Critical investigation of the e-recruitment process

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

This research is particularly based on the critical investigation of the E-recruitment process in the Indian software Industries. The aim of this study is to investigate E Recruitment strategically in terms of a Cost cutting and time saving factor that would be beneficial for organization during like current economic downturn. This study would also be beneficial in looking at the concept of Technology as a solution to reduce cost and save time. In addition it is hoped that the study would also benefit Strategic analyst and Human resource managers to view E Recruitment as a strategic tool.

1.1 Background

The research focus is on the factor of E Recruitment in today's cut throat market in terms of strategic benefit towards Cost cutting and time saving. The researcher has chosen the particular topic, since it would be helpful in current downturn. To make this statement valid the researcher investigates the concept of E Recruitment in Software industries in India. The rationale for investigating software firms in India starts from the fact that such firms actually adoptCost cutting measures in all possible practices in current downturn.

The study seeks to review the concepts of E recruitment in Software firms by understanding the subjects in terms of Human resource process. In addition the study investigate's E recruitment process in Software industries by acquiring data through Questionnaire and Semi structured tool that shall constitute questions based on the critical sections of E Recruitment in terms of Human resource process, Cost cutting and Time saving factors. The primary research is acquired and the possible respondents and population would be the Human Resource managers and employees in HR department from Chennai and Bangalore working in Software firms. The researcher intends to use contacts within the IT firms to access the relevant data set.

1.2 Literature background

Organizational recruitment efforts have to a great extent relied on computer technology and one vicinity that has developed is recruiting through the Internet, otherwise known as e-recruitment (Mottl, 1998). This technology can be utilised in application tracking, job posting and electronic job application. In addition, it can assist the human resource function and lessen human resource works.

From the applicable literature, there is an argument that e-recruitment is required to be used in conjunction with other techniques. Internet-based recruiting will not put back conventional practices, but a well-implemented e-recruitment strategy can facilitate the recruitment process there by making it more successful (Borck, 2000; Caggiano, 1999). Internet recruiting ought to be one of many tools used to find and recruit applicants. Likewise, even though the organizations see the advantages of e-recruitment, There is a tendency to adopt more conventional methods in the form newspaper advertisement, personal referrals, and search agencies for most their recruiting. Organizations tend to view the Internet as an vital additional tool (Pearce and Tuten, 2001)

E-recruitment is not treated as a stand-alone human resource instrument how it is integrated into an overall recruiting and selection strategy that comprises, amongst other things, sophisticated behavioral and skills assessment, interviewing, and added means of documenting requirements and sourcing candidates. Consequently, a human resource department still uses both conventional method and e-recruitment in their recruitment process (Cullen, 2001). According to Portal (2003), Shows that more than 75 percent of HR professionals current use Internet job boards apart from conventional recruiting method (HR Portal, 2003).

One of the key considerations of e-recruitment it's cost-effectiveness and the economy attained in the course of its usage. This is since publishing obtainable positions on the company's website costs less than publishing in other media for instance newspaper. In addition, employers can place the vacancy positions on the job board website as this too is at a lower cost (Pearce and Tuten , 2001).

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research

The aim of this research is to investigate the process of E-Recruitment as strategic driving factor in cutting costs and saving time in the Indian IT sector.

The objective's of the study are as follows:

  • To investigate the various factors and trends in Recruitment in India.
  • To Explore E-Recruitment as Human resource process and evaluate various implications in hiring
  • To critically examine the effectiveness of e-recruitment in Software industries
  • To identify merits and demerits in E-Recruitment process

1.4 Research Questions

  • What are the trends in recruitment in India?
  • What is the impact of conducting E-Recruitment process in Software firms?
  • What is the strategic impact of E-Recruitment on Software organizations - in cost reduction and Time?
  • What are the driving factors of E Recruitment towards jobs with merits and demerits?

1.5 Methodology

In order to fulfill the aims and objectives of this study, the study shall employ both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method were be usedthrough semi structured interviews with high level and Middle level Human resource managers from Software companies in India and take suggestions from the experts from the company's through focus groups and compared data will be presented. Quantitative approach were be carried out through questionnaire methods, the like scale type questions have been adopted as the suitable, where the questions are designed in different scales likert scale, rate order scales. Questions vary from open to closed end questions based on author's point of view. The respondents will beemployees working in Indian Software firms at Chennai and Bangalore in Human Resource department.

The type of sampling method used in this research thesis will be Non probability sampling method. It involvesidentifying and questioning the informants based on their experience and their roles. The type of sampling used in non probability method is Purposive sampling, which involveschoosing independents on the views which are relevant to the subject (Jankowicz, 2005). The number of samples for Semi structured interview is 5 and Questionnaire samples is 30.

1.6 Structure of the dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter explains the topic of study and the background of research in brief giving values and reasons why the researcher has chosen the topic and how the research is focused or dealt to fulfill the research questions and research objectives.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter provides the reviews the academic literature related to the topic that shall constitute whole research. The academic literatures are reviewed from Books, Electronic journals, Articles etc. This chapter reviews the existing literature on research topic so that it can helpful in identifying the gap and to study the various theories used by the other authors.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This chapter highlights the methodology that is used in this research. The chapter begins with an outline of the research aim and objectives finally, the researcher explains the Sampling techniques and how well the samples are grouped to observe validity and reliability of the research.

Chapter 4: Analysis and Findings

This chapter analyses the data that are gathered through primary research and it provides a detailed outline of the research findings. In addition, The chapter contains a disclaimers of findings. infers in drawing various conclusions from data presentation.

