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The main goal of this research for e-learning is to know about the attitudes of Pakistani society. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results show that up there based on educational level are significant differences in attitudes toward education. In addition, the study revealed that Pakistani students have generally good behavior towards e-learning. Deeper attitudes towards e-learning study in Pakistan with a discussion of factors involved. This study contributes to the literature on e-learning studies by systematically measuring the attitudes towards e-learning in Pakistan.
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Key Words: E-learning, Attitudes surveys, Pakistan.
INTRODUCTION: P1 (1.1)
In terms of e-learning, there are many researches for importance of education in various fields took place, but there's limited material available to the people, how they react when they relate to the perspective of Learning is available online, it also explores the reactions of people in academic fields and what they accept or reject it.
Â With e-learning, curriculum-based education has challenged the fundamental concept, and focused more changes to learn.
Â In this paper we will demonstrate that there is a difference in people educational perpective and boards and chalks now changes by the implementation of electronic goods in response to participants thinking about learning.
BACKGROUND: P1 (1.2)
E-learning was created to facilitate people to get information and knowledge of every type when they want that, so it get popularity very fast
RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE: (A)
It has a spectacular development in the use of e-learning has in recent years, and therefore computer-mediated communication have attracted more attention. If e-learning was introduced, it had created excitement among scientists and practitioners. Many educators and scientists who believe too much hope for e-learning, that offer more access to information and communication, and would ultimately lead to a new revolution in education. Several studies have been conducted to check the settings towards e-learning, but there is virtually no research in this field in Pakistan.
PROBLEM STATEMENT: (B)
Several researchers from different parts of the world explored the attitudes towards e-learning. Research in this area, we found that it used little research in this field in Pakistan. This is available on the delayed launch of the e-learning system in Pakistan. It is important to note that e-learning tools considerable research in many Western countries. There is no reason to believe that there was not a finding for Pakistan.
RESEARCH QUESTION: (P2) (1.3)
The importance and relevance of technology in education has added momentum and research in the field of e-learning gained expansion significantly on the new frontiers of education.
Â Because E-learning is imperative for politics, economy, science and organizations, it is important to recognize and synthesize what these institutions about the purpose and functions of e-learning and also say, settings of e-learning. This basic information can be the formulation for focusing research on e-learning. Thus, this analysis of e- learning initiates the following questions:
What is the importance of e-learning in respect to Pakistan.
What are the demographic factors affecting e-learning through which we will come to know that how to improve the factors which are beneficial or overcome those factors which deals as a barrier for e-leaning in Pakistan.
this research will prove an initial for developers to implement e-learning in Pakistan.
HYPOTHESIS: (P2) (1.4)
As the e-learning is not very popular in Pakistan and there is a thinking that Pakistan is developing country and it is not up to the mark according to previous researches so we hypothesize that:
H1: Pakistani students have negative attitude towards e-learning.
H2: there will be a significant difference in attitudes towards e-learning based on the respondent's educational level.
RESEARCH METHADOLGY : (P3) (1.12)
e-learning is a widespread tool and the adoption of this is larger in number and if we are going to conduct research on it in Pakistan we need qualitative data for it to check its authenticity and because we want to know the behavior of people about it and to know differences occur in educational sector.
Creating the appropriate methodology for e-learning is not so easy. As independence is the priority of distance learning, student has to rely on himself and not on the help of the teacher or school-mates. The success if this technology lies mainly on the qualities of teaching materials.
RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES: (P4) (1.5)
Few studies analyzed the attitudes towards e-learning. Our study aims to fill this gap by analyzing the attitudes toward e-learning in Pakistan. More specifically our objective is to analyze the Pakistani society's attitudes and expectations towards e-learning, examine the impact of educational or literacy level on the attitudes towards e-learning in Pakistan.
