Critical Analysis of Instructional Design Models

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Kemp, Dick and Carey design models for Instructional Design for instructional design are very important because they can provide a procedural way of establishing or implementing the instructional design process for a particular initiative of education. There exists several instructional design models which illustrates the ID process meant for dissimilar settings and situations .The aim of these instructional design models is to give training and educational organizational design process, guidelines for management and collaboration of teamwork options with designers, clients and technicians. A model in general can be described as a pattern or example that prescribes relationships in a normative sense. A model can also serve as a communication and visual tool to assist in conceptualizing complicated instructional design process or schematics as well as how the various elements and stages relate to each other. It should be noted that the application of the model relies on the instructional scenario, problem or task.

To make sure that there is a procedural way of establishing the instructional design process for a particular educational initiative, instructional design should be used. This is because they serve as important tools of learning and they make the work of teachers easier. According to Carey and Carey (2001),

...instructional design can be defined as the systematic method for analyzing, designing, developing, evaluating and managing the instructional process efficiently; based on the knowledge and experiences of learning and instructional theories so that it will improve the quality of instruction and ensure effective and retentive learning (p. 5).

Models give users a new way to see and understand hard problems. By making use of a teaching plan exemplar, one is able to organize a teaching plan. A teaching plan exemplar also assists the creator in conveying activities and aiding in comprehension (Merril, 1997).Exemplars aid learners by helping them to imagine the problem and disassemble it into distinct and practicable elements. Teaching plan creators deem particular exemplars as esteemed depending on the background of design. Comparable to other elements, an exemplar affects an explicit objective of the user. The user assesses an exemplar in the way it interprets the creator's purpose, in what way it can break down an assignment, and in what way it effectually shifts attention to another element, to the purpose of the creation endeavor (Merill, 2000). Edification strategies are used in the design process to determine which way teachers will try to achieve learning objectives (Merill, 1997). The selected strategy will be either an organizational strategy, a delivery strategy, a management strategy, or a questioning strategy.

According to Hirumi (2005), motivating students can be achieved through the use of research-based design theories such as the Keller's ARCS Model Instructional designs follow the equal patterns and stages of investigation, strategy, improvement, accomplishment and appraisal. However, at times one will find some with a few minor differences. By analyzing several instructional designs, one can see the common characteristics. Although many instructional examples have been established and implemented throughout time, four types of instructional design are being scrutinized.

Dick and Carey Instructional Model

The Dick and Carey Model use revised instruction as a foundation for design. Not only does it involve identifying instructional goals, but it also requires summative and formative evaluation. Which are based on two main principles of the cognitive theory of learning (Dick & Carey, 1999). The designers believe that if one organizes what he or she has learned then the new information the learner can be organized better. New learning is associated with past learning experiences and when it happens better comprehension takes place.

The Dick and Carey model has been criticized for being too rigid and cumbersome for the average design process (Sun, 2001). A good example of the Dick Carey model in practice is WebCT, where the use of certain elements e.g. developing and selection of instructional materials of the model are used to design WebCt coarse content. According to Stamm (2001), WebCT was developed to help faculty develop content for courses. By the way, terms dealing with the Dick & Carey Model includes performance objectives, instructional analysis, instructional strategy, and hierarchical analysis. The Dick and Carey Model include the following phases:

Teaching Objectives,

Teaching examination,

Entrance manners and student traits,

Presentation goals,

Benchmark founded exam elements,

Teaching Approach, teaching resources,

Determinative, and

Cumulative appraisal.

It has also been found to be the most commonly used model (Sun, 2001). The most frequently followed elements included "determine delivery strategies," "analyze learning task," "analyze learning contexts," "analyze learners," and "write and produce instruction" (Dick & Carey, 1999). The least frequently followed element was "write test items" (Sun, 2001). Using e-mail was used more often for learner interaction, but only a small segment of the population used other form of technologies.

Gagne's Nine Events of Instructions

Robert Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction model provides a methodical way to teach planning and preparation (Gagne, 1985). Gagne, known as a behaviorist, focuses attention on what happens after learning or training takes place (Gagne, 1985). The outcomes, learning, or behaviors that result from the training, are based on mental conditions identified by Gagne in 1965. From these mental events, Gagne (1965) came up with a nine-step procedure known as the "proceedings of instructions" dealing with the conditions of knowledge attainment. The nine occurrences are:

Garner the focus of the student,

Notify the student of the purpose,

Encourage recollect of former edification,

Demonstrate inducement resources, support learner assistance,

Extract presentation,

Afford comment, and

Assess performance (Gagne, 1985, p. 12)

Learner participation in the instructional process is important to Gagne's design. According to Richey (2010), learners who are actively involved in the learning process is one of the critical elements of Gagne's model. According to Richey (2010), the engagement of learners through learning activities is just one element of the model; similarly, Gagne's model allows the learners to be involved in the instructional process. Gagne's model is structured to promote both internal and external learning activity (Richey, 2010).

Aside from active participation, another key element of Gagne's design takes learner characteristics into consideration. The Gagne design model presents a learner-centered design. The Gagne model presents a different perspective from the other models on achieving a learner's motivation. Learner characteristics are an important element of defining learning objectives within the Gagne Model. The Gagne design model presents that the learner's memory, processing, perception, and attitude are factors that contribute to the motivation of a learner and the learning outcome (Richey, 2010).

Another element of Gagne's model is learner control. While Gagne presents that learners should possess some control over their learning, Richey points out that the designer should have the control of instructional process (Richey, 2010). With the Gagne Design model allows for the designer to structure external factors that promote and facilitate internal learning opportunities. Because the Gagne model is structured in a way that incorporates both the internal and external elements, the learners and the instructors can form a partnership within the learning process (Gagne, 1985). According to Tse-Kian & Mai (2009), the use of Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction creates an environment that holds the attention of the learner motivates the learner to be involved in the learning process and increases the student's understanding of the learning material.

