Learning is a life long process. It helps to acquire the knowledge to a person or a group of persons by using different theories and methods with the help of a lecturer or by self. This assignment shows the different theories, styles, , factors affecting in learning , methods barriers of learning in the educational and health and social care sector.
DOMAINS OF LEARNING
This domain is mainly based on the knowledge. It have three practical and instructional levels such as , factor, understanding, and the application. TheÂ factÂ level consist of identity and list. The understanding level consist of three, they are describe, compare and contrast together. The typical verb contains explain, apply and analyse. This domain will deliver as lectures , presentations etc. and the evaluation will be objective and subjective.Â
Psychomotor domain is based on the skills of the individual. The three practical instructional level is imitation practice and habit. In the first level of this domain contains the delivary of the subject, second level will be the observation by the instructor, and the third level the learner will build the experirience.
Affective domain is based up on the behavioural aspects and may be labelled as beliefs. The three levels in the affective domain areÂ awareness, distinction,Â andÂ integration.Â The verbs for this domain are generally limited to words likeÂ display, exhibit,Â andÂ acceptÂ and these apply at all the levels. The first two levels of the domains really cognitive;Â integrationÂ is behavioural and requires the learner to evaluate and synthesize. The content of this domain will usually involve discussions. The testing in the first two levels will be cognitive, whereas the third level will required an affective checklist.
Activist will Jumps in at the deep end enthusiastic looks for new experiences likes to be centre of attention. Always likes to do new experiments. They are open minded and flexible. They always enjoys the new situations, they likes challenges.
Pragmatists are not happy with listening to theories and ideas. People with a pragmatist learning style like facts to fantasy. In the educational settings, they enjoy writing and reading nonfiction or doing writing activities such as outlines, research papers, making lists, filling in charts and labelling the scientific diagrams
These people are very care full in every jobs, openions, thinking, etc. They will follow a methodological approach .The reflective learning style is a learning style which consists of absorbing, rather than acting on, new information. A reflective learner need time to think through an idea and its ramifications, while an active learner prefers to jump in and test theories immediately.
Theorists are the vertical thinkers. They are rational and objective. The will follow always in a disciplined approach. They want to ask questions or they like questioning. The negative of theorist is they are lateral thinkers, they will in tolerate anything, like subjective or intuitive.
THEORIE OF LEARNING
These are the theories which includes the leadership which do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. A behavioural theorist always looks look at what the leaders actuallyÂ doing.
Principles of Behaviourist are they will do small and concrete and progressively sequenced tasks. They will think about the positive and negative reinforcement. They are very consistent in using the reinforcement during the teaching and learning process. If they learned once then the intermittent reinforcement will promote retention.
The cognitive theory is mainly based on the mind and the functions based on the brain. It include thinking , knowing, memorising, and communicating, and the connection between them, and how they are working together. In this theory, the mind will work . In this theory experience is the main shaping factor of the personality. It sees the mind as a set-out frame waiting to be filled, rather than one shaped by experience. The cognitive theory is the only one to clearly state that a person's behaviour is certainly shaped by surroundings, not only internal drives. What the one would do surrounded by peers is completely different from what the same person would do in a strange their setting.
Gestalt means that when the parts identified individually have different characteristics to the whole (Gestalt= "organised whole")
e.g. describing a tree - it's parts are trunk, branches, leaves, perhaps blossoms or the fruit. But when you looks at an entire tree, you are not conscious of the parts, you are aware of the overall object - only the tree. Parts are of secondary importance even though they can be clearly seen.
The focus of the humanistic theory is based on the emotional feelings of the human beings. In this theory the learner are free to choose their own behaviour, rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforces. Issues dealing with self-esteem, self-fulfilment, and needs are . The major focus of this theory is to facilitate personal development.
LEARNING THEORY AND LEARNING STYLE IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE FIELD.
HUMANISTIC THERAPY IN PSYCHOLOGY
The humanistic approach in the health care field is mainly used in the psychatrist treatments like counselling. Because this theory is based on the emotional feelings of the human beings. According to this theory, the human beings have an intimate tendency to develop some potentials. But, some times this potentials will destroy our life and living conditions. Some times our lovable people will act as a stranger. Because they are not aware about the inner feelings, which are taking place in the persons mind.
The aim of a councillor or a psychotherapist is that to provide an environment, in which the client will not feel the insecurity. This will help the client to enable more security and self esteem about themselves.
The psychotherapist or the councellor will will understand the clients problem through the communication with him. The positive point of this therapy is it gives more important for the humanistic values and approaches. This attitudes helps the client to build a relationship with the client and the therapist.
FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING
Motivation helps the learner to learn more . The teacher should have the capacity to motivate their students.
The environmental factors affects in the learning. The suitable environment gives more concentration for the learning.
The communication between the student and the teacher will help to reduce the distance between them.The communication the medium of the communication should be well understand by the speaker/ the lecturer and the listener/the learner. Some of the important communicative medias are audio visual,newspapers,internets etc.
The management of the time is very important in the learning. The lecture should know how to complete the needs of learner with in the time limit
In every culture there are different type of cultural learning style. Many of the countries are developing and undeveloped once. When these countries learning styles are compared to the developed countries the educational level will be in high standard. So the teaching styles and methods are varies from one culture to another. It may be difficult to understand the nonverbal messages because different cultures have the different expectations about eye contact, physical touch, body gestures, etc.
The lecture should have an idea about each learner, what they are, their learning and under standing capacity, which learning style is suitable for the each learner. Lecture should can arrange each learners documents in a folder including their learning needs.
