Educational Reforms in the education system in India

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

With the dawn of freedom in India several reforms are loing introduced in the field of education . We all realize that it is a sacred duty of the School, authorities to help the school going boys and girls develop as worthy citizen of Democratic republic. "The new Education endeavours through the working principles of freedom, creativity, to bring joy and happiness into schools and in to the life of children which formula schooling has tended to cramp unduly" remarks Shri K. G. Saiyidan in his book. The high school is one of the important agencies of education for adolescents. The attempted towards improving secondary education should be made in keeping in view the interests, attitudes and aptitudes and creative activities of the adolescents. Adolescente is so important in one's life that it cannot be relegated into the background. It is quite, an favourable period from the point of view of education needless to say that it is very important to understand this period for devising ways and means for introducing reforms in the field of education of adolescents. The educational activities bear no fruits unless they are larged on needs and interests of the aducand. It is righting mentioned by Elisabeth Hurlock . "In study of adolescents, a study of their interests is valuable approach to an understanding of them as individuals."

This can be achieved it the adolescents are with proper activities, suited to their interests. The/So provided to throw some light on understanding of such present study is designed (above see from to throw)

Activities of adolescents, especially the adolescent girls .

One of the gravest defects of our educational system today is that there is no provision in it for keeping the adolescent usefully or rather properly engaged during the hours when he is not at school or busy in his studies, at home . More often than no their leisure hours are either wasted or misutillged. The time at the disposal of the -----boys or girls is still greater on holidays and half ----- holidays.

In foreign countries, many schools are of residential type and they have extensive and well -chalked out programs of leisure time activities. These activities keep of the adolescent engaged during his leisure hours. May it is the interests and hobbies which after proper opportunities to the adolescent to display the various talents and faculties that the may be gifted with and it is through these he gets proper training and true lessons of lie.

Taking into consideration such importance of activities during leisure time, several significant studies have been reported in this field wgueg are mentioned at relevant places in the present work. Most of these studies are quite intensive and based on scientific investigation. In these studies we not find a clear picture of Indian adolescent and their interests and hobbies pursued in leisure time.

There is no such provision for leisure time activities or program of parsing hobbies in Indian schools and if there be any, it is wry often of she with practically no intrinsic value to the students. The teacher whole an important factor directly influencing the child is the staru enough to take account of such activities. He thinks that his role is for teaching only those studies which are booking and academic. Thinking in this way. Teacher naturally forget the importance of understanding the individual thoroughly. Which a remarkable characteristic of new education of today. The report of the education commission 1964-66 while discussing the importance of creative activities. Interests and arts in education . states," In the age which values discovery and invention, education for creative expression acquires added significance. Unfortunately the fine arts and are active activities regarded as "frills" added to the real education and neglected because they are not examination subjects.

Similarly the child at home, very often become a problem to parents and guardians during leisure time. The young orate being ted and defended by its parents has more energy than it needs for maintenance and growth.

This extra energy of the child consequently is extended in activities which have no ulterior aim. Such activities of children at home are regarded simply as causing nuisance to family, parent who do not know the paychologicla value of their activities look at them as trifling .

This study may be useful to the guardians who are often fould complaining against their wards. In the words of Dr. Run shakal Pandey, an eminent Indian investigator in field of interests of the Indian boys. "No doubt, the adolescente are often enable to make satisfactory adjustment. But this is not all. The guardians also cannot excoriate themselves entirely. The fact remains whether such guardians have ever cared to bother to adjust even themselves reasonably to the wishes, desires and attitudes and interests of their wards. In the ultimate analysis it has been discovered that many of them are not fully alive to their responsibility in this area." It is beleved that this study will help them to realize their responsibilities in relation to their adolescent wards. "Reacreation is essential in order to maintain good mental health. To most of our boysand girls, adolescence is an an happy age. Offering the recreational facilities in shape of hobbies for adolescent is significant in guidance programme No councelor can be successful in his work unless he acquaints himself with interests and aptitudes of his clients.