Chapter 5: Conclusions and its recommendations

This chapter contains various conclusions drawn from discussion's in the analysis chapter. The limitation of this research is also discussed, andrecommendations for further research presented.

1.7 Summary

In this chapter we have reviewed the research background, research objectives and the scope of research by looking into the research background. The research aim and research objectives are stated with research question which ensures the researcher understand the subject based on the problem statement to fulfill the research. We also looked into theoretical background on E Recruitment on different perspectives. Finally we have looked into the overall structure of the review. In the next chapter we shall review and look into various literary articles to gain more understanding on the issues under investigation.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the theoretical background of the study. It review various literature articles on the topic, The main aim of this study is to analyse E recruitment in software industries in India with a focus on Cost cutting and time saving factor. This is strategic and the research is conducted with a focus on Recruitment as a strategic tool and its various trends in software organisations. Many researchers and practitioners had identified that the necessity in the manner in which the applicants are getting attracted towards Jobs and organizations and the use of the Internet as a tool to cut cost and save time. The set of rules in filling up recruitments through web can incur less cost than mailing paper application packets. Apart from the reported benefits in the form of cost efficiencies, the role of HR in this model is taken as more of a facilitative role, According to the various theories it is clearly specified that this model gives a chance of time for the recruiters in order to involve the strategic issues within the resourcing.

Having outlined the research aims and Objectives it is essential to look at the definition of E Recruitment to have an overview of the research. Recruitment is a process of hiring candidates in filling up the vacancies through possible stages. There are several number of stages in selecting suitable candidates for employment are being organized by the organisation. E Recruitment is different from this conventional recruitment process.

2.2 Human Resource Management & The Recruitment Process

Human resource management (HRM) and Recruitment process go hand in hand and recruitment is central to all management process. Failures in the recruitment process can lead to difficulties for any organization and consequently have an immense effect on its probability and variance levels which include inappropriate of skills and staffing. Consequently some of the problems of inadequate recruitment, which leads to shortage of labors or problems in the decision making (Veneeva, 2009). From the above literature the researcher can come to a decision that recruitment plays a vital role in the central management process.

According to The University of Melbourne (2009), recruitment is an imperative process of human resource management. They suggested that there are two major stages or levels in the recruitment processes. The first stage refers in the process of searching or hunting the candidates with respect to job opportunities available and the seconds stage refers with the process of selecting candidates who are qualified for a suitable job by a company with the use of technologies in terms of test and interviews.

However recruitment is not a simple selection process and it requires extensive planning and decision making to be able to employ suitable manpower. There exists growing competition amongst the business firms for recruiting the best potential candidates, There is now a shift focus on innovation and also amongst management decision making. The selectors aim to recruit candidates who would suit the ethics, corporate culture in accordance to the organization (Terpstra, 1994). This means that management would specifically look out for potential candidates capable of being a team player and team work and that would be crucial for positions available in organization. Human resource management approaches towards any business process would be based upon focusing the core objectives of an organization and realization of strategic plans by training the individuals or personnel that would be beneficial tothe organization, Thusimproving its performance and profits (Korsten, 2003).

With the following discussion the recruitment process does not end with selection and application of right candidates to the job but rather it involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen. In spite of well structured plan, selection and the qualified management team involved in recruitment processes followed by firms, there is a possibility that the Firms can also face significant difficulties during the implementation. With this notion HRM can provide new insights towards the best practiced approach to recruitment. But companies have to use their management skills to apply theories within context of organization (Veneeva, 2009).

2.2.1 Recruitment Trends

We have seen the recruitment context towards organization efficiency. We shall now have a look into the various methods towards recruitment. According to the specification of several theories, they mainly classify the recruitment methods in many directions. According to The University of Melbourne (2009), there are two prime methods of recruitment called traditional and online recruitment. Basically the recruitment methods that are performed by the organization themselves or by a third party recruitment providers such as recruitment agencies are termed as Traditional recruitment. The information exchange in the traditional recruitment is offline but still they does not use internet as a source of information exchange. It adopts avenues such as Television, newspaper, and also through Job centers etc. The job recruitments are approached in a straight forward manner or filled through the agency or also it can be conducted by the physical address of the organization in order to conduct various test and interviews such as face to face interview.

In the past two decades recruitment has changed with number of evolutionary phases. According to the white paper of Frontier Software (N.D) these are,

Pre-online era - This is networking face to face.

1980's - These are the solutions based on the commissioned agencies that provides alternative that had become paper based and time consuming process.

1990's-The rise of Internet as a tool that made solutions as Job boards that offers inexpensive and effective solutions reaching many target audiences.

2000-present -This transition phase is the emergence of Internet recruitment called e recruitment solutions and Web 2.0 is the platform for recruitment process.Social networking style, interactivity connections as well.

The rise of job boards marked the beginning of the evolution of Internet recruitment which makes readily available a pool of job seekers and their Curriculum Vitae to the agencies that advertise jobs. Thus internet has become a major source for the active and passive job seekers. Active job seekers opt to make available of CV's and Passive job seekers are being the candidates that is non searchable and hidden but can be responded to job advertisements Frontier Software (N.D). According to the Research advisory panel (2006) of Public appointments service had identified the most common recruitment types as Newspapers, Recruitment agencies, internal recruitment and Internet recruitment.

having identified the two major types of recruitments as Traditional and Online recruitment. According to Othman and Musa (2006) cited from Arboledas et al. (2001) and in Galanaki (2002), traditional recruitment being the firms who wants to post jobs, announces the job opening at the marketplace through proper advertisements or to a job fair , or to an executive recruiter or to other medias. From this source candidates submit their profile for the announcement. Newspaper advertisements are used than any other source of traditional recruitment. On the other hand, the traditional recruitments are used in majority of recruitment processes and are effective while other types of recruitments are proved to be appropriate in specific situations. The employers use different methods based on different positions.