LITERATURE REVIEW: (P5) (1.6)
DEFINITION OF THE E-LEARNING
E-learning is the acquisition and use of knowledge distributed and facilitated primarily by electronic means. This form of learning currently depends on networks and computers, but will likely evolve into systems consisting of a variety of channell,and technologies as they are developed and adopted. E-learning can take the form of courses as well as modules and smaller learning objects. E-learning may incorporate synchronous or asynchronous access and may be distributed geographically with varied limits of time (Wentling, Waight, Fleur, Wang, and Kanfer, 2000).
THE EVOLUTION TO E-LEARNING
The E-learning models of today are analogous to the earlier distance learning approaches. The roots of E-learning can be, therefore, traced back to the correspondence course model of learning. One of the first correspondence programs in the U.S. was developed at Pennsylvania State University in 1892, where the main mission was to provide higher education access to remote and rural areas (Banas et al., 1998. During its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, school such as Penn State experimented with the use of radio to broadcast their correspondence course lessons nationally. To keep pace with the demand generated by the GI Bill in the 1950s, prestigious universities such as Columbia, Chicago, and Penn State launched several distance education programs.
In recent years, the knowledge based economy has exhibited a pervasive and ever increasing demand for innovative ways of providing education and this has led to dramatic changes in learning technology as well as organizations.In the midst of this transition, corporations, government organizations, and educational institutions have to keep pace with the e-learning phenomenon and make strategic decisions on how to adopt e-learning techniques in their unique environments (Zhang et al., 2004).
history timeline of e-Learning
E-learning developed gradually through the period of time. Computers and the Internet are bringing important roles in e-learning what it is today. Education has different standards in many countries and regions. Software are designed to meet these standards and various academic curriculum. Below we will discuss a brief timeline of the development of e-learning.
Instructor Led Training (Pre 1983)
Before the availability of computers everywhere and for all was Instructor Led Training (ILD), the primary training method. ILT allows students to concentrate on their studies and to come into direct contact and interaction with their teachers and classmates. Disadvantages of the ILT were high cost and time.
multimedia era (1984-1993)
The mid-1980s and early 1990s saw a significant change computer era. Most people started to understand the importance of computers and it started to have become a luxury product instead. Different operating systems like Windows, Macintosh for Apple Computer with its simple graphical user interface, which take it easy for the user to a lot of affection for computers. Applications with higher standards with a focus on usability developed by end users. Microsoft's Office suite, the
contain standards from day to day applications such as MS-Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Access and how has done it with software programs easier.
This had its disadvantages. Despite these benefits and savings of time and money, these courses lacked the personal student-teacher interaction and dynamic presentations make the experience a little less satisfying. Students began to be slower and less engaging.
Introduction of Web - (1994-1999)
The introduction of the Internet and World Wide Web, gave insights into schools to explore their potential and find ways to improve education. The introduction of e-mail, Web browser, HTML, streaming media players, low fidelity audio / video and simple Java began to change the face of multimedia training.
Use of E-Learning
E-learning is used in everywhere and in all kinds of areas. Companies - private or public sector, non-profit organizations, NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and educational institutions. E-learning is a cost-saving with the aim of improving students' knowledge. E-learning helps reach geographically dispersed groups to an "anytime, anywhere" learning, to ensure consistency, to ensure compliance and increase productivity, to name a few.
Â Previous research by and large a positive attitude towards e-learning found. For example studied Peters (1993) the potential benefits of e-learning. The results show great agreement, thus benefiting from e-learning in teaching and research. However, faculty members expressed in this study, some reservations concerning the future implementation of e-learning at the university, for example: "One day the university will receive all its learning provision through e-learning", "e-learning will help faculty members develop better teamwork and inter-personal skills" and "Implementing e-learning at the university will make faculty members flock to sophisticated technologies in teaching".
Previous researches listed several advantages for e-learning. These include:
Obtaining grades from the Web.
Communication with the course instructor.
Discussions on course content through the discussion-board.
Easy access to course related materials.
Submitting assignments through the Web.