The lecture should have the capacity to clear up the learners doubts. Teach them about the procedures in the ward.
Check all the legal documents of the learner in which includes the educational level, if the worker is from out side country check the passport, visa, CRB, language level etc.
BARRIERS TO LEARNING.
Barriers of learning are the factors which are affecting in the learning of the individual. It may be physical factors, neurological factors, and mental factors.
Mental stress and tension.
In the learning process the language is an important factor . Language helps the learners to understand the learning subject.
A learning process will complete when all the learniners are listening the lecture. For a proper process of learning attention is very important. So before taking to lecture the lecture should make sure that the employees are ready to listen the classes. This will make to progress in their thinking from where they are.
The visual aids helps in learning by change of focus. They help to create attention. If the class has to focus on the lecturer all the time, the pressure on the lecture to perform is acute. When the lecturer switch the OHP or slide projector attention of the learners will be pointing to the screen and away from the face of the lecturer. Learning by visual method will help to concentrate more than in the audio classes.
Mental Stress and Tension
The mental stress and tension will affects the learning process. The causes of the tension may be due to the family problems and the personal problems.
The term DyslexiaÂ is a broad term which is using to define aÂ learning disabilityÂ that impairs a person's ability to read,Â and which can manifest itself as a difficulty withÂ phonological awareness,Â phonological decoding,Â orthographic coding,Â auditory short-term memory, and /orÂ rapid naming.Â Dyslexia is a separate and distinct from the reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequateÂ reading instructions.Â It is believed that dyslexia can affect between 5 to 10 percent of a given population although there has been no studies to indicate an accurate percentage.
The condition dyspraxia, it Â is a motor learning difficulty that can affect planning of the movements and the co-ordination as a result of brain messages not being accurately transmitted to the body.Â It may be diagnosed as the complete or partial absence of other motor or sensory impairments.
PROFESSIONAL SKILL IN LEARNING
These are the skills of the lecturer and the student in the field of learning. These professional skills helps the lecturer to know about the students and their problems. In health and social care sector all the procedures are take place under some particular knowledge and theories. Professional skills are the ability of students to learn and at the same time it is the ability of teachers to teach the students. In health sector, the carer or a nurse should have the capacity to understand their clients problem. Thee clients they may be not active in their communication, but the worker should understand their problems through the observational method . This is one of the method of professional skills. In the hospital sector the nurse will understand the problems of the patient by seeing the physical appearance and the activities they are doing. In psychological sector, the councillor or the psychiatrist will communicate with them through a long discussions. Through this discussion he can understand the problems of the patient.
Learning strategies are the methods which are using by the students to complete the learning task. Many of the teaching management and teachers are using these learning strategies to improve the learning and teaching skills. The lectures use different types of strategies like visual aids, audio methods, demonstrations, group discussions etc..
Learning strategies, however, they are the tools that learner themselves can employ independently to complete a language task. For an instance, a learner who needs to learn a list of vocabulary words might draw a picture to remember each word.
The commonly used learning strategies are given bellow,
Simulation and games
Recourse based learning
Films / TV programs
Distance learning /flexi study
Real life experience.
PRESENT TEACHING STATERGIES IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SECTOR.
The present learning or instructional strategies helps to achieve learning goals. It includes the pre instructional activities, learner activities, testing, and follow-through determine the approach for achieving theÂ learning goals. The strategies are based on the interest of the students and teachers. Because the teacher determines which type of learning strategy is applicable in each student learning .
The present health and social care system helps the learners to improve their learning styles by the help of learning strategies'. The learning strategies are commonly using in the social and health sector is as follows,
DiscussionsÂ there are many methods using in discussion strategies. The are the discussions, demonstrations, lectures etc. For example, when the lecturer will discussing the learning topic to the students, then the lecturer will understand the learning difficulties of the student. Through this they can make improvement in the difficulties.
Reading comprehension Strategy, the reading comprehension strategy helps to understand the aspect about the material. It helps to determine the vocabulary, writing structure etc. This will makes understand , that, what is the reason for reading. This helps for the teacher to understand about the learner regarding reading skills , interest, motivation, and experience .
Semantic Mapping Strategy,This strategy helps to understand or it is using as a technique to motivativate the students and make them to involve in the full learning process. This will include, Selection of topic, diaplaying the target topic. And finaly the students will make some points regarding the topic, the lecturer should divide the student as some groups according to their intellectual abilities. And they will discuss about the topic.
Integrating Technology, N In these days the educational sector realised that the application of modern technologies will give more values in the learning. Integrating the technology into a course curriculum when the appropriate is proving to be valuable for the enhancing and the extending the learning experience for the faculty and for the students or the learners . Many faculty have found electronic mail to be a useful way to promote student/student or faculty/student communication between class meetings and to inform about the working programs. Others are using list serves or on-line notes to extend the topic discussions and explore critical issues with students and colleagues, or discipline- specific software to increase student understanding of difficult concepts.
Cooperative Learning . This is a method in which a groupe of people a re working together or learning together for to achieve a same goal. The term 'Collaborative Learning' is commonly used as a synonym for cooperative learning when, in fact, it stands as a separate strategy that encompasses a broader range of group interactions such as developing learning communities, and stimulating worker/faculty discussions, and encouraging electronic exchanges. In this the full involvement of faculty and the management involves in the learning process.
The proper training and the teaching of the students with the all suitable learning theories and the learning styles helps the student and the teacher to acquire the knowledge.