Accordingly Bussler & Davis (2002) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) and Mottl (1998) suggests that, In order to determine which mode of recruitment is used by the employers we have to look into the various aspects. Aspects in terms of Time scale of the recruitment process, Recruitment cost as reaching the candidates and the organization culture. But in recent years internet has revolutionized and made an impact on resource field of the humans. Now a day's organization rely mostly on computer technology and with the recruitment through Internet. The internet technology can be used in tracking the application, job posting and electronic applications. Apart from these applications it can be used in reducing the human resource work load and human resource functions.

2.3 E- Recruitment Overview

E-recruitment can be explained as any recruiting processes that a business organisation carries out through web-based tools, in the form of a firm's public Internet site or its corporate intranet (Armstrong, 2006). The terms Internet recruitment, online recruitment and E- Recruitment are Identical and can be used interchangeably.There are various definitions of E Recruitment, According to Hoffman (2001),

“E-Recruitment can be defined as the utilization of the Internet for candidate sourcing, selection, communication and management throughout the recruitment process”

According to Armstrong (2006), the E- Recruitment process consists of attracting the candidates, screening, tracking the applicants, selection and finally offering jobs and as well rejecting the candidates.

According to the studies of Hogler (1998) and HR Portal (2003) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) supported that employers can advertise jobs, scan and store their CV's, conduct tests and alsocontact the qualified applicants with the use of Internet that could match the candidates for jobs. Vidot (2000) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) suggested that the use of Internet will benefit and attract candidates of high quality, branding, reiterate the profile of the firm and also streamline application and the selection processes.

According to Cullen (2001) cited in Othman and Musa (2006) , there are various perception to E- Recruitment, it is integrated with the overall selection and the recruiting strategies as a standalone human resource tools.These strategies include interviewing behavioral and assessment skills and other additional strategies such as identifying other needs and candidates sourcing. However studies show that the Human resource departments still also use both e- recruitment and other traditional methods. According to the study by HR Portal (2003), More than 75% of Human Resource professionals are using Job boards in addition to the Traditional recruitment methods.

2.3.1 E- Recruitment Factual Evidences and Process

There is evidence in the academic to suggest that the literatures based on E-Recruitment are gaining popularity in today's job market. E-recruitment is significant in today's cost cutting markets to save huge amount of money. According to the research of Whizlabs Software (2006), the study of Forrester Research Institute, a famous market research firm found that by 2005 the expenditure on the recruitment based on Internet was $7 billion. Many firms as of 96% of the companies required internet for the recruitment needs. A survey conducted by Employment Management Association (EMA) of USA found that online ads would cost $377 than estimated with printout ads that cost per hire at $3295. A study conducted the CIPD (2005) found that 75% of organizations in UK use corporate website in order to attract applicants and in the 2006 research 73% of applicants use online job applications.

According to an Intelligence report of iLogos Research of Global 500 Website recruiting of 2003 survey has found that 94% of global 500 companies have corporate career websites.

Recruitment websites are more useful in saving both money and time. Apart from a Recruitment process it is becoming a part of organization or corporate strategy. The online recruitment sites have continued to multiply in the numbers in value added services and can help to improve long term time survival in the current market trend. ‘E' drive is primarily based on the IT organization and software solutions. E recruitment primarily uses software solutions for effective and efficient recruitment process. There are various differences with the recruitment from an IT organization that compared with traditional or conventional recruitment process such as selection and training process. The important study also suggested that IT organizations hire more people; consequently recruiters have to really focus on providing solutions that would ultimately maximize effort, save time with the best talent pools (Whizlabs Software, 2006).

2.3.2 E- Recruitment - Application with HR and systems

Having explored E-recruitment and its process are, at this context we are now need to explore how E- recruitment is linked with technology and Management i.e., E- recruitment links with HR systems, Line Managers and Human Resource managers in the recruitment process.The application of E - recruitment and HR systems are explained by Research Advisory Panel (2006) as;

HR Role in the E-Recruitment process is essential, as the general time management seems to play a crucial role as a facilitator and coordinator in the recruitment process. With the e recruitment process it can be evident that it can reduce the HR burden and that in turn leads HR managers to operate on a strategic level within the organization.Line managers are usually involved in the process of selecting the applications in relation to the vacancies that are listed accordance with the job role. At this instant HR can work on to the overall strategy as defining and controlling. This also ensures the system to develop top notch effective talent strategies. In this whole process the role of Line managers would be limited with the access to the entire e recruitment systems even though the systems quickly facilitate in transferring candidates information. During this HR would acts as broker between candidates and the Line managers Research Advisory Panel (2006).

From this literature, HR acts as a central unit between the Line managers and the candidates. Many organizations are usually opt for solution or depend on the Third party suppliers can make use of the alternative form of suppliers and Job boards of systemsusing the application tracking software.There are two main forms of categories in enabling the E recruitment process they are, E recruitment tools such as Enterprise Resource and Planning (ERP) such as Oracle and SAP and the other being the developed products from the vendors who are specialized in the recruitment software's like testing and application tracking software's Research Advisory Panel (2006).