Enhancement of course understanding.
Communication with classmates.
Flexibility, accessibility, convenience.
Every application has two sides. E-Learning also has its disadvantages:
Application accessibility should be ensured 24x7x365.
Care should be taken to ensure that students with low bandwidth also can access these.
Developer limitation have some limitation in accessing this this.
Type of content (not all content is suitable for e-learning):
Learner motivation and initiativeto e-learning, so that they improve with time.
E-learning should be portable to all computer applications via CD's, DVD's and Internet.
2.3.6 Differences in Attitudes towards E-Learning Based On Educational Levels
In general, the experience of applying e-learning has to play as an important role in e-learning. For example, in one study (Cheng, 2006) the results of the survey indicated that students who opt for e-learning business courses proved to be much more willing to use e-learning again. It is easy to see that students who applied for e-learning for business courses have a positive attitude and inclination towards the e-learning.
2.3.7 The Future
As already mentioned, E-learning has revolutionized the education model in all areas. E-learning is not confined to the boundaries of academic institutions such as schools, colleges and universities, but applies to all types of areas in which a continuous process leaning. We will now discuss the various aspects that will be affected by the introduction of e-learning.
188.8.131.52 E-Learning Web Services
Now offer their applications to scale and the needs of small, medium and large organizations. E-learning is not only on academic qualifications, but at all levels have been learning is a continuous process is limited. E-Learning Services will also start in this type of product scalability, where to look it affordable for everyone.
184.108.40.206 Knowledge Transfer
Staff training is an area that all successful businesses today focus on employees at the capital of a company, and their successful ventures are sure that they invest in training its employees. Often this is done by sending the employees in different locations. Train-the-trainer and employee-to-employee knowledge transfer are also effective. E-learning is now to meet the individual requirements of the organizations and their departments. This is aimed at providing quality and in depth knowledge specific to the organization and especially for the employees and their work.
2.5 Example of Seminal Studies in E-learning
Many studies have been conducted in this field by many authors. Below I have mentioned one of them
2.5.1 Newton's Study (2003)
The paper deals with the issues perceived as being important "barriers" to using technology in teaching and learning within the academic staff community working in higher education in the UK.
Methodology and Data Analysis:
The empirical data was gathered using questionnaires distributed to 300 academicians in the Information Technology sector of UK. The questionnaire was divided into three main sections: (1) teaching experience using technology; (2) staff perception on usefulness of technology; (3) additional comments and suggestions. The respondents were selected via institutional websites. This study focused primarily in the Information Technology field. The statistical software package SPSS was used to analyze and present the data.
A virtual learning environment does not necessarily mean that they do not feel that these initiatives are important. The study shows that although a lack of clarity is evident in distance learning, yet this shows that there is a willingness to participate in this activity which reflects the intrinsic values played by academic staff on teaching and learning. Virtual learning environment barriers are not related to institutional support. Organisational encouragement is important towards the progression of innovation. Organisation should ensure that effective strategies are in place prior to implementing web based distance learning.
2.6 PAKISTAN AND E-LEARNING
Pakistan has a good attention for the development of its information technology and communications networks and the focus in education is particularly strong. The following sections are on the Internet, e-government, e-commerce and to discuss training.
Awareness and education in Pakistan
An early initiative of the teachers to take advantage of distance learning was conducted through an online course to expose. The first online course attended by 40 Pakistani educators was to provide an introduction to Web-based resources for English language lessons with special emphasis on secondary education.
These courses help teachers to learn about computers and also how they learn to use as a teaching tool. This improves the teaching environment .
RATIONALE : (P6) (1.6)
The main reason for doing research on E-learning is its popularity in today's world, because everyone will now get to education, knowledge and information by sitting in the four walls of their houses. Some of the countries are not able to follow these technologies, so we do our research are home to tell people about the importance of e-learning in a country so that there is a large margin in the global economy, people now That can not move, I mean who are disabled can get training with the advent of e-learning project tool.
