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After the establishment of the federation in United Arab Emirates, the Starting of the quality education has begun. In UAE till the university level public education is free for male and females of United Arab Emirates. Education system of UAE comprises of middle schools, primary schools and high schools. In UAE primary school enrollment for males in 2005 stood at 85% and 81% of females. In secondary school of UAE stayed less at 62% for males and 66% for females. In the year of 2003, ages of 15 to 24 males reached at 98 percent literacy and 96 percent for females this record is submitted in 'CIA World Factbook' of UAE. Literacy rate of United Arab Emirates in 1989 was 53 % which is improved exponentially during the period of 2000-2007 and right now 90% people of UAE peoples are literate it means they can read and write easily. The situation of private schools of UAE is better than government schools and in the big cities like Dubai and Abu Dhabi there are approximately 50% of students in private school of UAE. According to World Bank report which is published in 2010, 16.83 was the student-teacher ratio (pupil-teacher ratio) of UAE. (Gyimah, 2011)
Earlier in 1960 before the discovery of oil, United Arab Emirates was a poor nation and its education system is worst as well. According to studies there were only 15-20 schools in Dubai city and Abu Dhabi had a same condition. Those students who want to takes higher education they have to go abroad mainly to U.S. and England. Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum dedicated his life to the development of national education system and provided the essential foundation for the modernization of Dubai. Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan in 1999 introduced CERT (Centre of Excellence for Applied Research and Training) which providing a different education system program for all nationalities of UAE. In 2003 Education Ministry of United Arab Emirates followed "Education 2020" which is a series of 5 year plans introduced to improved innovative skills of students, education techniques and self-learning qualities of students and also introduced new enhanced syllabus for math and science for 1st grade level in all government schools of UAE. Nowadays Education system of UAE also includes foreign language such as English, So that students of Emirates able to grasp the international language. Right now there are many universities like Higher Colleges of Technology ,American Universities of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates University that are providing health science, engineering, information technology and business around the nation. EIBFS was established for financial and banking studies in 1983. (Kitaura, 2010)
The main aim of this studies or research is to analyses the educational performance of UAE and improves quality learning, student enrollment in schools and ultimately improvement in economic growth of UAE.
What are the most cost-effective policies to improve school enrollment?
Efficiency and effectiveness are the two perceptive to analyses effectiveness and efficiency of school enrollment. Efficiency has two parts internal and external. If schools are achieving their goals without wasting their valuable resources then it is known as internal efficiency. External efficiency analyzes Educational returns. So basically in the improvement of economic growth improvement of labor productivity is important. Other cost-effective policy is effectiveness which is all depends on the 'cognitive skills' of student and have analyze using traditional test based system. Cost-effective policies will help the education system by providing the much better education facilities with much lower cost.
What is the political feasibility of cost-effective education policies?
By using cost effective policies both consequence and their cost taken into consideration in systematic way .Political feasibility is a judgment of the political environment around certain policy & plays an important role in the cost effectiveness education policies. Political feasibility is related to cost effectiveness and efficiency so, to understand the political feasibility 1st we need to identify policy environment such as health policy or environment policy etc. (SCHOELLMAN, 2011)
Access to Schooling
School enrollment is basically depends on cost-effective policies as mainstream economic approach provide good economic growth quality approach. Education system of UAE comprises of middle schools, primary schools and high schools. In UAE primary school enrollment for males in 2005 stood at 85% and 81% of females. In secondary school of UAE stayed less at 62% for males and 66% for females. In the year of 2003, ages of 15 to 24 males reached at 98% literacy and 96% for females this record is submitted in 'CIA World Factbook' of UAE. (BALCIUNAITIENE, 2010)
Many schools in UAE have school bus for transportation. Direct and indirect are two cost-associated with school. Fees, transport cost, books, uniforms are the part of direct cost while reeducation in household income comprise of indirect cost. Household endowments and public services are the two things in which school enrolment depends. (Anctil, 2012)
Many countries thinking that there is no any relationship in between test score and school input. But in recent years this decision has been subject to greater rummage. In both developed & developing countries the strong impact of student test plays an important role in education outcome. Reeducation in class size, educated teachers, good instructor leads to an improvement in education outcome lastly most research finds a positive impact on educational skills.