2.3.3 E- Recruitment Developments

E- Recruitment has been developed more recently with the use of job domains. Job domains were started during the early part of 2005they make most use of the Internet for assigned numbers and names. The job domain is in the top level of the domains that would allow efficient and easy websites navigation. From the survey conducted by the society for human resource management (SHRM) suggested that those firms that use job domains can produce better results in E recruitment (Minton-Eversole, 2007 cited in White, 2008) .

From the study of Schramm (2007) cited in White, 2008) explains, apart from the key development of E recruitment though Job domains, there are several advancements in the internet recruitment such as the online communities or the internet communities known as Web 2.0. These online communities are like the social networking websites that are meant for social stances. These internet communities' websites such as Facebook, Myspace that are used by the recruiters in order to find suitable candidates who are looking for the employment offers.These developments in the Internet communities would benefit in many ways such as, verifying the necessary credentials and other information that are not listed on the candidates resume. In the major cases candidates would also be eliminated with the contents listed in the Internet social sites.

2.3.4 Merits of E-Recruitment

This section of the literature review seeks to focus on the cost cutting and the time saving measures of the E-Recruitment process.

2.3.4.1 key role E - Recruitment in the Cost cutting measures

E- Recruitment is Cost efficient and it can bring a lot of benefit to the organization. Using the internet as a source for recruitment in the E-Recruitmentprocess it can help us to save huge amount of money. Posting jobs in the websites costs less when compared to the job publishing in other forms of media such as newspapers. Job boards are really beneficial to the recruiters who can post vacancies at low cost than other advertisements.According to iLogos research in 1998 there are three main areas in which E - Recruitment reduces costs they are as follows,

  • Direct costs savings from the advertisements posted on Newspapers
  • Reduces mail costs from paying fees to the head recruiters or Job fairs
  • Reduces Human resource workload in the Human resource department that yields great pace to the recruitment cycle that ultimately lowers cost (Othman and Musa, 2006)

From the above , we can see the saving benefits associated with E-Recruitment. In addition, The internet is used as a major source of E-Recruitment resumes are posted via mails which is very cheap on the other hand traditional recruitment uses communication system such as phone calls, Fax, etc and in some cases if the candidate is from a long distance it costs him more for the communication itself, also incase of applying via post it can be more costly and the time consumption is more for communication, So it is better and also more advantageous for E-Recruitment process since the cost is very less and communication is made easy and more faster, Such that it can be (The University of Melbourne, 2009). Launching a new career website for a company costs less that would eventually track every details of candidates required in the recruitment process costs less. The process also reduces in temporary manpower spending of manual sorting or applicants (White, 2008).

2.3.4.2 Key role E - Recruitment in the Time Saving measures

E-Recruitment has more effective advantage that helps the employer's in time saving on the other hand it provides efficient benefits to the employer's.

E-Recruitment provides recruiters with the ability to work simultaneously with traditional recruitment processes. This means that firms are able to source and process the application quickly, thus saving long hours of hiring process (Marr, 2007). Time saving is a strategic measure in the hiring process. According to the study of Barber (2006), the ease of completing online application form and the time taken to process applications are done in minutes faster than weeks, the advantage of this, is that recruiters and job seekers have saved time. The hiring time is saved by pre selecting the application and receives quick response electronically. The most important variance would be that, companies can update their information quickly by typically speeding up the front end processes Othman and Musa (2006), According to the Bussler & Davis (2002) E-Recruitment can reduce the amount of time used for hiring in the recruitment process by two thirds.

2.3.4.3 Other Key advantages of E-Recruitment

In addition to the cost and time saving benefits identified with E-Recruitment, there are various other merits in the E-Recruitment process. The access to the candidate pool is wider when compared to the traditional recruitment methods to the candidate pool. This would range from National, International to local levels that provides greater chances in finding the suitable candidates for job roles. This provides opportunities in the online graduate recruitment of more diverse graduate pools responding with opening all doors. This would better show of best recruitment techniques across the business units allowing more recruitment information (Barber, 2006).

Another benefit would be brand reputation as a key account of benefits to E-Recruitment by promoting the corporate brand and corporate image of an organisation. Corporate websites gives values of choices with an indication of better values and better organizational culture. It also gives a better feel of the candidate to share why they would want to work in the organisation. When any candidate applies for a job with the firm, sometime it mostly rely on the way they are treated. At this context if candidate have bad experience it would ultimately give negative impact to the brand (Barber, 2006).

The benefits of E-Recruitment strategy benefits on the talent pool is supported by Shipton (2004), According to him talent pool is efficient in E-Recruitment strategy in that it helps group candidates who have applied for the advertised position in terms of either a speculative basis or as a result of direct responses to an advertisements. These are done by communicating at the regular intervals in the form of E-newsletters.The author also found the benefits after the implementation of E-Recruitment system in The Tussaud's Group in the form of saving time of hiring reduction upto 66%.

E-Recruitment would provide proper access for the passive job seekers who are the individuals already working or already in a job. It gives opportunity to appear for better job roles advertised on the Internet. These are the type of job seekers of better quality due to the fact that they are not desperate for change in job when compared to the active job seekers who are frustrated in finding a new opportunity (Richardson, 2005).

2.3.5 Demerits of E-Recruitment

We have reviewed various literatures on E-Recruitment processes and the merits in terms of Cost and Time saving benefits. We shall now look at the various demerits of E-Recruitment process. E-Recruitment is very effective in saving cost and time; apart from these prime benefits it also provides wider access to the candidate pool, as well as improving brand reputation of a company etc. There are many challenges that needed to be reviewed and be aware of the fact that it has disadvantages from traditional recruitments.