REFLECTIONS : (P6) (1.8)
Upon completion of this investigation, I learned how to better argue a point in a paper.Using facts and examples, my arguments have become much better. A reader takes my arguments more seriously, on the facts when I need them again, especially researched facts from credible sources.
Â My research skills improved a lot during the research. Before the actual research, I had an idea, I wanted to do. I did not have a solid, coherent argument. During my research, I was able to develop on this issue.
Â This paper, in my opinion, was one of my best research. Dr.Karim Rezual helped me a lot to do this research, he is very strict teacher and this is the only reason that I did my research in time and with my best. This way I would be more about the subject. More knowledge about the subject, the paper made much easier. It helped me to develop more points and at a good conclusion.
SCOPE: (P6) (1.9)
The whole of study is about internet learning and what is the attitudeof people of Pakistan towards it as well as effectiveness of e-learning. In the process of preparing this study, I also have to go through some problems and obstacles that caused some limitations to my study. One of these limitations was time. The time of collecting data was limited, and hence, little information was available in articles. Results, therefore, had to be interpreted scrupulously.
Action plan [D2]
I have done my research through the following means
I have taken information and knowledge from different and multiple sources e.g. internet, libraries, online teaching websites and and from the experts of e-learning who gave regular lectures on internet.
This study gives different suggestions on the attitudes of e-learning and how countries respond to these changes.
Study the possible solutions to resolve the challenges and to give them better solutions to cop those challenges
This research works as a mentor to teach those people who are interested in doing these types of assignments
There also some recommendations from highly qualified people
I have also prepared a questionnaire to conduct a survey which make my research easy to find out results.
CODE OF ETHICS : (P7)
While doing research on e-learning, we have collected and analysed the data by keeping in mind the code of ethics.
we have used all the data relavant to it through proper means , I mean from journals and articles which are available for everyone to get information from that. There is no possibility of misuse of data in this rsearch because all of the information is taken from professionals of this field. Everything is conducted in this manner which will prove its authenticity in whole of the research.
It should be acknowledged that the basic intent of -learning is a moral good. Attempting to provide "the greatest good to the greatest number of people" is inherently an ethical task
JUSTIFICATION FOR USING THIS METHODOLOGY: (P8) (1.12)
we have chosen qualitative approach to gather data because in this type of data researcher's subjective judgement becomes the part of the research instrument. A lot of researchers have used this approach and you can check its importance through this quotations written on qualitative data.
"All research ultimately hasÂ
a qualitative grounding"
- Donald Campbell
The whole of the research is done to obtain the results from people of Pakistan whether they think positive or negative toward e-learning and also check the educational differences in e-learning. And for that reviews of the professional who are directly related to this particular area and opinions are either taken or studied.
DATA COLLECTION AND REVIEWING : (P9) (1.14) (a)
The mode that we have selected for our research was collection of secondary data because one the main advantage of this data ease of access , so we took information and data from international publications, journals, libraries, newspapers, magazines, from previous researches conducted in respect to e-learning and from our lecturer DR.Karim Rezual. All these resources helped us to get better understanding to accomplish the topic which we have chosen for research.
Some part of qualitative analysis is also involved to measure the future and prospects of e-learning.questionaire was distributed among students so that we can take an opinion about their views towards e-learning.
REVIEWING AND ANALYSATION : (P10)(1.14)(b)
After completion of all steps came a step to review analyse the data which you have gathered for your research, it is just done to prove the reliability of data which you are going to use in your research, there are numerous strategies employed in this although a laptop was used to interpret data then we have prepared a literature review by keeping in mind the main point which we need to put in our research, this process carried on by breaking up the data into meaningfull form and after this it is aanalysed that the data is without errors and bugs.
RESEARCH DESIGN: (M1) (1.13)
The design of qualitative research is probably the most flexible of the various experimental techniques, encompassing a variety of accepted methods and structures.