The purpose of the present inveatigation is to throw light on this aspect of adolscent life in the hope that it would be useful to both teachere and parents. In this research proper and aystematic study of hobbies is made. This night help in planning the currioulumtieme table and for providing special apportunities adolescents. In the words of Hr. R. Douglas, " all youths need opportunities to develop their interests to appreciate beauty in literature , art, music, and nature, consequently adolescents should be given scope for beautiful literature, drawing and painting, ethic and dramatic activities. "

A rigid curriculum emphasizing mere intellecnal experiences is likely to cause for greater harm to the adoleacents if it engenders a keep aprit of comperition. Secondary Education Commission report 1952.53 reffered to the various defects of present curriculum and pointed out that, " our education is too bookish, mechanical, stereotyped, rigidly uniform and did not cater with different aptitudes of the pupil . In the past, our schools have left whole areas of the pupils personality untouched and unquickened, their emotional life, their social impulses. That explains why majority of them emerge with no inner resources of interests which can be cultivated and parsued as pleasant and useful hobbies. " In view of this serious short cowing in the educational programme it furt he recommended in the chapter of curriculum that a place of honour should be given to subjects like art, craft, music dancing, and development of different hobbies. "A discussion of the deficition of a hobby may not be out of place here, webster's third new international dictionary defines a hobby as" . A specialized parsuit as stamp collecting , painting, wood working, gardening, that is out side oass occupation and that one finds particularly interesting and enjoy doing usually in non-professional way as a source of leisure time relaxation. "Oxford English Dictionary gives definition of hobby as," A favorite occupation ortopic parsued for amusement or an individual pursuit to which a person unduly devoted. " This we may defind a hoppy as a pleasant it gives during leisure time. It implies both activity and interest. It is a steady and systematic parsuit of an activity which one enjoys engaging in and which offers relaxation from serious parsuit definable by the word work." Hobbies are manifestation of play tendency of youth expressed in parsuit of self chosen activity. Hobbies represent spontaneous interest of individuals in which they indulge during leisure hours with great pleasure and sometimes with an absolute andon. In its field an individual's abilities are given free play giving him chance to express his inner and truer self. It helps him to enrich his potential creative powers making his life richer and valuable for himself and society.

A hobby always tend to words some sort of specialization and skill. It preaches enthusiasms and interest in parsuit or a special activity.

It gives training that emphasis manual skill, and co-ordianted action of eye and bond, and heart. It refines individuals mind. Fasters active, producing a rich emotional experience, joy and consequently an riches his personality.

It is no out of place to mention what prompted the candidate to select a problem for her research, arts, exhibition in girls schools and in other places gave her an opportunity to see closely what girls do in their leisure time. The growth to gether different specimen of embroidery, kintting, painting, drawing, leather work dolls, and so many creative samples of art to display in such exhibitions. This be wildering productive and creative work was the creation of their leisure time activities parsued in the shape or hobbies. As the candidate was greatly interested in such hobbies, of girls she took an opportunity to study hobbies of girls systemtionally and importance of the problem in the educational program .

In our Indian setting certain facts cannot be ignored. One of them is that always the home is the first school in order of time and it must always remain first in order of importance. The parents , mostly the mother, who is the natural teacher, must be endowed specially with fraining fit for proper education of her children. "Obviously in the formative period of the chilled, it is the not her who ounts for all. These fore, mother who has boan well trained in various ways becomes essential in education " remarked Nehruji in his famous speech at men college at madras.

More over while father may sped less time in home, the child is olely in charge of mother. The ther should under stand the orces that are playing upon unfolding lives of her children and environment into which they may entering order that she may wisly preside over their physical mental and moral up bringing. A study of hobbies of girls may be valuable to mothers as it would enable them to keep balance between scholastic and other creative and recreative activities and to provide time and apportunities to her children.