The demerits outlined by Othman and Musa (2006) include:

Ethnic Minorities

E-Recruitment can impact to the certain groups of ethnic minorities in a particular kind of people who does not able to access the internet. The role of impact on certain minority groups would be a threat for the organization that can lead to discrimination issues.

Lack of Access to the Internet

Basic knowledge is needed for the Internet access hence in this case it has been limited to particular demographic groups.

Inability to Target Executive Personnel

Recruiting top or executive personnel online would be a disadvantage, due to the fact that they would prefer contacts in personal.

Sources to Apply Jobs

There can be other better resources available for the applicants such as newspaper or by advertisements at the website or both in applying jobs.

Lead to Resume Over Load

There is a possibility of resume overload, since there are no restrictions for the applicants in posting their application for the job.

Low Level of Applicants

Internet is a biggest source that allows candidates to submit resumes any time and this could create a vast number of unqualified applicants to job in the database. Also there is a probability that it can yield towards huge volumes of low quality applicants.

In addition if there is an increase in application for job vacancies then there this can create complexities in terms of the time needed is scrutinize and remove unsuitable candidates but can only be done by major resource intensive methods. Furthermore a candidate who is unfamiliar with IT can be deterred if there is technical problem. Other extensive challenges would be if people working with lack of knowledge in HR and software's that are inflexible would be a difficult task to execute proper recruitment process (Barber, 2006). The University of Melbourne (2009) argues that, in E-Recruitment privacy is one of the major threats that could expose people's personal information or it can be misused by other persons. Providing personal information online can lead to security issues.

Furthermore traditional face to face interview is better than online interviews since it can measure lots of personal abilities. Only in the traditional interviews are candidates really able to prove their knowledge, ideas and experience significantly.

2.4 Summary

In this chapter we have reviewed various useful literature and theories on the research subject. We have reviewed literature on E-Recruitment in the Cost cutting and Time saving measures. The Recruitment processes are explained from the HRM perspective that is being a central unit of recruitment process also reviewing trends in the recruitment. E-Recruitment is latest trend which major organizations implement as a Cost effective and time saving recruitment tool. We have also provided factual evidences on the recruitment trends by looking into various surveys. We have also reviewed the merits and demerits of E-Recruitment process. In the next chapter we shall look into methodology that will be adopted in order to answer the research question and methods that are followed to acquire the primary data.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter explains the research methodology and research approach available to carry out the primary research. The main aim of this research thesis is to investigate as a strategic driving factor towards Cost cutting and Time Saving measure in Software Industry in India. This chapter should help the researcher to pursue primary research. To prove the research valid, possible answers to research question through primary and secondary research would constitute key factors to data collection. The researcher analyses secondary and primary data by using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. We shall now brief various theories of methodology and analyse what data collection and data measuring instruments would suit this research.

For the purpose of this research thesis, the researcher had implemented appropriate primary research methods to acquire data in accordance to aim-objectives and the research question. The researcher has implemented semi structured interview technique for qualitative method and questionnaire technique for quantitative method.This chapter would finally brief sampling and sample elements of population.

3.2 Research Philosophy

Before reviewing theories on research methodology it is essential to look into the area of research in terms of philosophical stances to relate better assumption. According to Cohen et al. (2005) studies there exists various assumptions of philosophical stances that is reflected to the work of Burnell amd Morgan (1979), cited in Cohen et al. (2005) and are termed in as Ontological, that are mainly concerned with social phenomenon concerned in investigating with the result of individual's awareness of knowing. This concept was further reframed by Gray (2004) stated that a researcher's technique in undergoing a research would ultimately influenced by theoretical perspective and that would further influences by epistemological terms. Epistemology according to Gray (2004) was a philosophical term concerns in deciding what types of knowledge would be legitimate and adequate.

This theory was supported by Cohen et al. (2005), as these assumptions would be further influences or concerned with nature of the phenomenon and basis and knowledge and how this knowledge is acquired in real world? And how this knowledge can be communicated to others? These assumptions are logical and it also determines the issues of whether that can be something which can be acquired or can be experienced in person. The natures of these epistemological stances in general are human nature assumptions that are primarily concerned with the relationship between human and the human environment. Methodology assumptions expresses forcefully in search of universal laws. Methodology is characterised by rules or procedures that are framed in discovering general laws referred as Nomothetic and the third kind is called Idiograph which emphasizes on individual approach and particularly in understanding the behaviour of the individuals.

3.3 Secondary Data

Data that are concerned by collecting from someone else's work for the aim of the research but are different from the purpose of research of a researcher but rather used as a reference for secondary data (Morris, 2003). This data can of any type of existing unpublished or either publish data or also can be of any materials that are existed in the form of journals, business articles that would be useful for the researcher to pursue research (Sekaran, 2003). Secondary data is important for every research in the real world to know the topic of the research and suggestions from various sources. This secondary data is very important for the researcher to carry out primary research since; it will prove the researcher to explore his/her existing research that would effectively prove a source in answering aim and objectives of the research. It also helps in forming suitable questions for primary research such as Questionnaires and interviews in the researcher's context. Researcher has used both published and unpublished information in his research. The various secondary sources for this research would be Journal articles, Internet sources, Online Magazine articles.

3.4 Primary data

Data that are primarily used in enhancing primarily conceptual project or the data that are used as a major source of argument for a research are termed as Primary data (Hackley, 2003). These types of data are mainly used by collecting through certain methods through individual perception. According to Sekaran (2003), these perceptions will be mainly used in measuring attitude of the respondents towards the research aim and objectives. These are gathered by observation through questionnaire or through interviews directly from the people whom the researcher is conducted to draw conclusions with reference to secondary data. Data that are collected from the respondents in measuring certain attributes towards researcher aim is termed as Primary data.