From an individual case study to an extensive survey, this type of study still needs to be carefully constructed and designed, but there is no standardized structure.
In this research we are going in depth to find the problems associated with people who are using or not using e-learning, Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations.
The research data and findings were reviewed constantly and strong effort was made to collect the best material available. This document is based on secondary research, where the information is mostly taken from internet resources and books
FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH: (P11) (1.5)
It is known to eeveryone that e-learning getting popular in the global world and it is very fruitfull for all of the sectors e.g institutions, organizations etc. but there are also some problems to it which we recognize while doing thid research are
Lack of technology In all areas, available in limited areas
Lack of communication
Not a good access to the internet
Some people are stuck to their old teaching method or love to do manual works
People of Pakistan instead of these problems are ready to go with a fast paced world and the students who are getting their education in different departments and different fields have different views about the popularity of e-learning.
ANALYSIS INTERMS OF RESEARCH SPECIFICATION: (M3) (1.14)
Different researchers have done research on this topic but in Pakistan I think there was a positive response toward e-learning because they prefer to study by electronic means so the whole of the research tell about their views and behaviors about e-learning and ultimately their response. So we think that Pakistan need this facility in proper way to come in the developed countries queue who have adopted this very earlier.
RELULTS OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS (M2)(1.15)
If wee look at research question and hypothesis then we can say that there should be some work on e-learning because people have a good view about it , there are some problems faced in educational area but nothing is present in this world without flaws, so if we just look that they showed a positive attitude so there is need to work on it. Reliability is the instrument's ability to provide consistent results in repeated uses (Gatewood and Field, 1990). The basic measure for reliability is the Cronbach's alpha which was also kept in mind and its data's validity is also assured.
EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH: (D1)
It was not a simple task to do research on this topic while we are in other country it needed every statement and every judgments based on facts and realities and information from reliable sources . everything is according to the procedure defined for doing research. A set planning was done to do this research and all the findings is based on logics and evidence. Although it was not easy yet it covered all the points in order to get distinction .
CONCLUSION: (P12) (1.17)
Few studies have analyzed the attitudes towards e-learning in the Asian world. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by analyzing the attitudes towards e-learning in Pakistan. The negative attitude and the effects of educational level on attitudes towards e-learning was also studied. In addition, the e-Learning Scale reliability and validity were tested for the first time.
From those results we can conclude that there is a positive attitude towards E-learning in Pakistan. On the other hand, a gap in this respect was recognized on the basis of education. Finally, the results showed that e-Learning is a reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards e-learning. This allows other researchers to use this scale in their empirical studies.
FUTURE RESEARCH AND RECOMMENDATIONS: (D3)(1.18)
Â This study concludes that the e-learning scale is reliable and valid in Pakistan. However, only one form of validity in this study, carried out the convergent validity analysis. Also, the validity of e-learning scale are further tested by new researchers, because the e-learning attitudes in Pakistan may change over time and that further research would continue in the field the aura of e-learning to life and strong and make education shine in all directions with a new e-learning light for all who have yearning for it.
Although e-learning systems in Pakistan are not a popular phenomenon, they are patronized by students and positive international attitudes. In education, showed e-learning systems that support and promote the traditional education systems.
Â It is believed that Pakistan is to facilitate an association of e-learning institutions to a planned deployment of the system throughout the country. This association should be aware of e-learning problems and try to manage these problems by offering training programs for teachers and students in fields such as e-education and e-privacy systems.
The following section talks about the research and policy implications of e-learning.
5.2.1 Research Implications
This research contributes to the literature on e-learning studies by systematically and analytically assessing the attitudes towards e-learning in Pakistan. Perhaps the findings of this research will also lend increased confidence to researchers who have been using the e-learning scale with reservations, or who might have avoided the instrument because of concerns about validity.
We should leave no stone unturned to reap the fruits of scientific and technological innovations with e-learning being one of them.