Educating Special Needs Students and the Exceptional Learner

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The following essay will define intellectual disability, autism, severe disabilities, and

multiple disabilities, their causes, and the impact of the disabilities on the education of

the student with intellectual disability. Also, identifying areas of curriculum necessary for

students with severe disabilities and explain why. The essay will discuss the areas of

curriculum and the policies, procedures, and programs for the education of students with

intellectual disability, autism, severe and multiple disabilities.

Today, students are diagnosed with different types of disabilities. Some of these

disabilities are: intellectual disability, autism, severe disabilities and multiple disabilities. An

intellectual disability is a disability that affects an individual limitations in several areas of

cognitive function that interferes with the individual everyday life. Also, the individual has

problems with four types of intellectual processes: abstraction, sequencing, understanding social

contexts, and be able to read the emotional states of others. Intellectual disability can affect an

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individual's memory, learning and problem solving. Individuals who have an intellectual

disability have a mild intellectual disability. An intellectual functioning level IQ is below 70-

75. An intellectual disability is seen before the student turns 18. The cause of intellectual

disability can be caused by head injury, stroke, meningitis, brain abnormality and disease. The

intellectual disability can happen before the child is born or it can happen during childhood. For

some children, the cause of the intellectual disability is not known. There are some known causes

of intellectual disabilities they are: Down syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome. These known

causes happen before the child's birth. There are other causes that happen before a child a

genetic condition called Prader-Willi syndrome. There are still other causes of intellectual

disabilities that do not happen until the child become older. The definition of Autism is a

developmental disorder that shows within the first three years of life of an individual. Autism

shows before the child is three years old. The way that autism works it affects the brain's normal

development of social and communication skills. The cause of Autism is a physical condition

that is linked to abnormal biology and chemistry in the brain. The exact of the abnormal biology

and chemistry in the brain is not known. But, there are some factors that can lead to autism they

are: genetic and environmental factors. Autism seems to have a number of genes involved. Some

of the genes make a child more prone to having autism. Some health problems are caused by

both genetic and environmental factors. These factors may also cause autism. Severe disabilities

are defined as an individual with extreme disabilities that functioning and achievement is

unusually difficult for the person. The causes of severe disabilities are: genetic, biological and

environmental factors. Multiple disabilities are defined as an individual who has impairments

like: mental retardation, physical mobility, learning, speech, visual and hearing. The causes of

multiple disabilities are from one of the impairments.

The impact of the disabilities on the education of the student with intellectual disability is

that the student can do well but, the student will need an individual education plan. The

determination of how much help is need depends of the intellectual disability. The areas of

curriculum necessary for students with severe disabilities are: including students with intellectual

disability into general education curriculum. The students with disabilities should use the same

curriculum used by their peers who do not have disabilities. The reason general education

curriculum is necessary is because it can give students access to learn the same curriculum as

their peers. The general education curriculum can increase student's social skills and preparation

for their adult life. Another area of curriculum is adaptive skills. Adaptive skills are necessary for

students with severe disabilities because there are skills individuals need to live, work, and being

able to function in society. There are other areas of curriculum that needs to be included:

language and communication and motor skills. These skills are necessary skills to help students

to function. Transition planning should be included with individuals with disabilities. The reason

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is because a plan is needed to prepare students for life.

The Mobile County School has district policies, procedures and programs for the

education of students with intellectual disability, autism, and severe and multiple disabilities.

The Alabama Student Assessment Program this program requires that all students to participate

in the Alabama Student Assessment Program. The assessment program requires all students must

be included in all assessments. Also, students must have their results included in the state

accountability system. The assessments are done in English. All students, including students with

limited English, must take state assessments as written in English. An Individualized Education

Program Team looks at the referral, documentation on intervention strategies and determine if

the student will be evaluated for special education services. The Individualized Education

Program Team determines should a child be evaluated for special education services, a written

notice, that meets the notice requirements. The rules must be given to the parents and the child

must be referred to the Building Based Student Support Team (BBSST). The IEP Team

determines that the student should be evaluated for special education services, the agency must

have the parent's written consent for the evaluation. The public agency must develop and

implement procedures to identify and evaluate children suspected of having a disability that

affects their educational performance and who may need special education, designed instruction

and related services. Hearing and Vision screenings must be first evaluations conducted for all

children suspected of having a disability. A child who is identified having a developmental

delay, has to be reevaluated prior to their ninth birthday. Students for special education services,

at age nine, can no longer be eligible in the area of developmental delay. Students can continue

special education services, the child must also be eligible in another area of disability.

Conclusion

Today, there are many types of disabilities and there is information defining the

disability, their causes and their impact of the disabilities on the education of the student

with intellectual disability. There are areas of areas of curriculum necessary for students

with severe disabilities. There are policies, procedures and programs for the education of

students with intellectual disability, autism, and severe and multiple disabilities.