According to researchers perception without primary data or primary research it would be highly impossible in drawing references and come to conclusion and would not be valid. Even though secondary data would be useful but it cannot be used in directly answering the research question rather it provides the direction in right path. Before exploring primary data it is essential for the researcher to understand the significant concept of research approach because without understanding research approach data collection will not be relevant towards the research question framed in the introduction chapter that corresponds to researcher focus in understanding the subject.

3.5 Deductive & Inductive approach

There are two types of research approach and they are termed as deductive and inductive approach. Testing a theory is defined as deductive approach that can be based on generalized or established theory. Testing theory that can be applied on any instances specifically is termed as Deductive theory (Spens and Kovacs, 2006). It is supported by Gummesson (2000) as these concepts and theories must be existed in real world, it means in such a way that before testing a theory we need to test hypothesis that must be linked to a causal relationship as according to Hackley (2003) developed by pre existed theory that will be further subjected to present theories and the findings would thus modify these theory. The other side of this approach can be in according to the study of Cohen et al. (2005) is, it would generally limit the study in findings other alternatives of a research but rather just used to test the validity at empirical level.

We have looked what deductive approach is and we now look what inductive approach is, this approach according to (Spens and Kovacs, 2006; Gummesson, 2000), is based upon collecting specific empirical cases to the observations. Thus it shows a real feeling by experience in the research field. This is more suitable in the aspect as fact than theory happening with real world concepts and theories existed in the real world and may be valid under some point of time. This is supported as positive insight to a research by Hackley (2003) as it would be beneficial in finding new insights towards research question that is not been in the academic point of view.

After discussing research approach types the researcher would undergo the study in terms of Inductive approach since, the researcher will attempt in building a theory rather than testing a hypothesis and theory. Another reason to pursue Inductive approach is that it cannot bring any new insights for the study by not presenting any alternatives to different explanations and it basically limits the study to a strict methodology.

3.6 Positivism and Interpretivism theories

This theory is purely based on the inquiry of understanding the descriptive aspect of qualitative research in a particular situation and this descriptive or theoretical perspective is called Interpretivism. These inquiries can be of development of theory, explanations about an observed phenomenon (Gray, 2004; Gummesson, 2000).In the other context such as quantitative research where the sample elements would be of statistical samples and it helps in examining the hypothesis. Gray (2004) claims that both qualitative and quantitative methods to research would influence on both Positivism and interpretivism theories concerned with social sciences.

According to Cohen et al. (2005), studies both Positivism and Interpretivism theories and explains that, positivism stance is based on the fact of social reality on observer point of view that mainly concerns with clear objection for ideal knowledge. In ither terms it can be explained as, researcher provides findings straight away without drawing and references or personal frame towards the results that are obtained by primary research.Anti-positivist or Interpretivist stance on other hand is sharing researchers or observers frame of references or individual perspective but not the framae of reference from outside world. There exists three varied approaches to Interpretivist theory they are, Phenomenology, Ethnomethodology and Symbolism interaction. Phenomenology is the study that is directed towards experiences that are gathered at the face value that concerns human experience in a real world. Ethnomethodology on other hand concerns how people make sense in everyday world. This is social interaction by understanding the social means on its own by participants. Symbolic interactionsim is based upon the researcher himself as subject in relation to research aim and objectives. The researcher has taken care in exploring new insights towards personal experience through experience in real world. This research thesis falls in investigating E Recruitment in Cost cutting and Time saving measures in software sector that would be suitable by exploring insights by investigating in India and thus this research falls under Phenomenology research.

We have looked at various theories on research and we had given the reason on why the researcher has adopted phenomenology research and inductive approach and we have reviewed Positivist and Interpretivist theory that would be used in drawing personal frame of references on empirical results. We now look into Qualitative and Quantitative methods to carry out primary research.

3.7 Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods

According to this research, the researcher adopts both Qualitative and Quantitative methods in this research. According to Parasuraman et al. (2004), quantitative research primarily concerns with the measuring aspects such as measurement and frequencies that would definitely help in a better coincidence and relating concepts between Primary and Secondary data that would finally be useful in drawing discussion and conclusion and prove research valid according to research focus and research question. According to Sarantakos (2005), Qualitative research on the other hand would help in understanding the concept more clearly that would also used to explore what are the feelings, thoughts and intentions. The real conclusions or frame of references of respondents can be easily explored through Qualitative research method.

Zikmund (2003) supported the positive aspects of Qualitative technique states that understanding the descriptive feeling of the concept very clearly than quantitative method of providing measurement samples and numbers. Thus the focus is on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. We shall now look into qualitative Interview techniques and Quantitative questionnaire technique that would be useful to acquire primary research.

3.7.1 Questionnaires

Questionnaire is based or designed on quantitative survey according to the research area but definite sets of alternatives are designed prior to the data acquisition. It will be useful in studying social sciences in known format and the questions are designed and later checked for completeness. It is designed using the research aim The questions are framed and it comprises of some closed end and open ended questions. And also contains some multiple options called Likert scale instruments. The prime aspect of adding questionnaire towards the research can be used as a role for measuring the personal frame and attitude of the respondents (McDaniel and Gates, 2005). The questionnaire samples will be analysed through frequency analysis.

