VATP posttest data will be collected with the same structured knowledge questionnaire.
7.2.8Plan for data analysis
The obtained data will be analysed in terms of objectives and hypothesis of the study by both descriptive and inferential statistics
Descriptive statistics such frequencies, mean, median, mode and percentages would be computed to describe sample characteristics and inferential statistics such as t-test or equivalent non parametric test would be used to find out effectiveness of video assisted teaching program.
The association between the demographic variables and knowledge scores will be determined by chi-square test.
Data will be presented in tables, graphs and diagrams
7.3Does the study require any investigation or instruction to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals?if so please describe briefly.
Yes the investigator needs to assess the effectiveness of VATP among school teachers
7.4Has ethical clearance been obtained from institution in case 7.3?
Yes. It has been obtained from the concerned authorities.