"In the transitional phase in which we are at present certain psychological differences between men and women will have to be accepted us matter of fact as a practical bear is for building up to curriculum for boys and girls" mention the secondary education commission report 1964-66. While fraining the curriculum for girls " Significance of the education of girls cannot be ove emphasized. For all development of juman resources, the improvement of hones and for moulding the character of children during the most impression years of infancy, the education of women is of own great importance.

In shaping the education of girls therefore, the school should aim at the development of future mothers and home makers. These will embrace not only the training.

In the domestic art but deliberate formative looking to wards the no there functive as an educator of children. In the words of Desai. In addition girls need some special preparation may include such as cooking, as wing, has decoration, child development , some fine arts such as painting, music , drawing , embroidery etc. This "basic core of education" should be aimed at promoting in the man an intelligent awareness of her environment and her role in it and paring her a competent housewife .

Girls are naturally future mothers. They are natural educators of their children too. Formation of hobbies such as singing knitting, dancing, home decorating, gardening etc. give opportunities to self expression they can as their leisure profitably in adornment of home, engage them solves in domestic arts, in pursuit of literature, and intellectual and moral interests, to make has happier and the most comfortable place to live in such taking into consideration such importance of leisure from activities and hobbies an humble attempt image by the candidate in the , field. It will easeful both teachers and guardians both who wants to modify the Childs personality directly .


Importance of the problem.

A hobby , "a favorite subject or occupation that is not one's main business," said by S. G. Hedges, "is always important for three main reasions, there is more leisure, there is the tyranny of machine, there are the economic circumstances which make it difficult for people to choose congenial career . "

The striking feature of the twentieth century is the machine age. Every society is passing through rapid transition. At the some time, it cannot be deviled that all the conditions of life are changing. With increasing mechanizations, the hours of labour are being reduced whilst work is becoming less intelligent and less interesting. In many industries diquity of labour no longer exists. Thus leisure will undoubtedly become the greater portion of man's life, for the unemployed it is already the whole. "It is urged by Brown in the educational sociology.. that". Education must deliberately be directed towards enabling men to use the leisure dright. The fact becomes so imp that it requires specific consideration in the program of national education.

Hobbies cultivate individuale interest in come activities and thus make the leisure time fruitful. At individual finde himself free during a part of his daily life from demands, of regular calling and is able to enter upon any line of activity within his range of interests. To one, who has developed no interests beyond his vocation, leisure becomes bore done and be is often tempted to find relief from it in the excitement of drink in gambling resulting in individual unhappiness and frustration thus making loss of individual's contribution to social wealth. Besides it is a great damage to culture, civilization and human values.

Thus education for leisure is of vital importance. Fedder states in pratical guidance methods for cousellors teachers and administration that "moral and cultural tone of society depends upon the solution of the problem of leisure times." Rangane than in the same way remarks, " change the character of nation's leisure and corresponding change in its culture an of efficiency is bound to follow, Cyril in his statistical study of juvenile delequancy shows that," majority of juvenile oftences occur during leisure time hours. " A balanced program of leisure time activities will act both prophylaxis and a there by. It will ansure a well integrated personality, build both physical and mental health, conduce emotional growth and develop special abilities, skills and interests. " Remarks B.D. (*) Bhatia in his philosoply and education while discussing Education for leisure education.

He further mentions, "Education for leisure should begin, however in schools." Right attitudes can be more easily formed in schools then afterwards in life. Provision in the schools programe of free and creatives activities by way crafts and hobbies, given direction to qouthful enthysiam and training for healthy occupation. This will rescue the adult lateron, from emptiness of idleness and help him to enrich, ennoble and recreate his life, go to gether.

The range of possible leisure activities is wide many people choose to be active participates other may be more apectatorasame enjoy reading, games, or one of the collection hobbies such as stamps, coius, others choose one or more of the arts, music, drawing and painting, dancing or photography. Still, find recreation in doing useful or constructive tasks as carpentary or sewing.