3.7.2 Interview

There exist three types on interviews in the method of qualitative analysis they are; structured, semi structured and unstructured interviews. The researcher adopts semi structured interview for qualitative data analysis. The questions are designed based on research aim objectives and also the research question. But however according to Sinkovics et al. (2005), would be the significant method in conducting qualitative research but however the researcher would try to impose certain framed questions and would liked to acquire data and present argument only with the area where the researcher had focussed and does not want to present the argument apart from that.

3.8 Sampling

Selection of Respondents:

Having known the purpose of this research thesis is to primarily investigate the concept of E-Recruitment as a strategic issue towards cost cutting and time saving measure. The respondents being the employees working in Human resource department of Software Firms located at Chennai and Bangalore.

Sampling Design and Size:

Sampling is very important to identify possible population such as respondents to carry out primary research. Jankowicz (2005) has studied sampling techniques and presented what sampling technique would be best suited for research in conducting primary research. He states sampling as the deliberate choice of inputs of people in a population amongst valid group corresponds to the research. These units apart from people can be organisation or the departments. In this context the researcher has identified population such as Software organisation and employees working in the Human resource department would best suit the research, since E-Recruitment is a human resource concept. There are two types of sampling techniques they are, probability and non probability sampling. Non probability sampling is based on identifying and questioning in relation to the individual position, roles and background to common groups. Probability sampling on other hand based on identifying and questioning since they are members of common groups. At this instant this research would employ non probability sampling since HR department managers (High level and Middle level) who had major experience on the recruitment process would be a proper samples rather questioning members of any common groups.

The sampling technique adhered in this research would be purposive sampling since it draws in selecting people relevant to the issue such as HR Managers. The research would contain 30 Samples in quantitative questionnaire methods and 4 samples of semi structured interviews.

3.7 Reliability and Validity of the research

Research in any forms has to be proven valid at any circumstances. This dissertation would be valid once if the researcher would be able to triangulate E-Recruitment in Cost reduction and time saving factor proven through primary and secondary research. According to Gray (2004) the validity would be based upon when the researcher would try to find the answer for research question. Reliability would be based upon the empirical results that are produced that would not yield in producing unbiased results also valid data acquired from Software firms in India. Reliability according to Golafshani (2003) states it corresponds to the accurate results that are consistent over period of time and accurate presentation of the total population.

3.9 Ethics of the Research

The researcher had made all possible to adhere research ethics according to Cardiff City University (Formerly University of Wales Institute Cardiff) and have also made sure that it does not hurt any moral and social feelings of people. The researcher had also kept the samples anonymous.

3.10 Summary

This chapter presents the methodology by reviewing research philosophy. This chapter is efficient to prove what methodology and techniques that are used in gathering primary data. We have also discussed various techniques available in the research. The research follows both qualitative and quantitative techniques through semi structured interviews and questionnaires methods. Finally we have looked the number of sample and sampling technique used to scrutinize the population respective to the research topic. In the next chapter we shall present and analyse data that would be used to present the empirical results.

Chapter 4

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

This chapters deals with research findings that are acquired through both Questionnaire and by semi structured interview method. The data findings of Questionnaire is presented Graphically and the data findings of Semi structured method was presented thematically. This chapter answers the research question and will be useful in arriving conclusion. The questionnaire and interview questions are framed in such a way that, it will cover the research objectives. Questionnaire and semi structured interview is analysed thematically. The number of sample respondents for questionnaire analysis was 36 and they are the employees working in Human Resource department in Software concern. The number of sample respondents for Semi structured interview are 5 Who are Human resource and Assistant Human resource managers working in Software firm. The data is acquired from 2 software firms in India.

4.2 Questionnaire and Analysis

The questionnaire sample contained 14 questions covering all the areas of research objectives that would be useful in arriving answers for the research question. The questions are framed in terms of Likert scale and Basic Multiple Choice options with closed ended questions. The questionnaire sample is presented in APPENDIX 1, The topics covered in the Questionnaire would be,

  • E-Recruitment in Software industry in India
  • Various implications of E- Recruitment process
  • Merits and Demerits of E-Recruitment process

The findings of questionnaire is based on 36 Samples that was distributed to 40 employees. The graphical presentation are analysed thematically by frequency analysis, taking average results of total samples in terms of percentages. Questionnaire will be useful in measuring the attitude of the employees towards E-recruitment process.

Chart 1

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

This chart depicts around 97% respondents agree that their organization is satisfied with E-recruitment process. This question is framed to test the satisfaction of E-recruitment in the software organization in India.

Chart 2

A-Impacts certainethnic minorities B-Resume overload C-Congestion in Scrutinizing application D-HRshould be aware of E HRMS process E-Security threat issues.

For this, respondents have respondents have responded for all the options. But around 58% respondents fee that there will be resume overload and 22% respondents felt that, HR should be aware of E HRMS concepts and electronic issues of HR Management. Around 14% respondents felt that, it can impact certain ethnic minorities. E-recruitment apart from Cost cutting and time saving factors it has some demerits which is framed to test the employees working in software firm.

Chart 3

A-Reduces direct cost saving through newspaper advertisement B-Reduces mail costs C-Reduces human resource workload D-Opens all candidate pools from around the world E-Improves brand reputation of the company F-All the above

In this chart, around 91.67% felt that E-Recruitment is advantageous in reducing direct costs, mail costs, Reduces human resource workload, opens more candidate pools from national and in the international level, Improves the brand reputation of a company. The question was framed to acquire the attitude of the employees on E-recruitment merits.

Chart 4

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

This chart depicts that, almost majority of 83% respondents strongly agree that E-recruitment is very helpful in online communities. Apart from the other advantageous it also helps the online communities that was measured from the employees working in the HR department.