The impact of inputs on labor productivity
The schools which have good resources produce good graduate student as compare to the other schools so that there is relationship in between quality & cost of school education. But in 1995 Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan finds that there is no any effective difference between in labor productivity of United Arab Emirates. But still no any proof appears relating the impact of inputs on labor productivity. From one more research they analyze labor productivity and cognitive skills & they find that earning quality of more cognitive skills students have better than other students.
Generally, researches suffer from many methodological problems. Some of the major problems are follows:
Biasness due to omission of variables: It is not easy to include the variable like background of parents, children innate ability, political level variables and so many other variables as they create biasness in the calculation of measured effect. The effects of biasness directly affect the test scores of survey. Also if excluded variables are correlated with included variables inconsistency and biasness will generate again in calculation.
For example Children with rich parents attend school with much better inputs than the children with un wealthy parents. Also economic conditions have significant effect children education.
Biasness during error measurement: In the measurement of explanatory variables usually biasness and inconsistency in the estimation can be observed. In most of the researches sufficient amount of measurement errors can be seen especially in the calculation of cognitive skills and years of schooling.
Specification of the dependent variables: Test scores are usually y used in the test form in most of the studies. These are always criticized because of cumulative character of knowledge. Biasness may rise during evaluation of the students if this cumulative nature of knowledge is ignored.
Sample Selection: In a developed country like UAE approximately every child attends school. Their dropout rates are also very rare. Thus to select the sample for the analysis schools with different regions must be focused so that wide range of sample can be collected. During the collection of data different errors during collecting data must be taken seriously. Must be Data can be gathered by direct observations, surveys, interviews, questionnaire and many other methods. During collection of data many errors can be come into the way such as biasness, non-response error, errors in data acquisition and so on.
Proposed Research Methodology
Basic Idea beyond this research proposal is to use conventional methodologies which are based on econometric models and to solve the problems which are described above. Second important idea to use this research proposal is to evaluate the existing policies of school and provide better cost effective policies and methods to improve the education level in UAE.
This research will generate an econometric model which will help in determine the factor which decides the school enrolment by considering both supply-side factors and household capabilities. In calculation of school efficiency econometric model can be used to develop a educational production function for the education system of UAE. For the explanation of test scores of the student various functions will be included in the product function to analyze the family background, innate abilities and sample selection in addition with a value added approach will be used. To analyze the effect of the program on the result of test score explanatory variable must be incorporated with test scores. Political feasibility of these policies will be measure with the better cost-effective qualitative and quantities approach will be used. The basic idea beyond this process is to evaluate various position occupied by social elements and stake holders who are the parts of the education process. Qualitative technique will focus on group interviews and life interviews.
Education determination function
A survey will be conducted to construct this function in two different period of time. Standardized test will be conducted to evaluate the students also family and school characteristics are also assessed in these tests. Motive behind these tests is to gather the data to evaluate the education system.
Schooling Production model
In these models enrolment in the school will be analyzed with the help of surveys related to living standards measurements. This data will be gathered with the information related to education form the UAE government to incorporate the supply side information.
This result hopes to give two important contributions to the education system of UAE. One innovative theoretical approach will be developed to completely understand the education system in UAE. Also, one conventional will be developed based on willingness to pay the fees for education and the maximization of utility criteria. These approaches will be totally based on the theoretical contribution of various researches. Theoretical contributions will totally emphasize on the public action and capabilities of households in the providing of education. This research will also help in design adequate instruments which will be a great contribution to the methodological development. And improvement in methodological issues will be beneficial in the better estimation in the problems of convention econometric models. Experimental evaluation methods will be used as reference for these findings. Overall this research will be a great contribution towards the finding of the most cost effective methods and policies for the betterment of the education outcomes. Output of this research will help the UAE Government to design policies related to the education which will be more cost-efficient and effective.