Litery type of hobbies, such as reading writing have always been held in high esteem because of their socializing value. From these the children learn to admire and to imitate their favorite hereoes. They come to appreciate value that the painter, musician , poet , sculpture , the arihitect, confer on mankind. They realize that those who labour for material gain alone sow the seeds of discord and inflame the passions of greed and last and are apt to be followed by curses of their fellowmen where as those who labour for higher things of life secure cleassings and leave behind them memory that remains benediction to all mankind.

The caltivation of hobby like singing and music, yields immediate pleasure and reach favourably on the home. Angela patri in her "Home and studyguide." Says that, "Musicachieves twofold purpose, It given pleasure to us and enables us to give pleasure to others, music plays a vital role in everyday living , "

The modern education aims at training of the individual for a new order of society based on love, justice and peace. Thee eternal volues of love, justice and peace are essentially moral in character. Music can greatly help the emotional training of heart and spirit which is immensely helpful to the social well-being.

Creative sort of hobbies which are artistic, manual, intellechial, social till the vacant hours enlarging one's imaginat inventiveness, resourcefulness and specialization. Training in them gives, embassies manual skill, and co-ordinated achive of hard, head and heart. It refives the individual's mind producing rich emotional experiences and joy. The words of peskett, are worth to mention here, "India has full and rich history of artists." And craft men's work it is pity that this fact has been sufficiently exploited by secondary schools a rich past deserves rich future "hobbies can be used for the sublimation of instincts. Instincts, though innate, are not fully developed at birth. Each appears in eveitably at its proper time. Teachers can redirect them from biological geal to one that is useful to both individual and society. The instinct for acquisition for example, if not properly redirected might tent to make the child a miser. The teacher and guardian should utilizes the hobbies of collection i.e. stamp coin, signatures etc. for developing his acquisitive instinct. So also combat instinct can be directed as play hobbies. Constructive instincts. Should give way through hobbies of construction viz. Making toys wood carving, sculpturing. " the self confidence that construction gives extends further them manual work . Power to do anything increases self respect and therefore his value,. To himself and others .

Hobbies can bring about a powerful modification of social behaviour and can encourage healthy social adjustment which is the most important feature of modern education. Healthy social adjustment requives that child should develop necessary attitude habit's and skill to enable him to participate in and to enjoy grump life.

Social hobbies like playing, felling ? hearing stories, etc, provide apportunities through which every child gains experience of organized social life and learns to make and test friend ship, to face and meet competition, to play and work as a member of a team and accept responsibilities and discipline. They help to remove poor social adjustment like extreme shyness, solitariness, overdependence, bulging, cruelty and aversion towards apposite sex .

Hobbies generally indicate the acquired sentiment or attitudes to words a subject. Mostly they are learned "They do not grow as separate entifies that can be plucked like apples from free remarks * Jersild in this famous look on child psychology. A teacher of insight will appeal to the hobbies of his pupils, skillfully weaving his instruction round there strong interests. He should build up and faster sentiments of love for various subjects. A teacher for mathematics, for example , will seek to engender in his pupil a live for mathematics, getting him to look on his work not as a task but as an enjoyable intellectual parsuit.

Hobbies tend to bring about closer co-operation between school and home. The teacher must recognize the program for use of leisure which the child gets at home. This requires a teacher to establish direct contact with parents and thus know the equipment and facilities offered by parents to children.

This they try to bring the home and school nearer by introducing household occupation in the school program . "Preadolscence and adolescence contract parents truly puzzling problem. The youngster is approaching "adulthood now . Turbulent in themselves, they are further darkened by the shadow of future. These condition create a need for home school relationship for the proper guidance of there adolescence * remarks Hymes in his book effective home school relations.

Asystematic study of hobbies of our school going adolescents, may help the guardian and teachers to knew special interest of the child by viewing their interests sympathetically and helping to provide opportunities for then teachers and parents can win child's confidence and secure his understanding.