Chart 5

A-Yes B-No

This chart shows that, the organization makes use or have corporate Internet website. This question is used to test whether the software organization were data acquired does have corporate website and internet job domain.

Chart 6

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

75% respondents felt that, Job boards are the popular recruitment tool other than E-Recruitment process. Around 20% respondents strongly agree this statement. In the recruitment market Job boards play a vital role, this private website would be definitely useful for organization to easily hire candidates.

Chart 7

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

From this chart total 36 sample respondents say that, E-Recruitment is strategic definitely cut costs or reduces cost and saves time in the recruitment. This statement is important in this research context. This is framed to test the employees and it proves e recruitment reduces both cost and time.

Chart 8

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

From this chart it depicts that, all respondents agree that E-recruitment has overtook the traditional recruitment process. This is used to measure the difference of e recruitment towards the traditional recruitment process.

Chart 9

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

This chart depicts that around 75% respondents felt that E-recruitment attracts both active and passive job seekers. But 22% employees felt that it does not attract both active and passive job seekers.

Chart 10

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

From this chart all employees felt that Internet has really helpful in the mark of innovative recruitment process that would be useful in attracting candidates in large numbers. This statement marks the internet evolution and its tool on innovative recruitment process.

Chart 11

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

Around 36% employees felt that, E-recruitment is very effective when compared to the traditional process. Majority of 48% respondents neither agree or disagree this statement. But 17% employees say that it is not effective. Used to measure the effectiveness of e recruitment towards Traditional recruitment process.

Chart 12

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

Majority of the respondents neither agree or disagree in the satisfaction of posting jobs through newspaper advertisements or through recruitment agencies. This question tests employees on satisfaction towards the traditional recruitment process.

Chart 13

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

E-Recruitment is definitely a human resource process and around 98% of the employees agree this point.

Chart 14

A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Neither agree or Disagree D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree

From this chart it depicts that, majority of all employees Strongly agree that, E recruitment process needs proper decision making and planning skills with better corporate culture.

4.3 Semi structured Interview and Analysis

The interview is conducted with Human resource managers and Assistant human resource manager working in the software firm in India. There consists total of 6 questions which was conducted with every managers. The questions are common and framed according to research aim and objectives. The recorded conversation are presented in APPENDIX 2 along with questions. The interview is used to find the e recruitment process in comparison with traditional recruitment process and in the software organization in India. The interviewee names are kept anonymous due to confidentiality. The interview and questionnaire findings are interpreted, discussed at the end of the chapter.

Interview 1

The interview was conducted with Human resource manager 1 that was lasted approximately 10 minutes. The HR manager felt that, E recruitment is strategic and provides candidates to measure their own responsibility and also the company he/she working in the future. Candidates inducts training in development and also talent engagement. E recruitment standardizes the overall recruitment process. Internet has overtook the world and the current trend in recruitment is being outsourced in other countries such as India, Philippines and also internationally through consultants. Internet helps in getting quick response of any candidates internationally and fastens the recruitment process. The important ailment according to the interview is the quality of hiring a candidate. Apart from this Technical, management qualities of a recruiter are also most important.

E recruitment is perceived to be a good time saver and reduces costs. It helps saving time by considering multiple applicants. E recruitment is useful for countries like India, that turns many people by tracking right candidates. E recruitment makes useful for the candidates directly reach the recruiter. It reduces the efforts going to the job agencies. This will be helpful for the recruiter in tracking for future improvement. Recruitment process is challenging and should monitor in handling every data correctly. E recruitment fills up the traditional gaps of keeping safe of all data.

Interview 2

This interview lasted approximately 12 minutes. The interviewee felt that, E recruitment is strategic since directly reflects towards Corporate culture involving skills such as team management skills. Internet recruitment overtook the traditional process since, the recruiters get resumes from multiple sources quickly such as job boards. The key ailments in recruitment are decision making skills, staffing, communication skills. Hiring candidates through agencies usually needs lot of money so it can be avoided through E recruitment process. E recruitment should work along with traditional process. The recruitment basics are needed to understand from the traditional process. E recruitment fills traditional gaps by receiving lot of applications and can be able to respond very easily.

Interview 3

This interview lasted 12 minutes. The employee was a Human resource manager working in the software concern in India. This Human resource manager is working in Top Multinational company in India at Chennai and the name of the employee and the organization is kept highly confidential. HR2 felt that, e recruitment is strategic and it involves lot of processes. It consists of predefined strategy based upon the candidate and his/her experience and his previous salary. This transformation comes in terms of corporate culture in defining strategy towards the recruitment process. Internet recruitment does not overtook the entire traditional process but acts as an helping hand in speeding up the recruitment process.

Today it is highly difficult to conduct a recruitment process without the support of internet. But in some cases traditional recruitment is done to analyze the candidates. The important ailments in recruitment are sense of urgency determining how many people and in time they recruit. Apart from this human resource management and decision making skills plays a back hand in an entire recruitment process. E recruitment in software organization can be perceived to be vital in hiring for recruiting talent skills in short time. Moreover it helps to consolidate all data in one portal. In comparison with traditional process it should go hand in hand since they cannot rely entirely on the automated systems. The difficulties in recruitment process would be recruitment time and the skills that would possess by a candidate. E recruitment filled the gaps by adding much resources to the candidates and reduces lead times. It can be used anywhere and gives access to the administrative area.

Interview 4

This interview was conducted with Human resource manager and the conversation lasted around 7 minutes. According to the respondent, e recruitment should go in hand with corporate culture and strategy should be in the form of bringing changes towards organization such as cutting

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