Kemp's Instructional Design Model

Kemp's Instructional Design Model consists of nine distinct parts. It is a model where an evaluation can be continually implemented. This model is oval shaped in an effort to show that the form and the design of the model is continuous and never ends. This model operates in a cycle that always requires more planning to be added, more designing, more development, and more assessments in an effort to make sure that all instruction is effective (Moore & Knowlton, 2006). The Kemp Model is a systematic model that urges designers to work not in just one or two areas but in all areas. It explains a development in which Morrison, Ross, and Kemp (2004) used a curved educational plan to construct technological-founded education about fractions (Morrison, & Anglin, 2006). Kemp's Model has been found useful in developing databases that combine machinery, instruction and substance to have applicable, dependable, proficient education (Moore & Knowlton, 2006). The nine steps of Kemp's model include:

Finding the teaching difficulties and explaining the objectives for constructing an educational plan.

Designers look at the traits of the learner who needs assistance.

Know the content of the subject; analyze the parts of the explicit objectives and aims.

Examine the educational purposes for the students.

Put instructional unit information in order so that it can be learned logically.

Come up with instructional strategies to help each learner master the objectives.

Plan teaching and delivering the information.

Develop tests, instruments that will be used for assessment of objectives.

The final step is selecting necessary resources that are needed for the teaching and learning activities (Moore & Knowlton, 2006).

The Kemp Model is ideal for large projects that involve many workers and resources are plentiful (Moore & Knowlton, 2006). One weakness of the Kemp Model is the constant revision and giving formative assessments (Moore & Knowlton, 2006). The process can become very expensive and hard to do unless experienced designers are involved.

Comparison and contrasting Differences of the Models

This part will give an account of the observed differences and similarities of the above discussed models. Of essence here are the qualities and characteristics scrutinized from these model's process presentation and description. The following points were note in particular: Usage of visuals that fits the model process and definition, the general conventional form for every model with its purpose and goals, process of evaluation and role of team collaboration.

Usage of visuals to represent model structure and functions

Every model discussed here is represented appropriately and supported by discussing their characteristics. What makes them differ from each other is the fact that their layout is different.

Convection form and structure

Dick and Cray model is based off the convectional core elements of the ADDIE model .They do consist of the components of the analysis of the learner, design of instructions and objectives, media selection and material development, course implementation and evaluation is found in these design models(Merill, 1997). In addition, both Kemp and Dick &Carey are more comprehensive. Each model utilizes at least one form of procedural approach, that is, step by step process approach. According to critics procedural process approach is considered as intensive and it takes significant time to apply well as being considerably costly. The procedural process cannot be good for particular instructional task. Dick and Carey's process depend very much on each other and it is not possible to proceed without the results of the previous step (McMahon, 2010). The goals must be established for the design process to begin. Kemps model on the other hand offers more heuristic approach and its flexibility allows adaptation for technology situation like online environments.

Evaluation process

The model discussed in this paper offer the component of evaluation. However, the evaluation component may differ in purposes and functionality. The two observations are evaluation related technology concerns and evaluations that differ as far as emphasis at different stages of the steps are concerned. In technology issues, the general form of an instructional system consist of three major components which are delivery system, instructional objectives and learning outcomes .They are related to process, input and output respectively(McMahon, 2010). For instance, in the phase of implementing the course, issues can be handled by technology-oriented including academic teams.

Emphasis and Process differences

Kemp models present a broad recommendation on the evaluation procedure. Within its evaluation process, there is a model of evaluation. For instance, there are three stages in the formative evaluation process (McMahon, 2010). These steps are implemented during the development phase .Dick and Carey model utilizes and emphasizes on the same formative concepts as Kemp's model. However both processes differ in collective evaluation which is a terminating process reviews instructional effectiveness done by an individual who is not involved with the design process. Also, Dick and Carey's process of evaluation does not have a follow up evaluation.

Role of team collaboration

Each model discussed here embraces the idea of individual, project management concerns and team collaboration. However they differ at different stages of the design process. For the Dick and Carey's model, the teamwork paradigm relies on the specialist and manager combination of skills to produce the end product (Merill, 1997). Kemp models presuppose that the designer has strong leadership skills as well as meta-cognitive skills so as to be in a position to review changes during the development process.

Conclusion

Many educational constructed exemplars can be used to teach theory. The education and experience of the designer oftentimes determine the level of the design model (Willis & Lockee, 2003). Instructional designers need to be conscious of presenting information in a manner that is conducive to learning via technology that does not use what Morrison and Anglin (2006) term "shovelware." That is, an educator puts data gathered from various sources and "shovels" it onto an Internet platform and deems it educational (Morrison & Anglin, 2006). Despite the ubiquitous availability of technology many educators reluctantly use it and the appropriate instructional design model to solve the problems in education (Davidson-Shivers, Salazar & Hamilton, 2005). Educational created exemplars help an educator by giving a well-defined structure to follow while putting effective teaching practices and strategies to use.

Table 1 Comparison of Instructional Models

Keller's ARCS Model

Dick and Carey Model

Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

Kemp's Instructional Model

Initiation

galvanization of capability

revised instruction

garner students' focus

cyclic, never ending

Concentration and focus

evidence of abilities

identify instructional goals

what happens after learning or training takes place

evaluate learners' traits to determine teaching strategy

Components and Elements

presentation of abilities

formative and summative assessments

students are notified about what they are to learn

methodical introduction of content

combination of these abilities into everyday accomplishments

new and old learning integrated

ascertain learner motivation

learners master instructional objectives

learners need incentive and contentment in knowledge

frequently used model in education

learner controls learning product

ideal for large projects

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