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This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout at primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were. (a) to study the teacher problems and attitude about dropout, (b) to determine the factors which cause dropout (c) to study the Govt. strategy about dropout and (d) to provide suggestion to overcome this problem and improve literacy rate.
For choosing the simple random sampling technique was used. The researchers was selected the ten (10) schools of F.R. Peshawar Asho khel. The research Study was descriptive in nature. Three type of questionnaire were prepared one for teacher, second for students and third for parents, after that researcher were collected data then tabulated, analyzed and interpreted in the percentage method.
On the basis of analysis it was concluded that majority of teachers viewed that teachers were responsible for dropout, because of corporal punishment, poor attention towards the students. Majority of the students opined that students themselves are responsible for dropout, because fear of teachers; failure in examination, mental weaknesses and students weak in math and English Majority of the parents viewed that parents are responsible for dropout of their children because of their poverty, illiteracy, unawareness of importance of education;
Following recommendations were made for the improvement of the teaching-learning situation in the primary education institutions. Teachers should show fair attitude and well behave. The government should appoint the talented teacher and local teachers of the area. Teachers may improve and provide variety of approaches of motivation techniques in different teaching situation. Government should provide full attention to their education system by provides financial support to the poor students in form of scholarship and also government should facilitate the teachers and increase their salary.
Keywords: Causes of Dropout, Primary level, Government schools, Teachers; Students, Parents.
Education is a need of every society. The society uses school as its agents of socialization. Pakistan still behind in the race/ run of education. Pakistan could not improve his literacy rate. Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates among the Asian countries (Farooq, 2001). Our educational system of primary and secondary levels is very high percentage of students who dropout before complete a particular cycle. Pakistan is considered second lowest country among those considered whose students complete primary education. High dropouts mark all levels of primary education. A fairly large number of enrolled students at primary education never complete the cycle of their education (Rauf, 1996).
According to Aggrwal (2000) Education is a corner stone of development. It has been proved that education makes a significant and position impact on employment, earning, productivity health and the control over population growth there are among causes of lower literacy rate. Every government made his efforts to promote literacy rate but failed. Theses causes as under.
Poverty, educational facilities, lack of funding, curriculum, unskilled teachers, criteria for admission, method of teaching, education system, corruption, instability of government, dual system of education and political environment etc. It is not a big problem of Pakistan but also a problem of underdeveloped countries (Sultana 1998).According to national education policy (1998-2010), "the current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70 % by the year 2010.
Literacy figures which officially stands established about 38.9% is contestable government of Pakistan declares that we have increased 12.2% literacy rate from 1981 to 1998. What is even more debatable is the measure use to quality a person as literate one extreme the definition holds that a person who can write his name is literate (Mahmooda, 1999).
According to national policy (1998) Education is a powerful catalyzing agent which provides mental, physical, ideological and moral training to individual so as to enable them to have full consciousness of there purpose in life and equip them to achieve that purpose. It is an instrument for the spiritual development as well as the material fulfillment of human needs (Shahid, 1999).
Elementary education is the earliest program of education, beginning generally at the age of five or six and lasting from six to eight years. The greatest number of any country population attends the primary stage. This stage is the means by which universal gifted children can be located. The elementary stage produces the bulk of skilled and literate workers and a modern technological society can be developed and maintained only when these skilled and literate workers are produced in a large numbers and also regularly. This stage is very important especially in a democratic society. A democratic government requires that its citizen should be intelligent enough to understand the manifestoes of several political parties to interpret news intelligently and critically and to cast their vitas according to their own free choice and will (Rasool, 2000).
Statement of the Problem
The Statement of the Problem of the study was to find out the causes of dropout at Primary level (5th Class) at F.R. Peshawar (Male School) and provide information and suggestion and to remove hurdles on the area.
Objectives of The study
The main objectives of the study were as follow.
To study teacher problems and attitudes about dropout.
To determine the factors which cause dropout.
Significance of The study
The Significance of the Study is high dropouts mark all levels of primary and secondary education. A fairly large number of students not complete there education cycle. The study has great significant because that provides basic and comprehensive information to assist teacher and educational authority. It provides basic information to the curriculum planner to plan the curriculum according to the needs of teachers and students. The study provides help for the curriculum planner to overcome these causes.
Hypotheses of the study
The formulations of hypothesis were many factors which increasing dropout rate at elementary level. The students leave school without completing their education. Therefore following research hypothesis occurred.
Students leave school due to poverty.
Many students leave school due to hard and non flexible curriculum.
Many students leave school due to corporal punishment.
Delimitations of the study
Due to limited time and resources the study was delimited to ten (10) male schools of F.R. Peshawar Asho Khel area.
NATURE OF RESEARCH
It was survey (descriptive) type of research. Researchers survey the government schools of F.R. Peshawar and try to find out the main cause of dropout at 5th class. The level of dropout in the government schools in very high that is why, the literacy ratio of the area is very low. All primary/ elementary schools are in consideration, including 5th class of F.R. Peshawar.
As there are large numbers of schools in F.R. Peshawar, but the researchers limited their studies to ten (10) selected boys' schools of F.R. Peshawar, which are located in the area of Asho khel. As most of the schools are out of my range and it is difficult to reach there.
The following research instruments were used for collection of data.
Questionnaire-A for teacher of government high school (Male).
Questionnaire-B for parents.
Questionnaire-C for students.
The researcher or started data collection process after three or four days by visiting each sampled school and administering the questionnaire in person. The researcher recollected the questionnaire from the concern teachers, students and parents. The response rate was 100 percent.
Then the researcher arranged the data in systematic way and organized the data in the form of table. After the tabulation the researcher analyzed the data, and expressed in percentage.
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
The data collected of ten (10) selected schools of F.R. Peshawar, Asho Khel area, from teachers, students and parents through questionnaires was tabulated, analyzed and described here.
There were three questionnaires for each teachers, students and parents. Each questionnaire was provided with only two responses "YES" and "NO". The questions of the questionnaire were tabulated to find out the percentage of the causes of dropout. The researcher use simple and easy techniques (Percentage, %) to study the behavior and attitude of the respondents.
RESPONSES OF TEACHER, STUDENTS AND PARENTS
No fully attention of teacher
Having a bad society
Poverty of the parents
Oldest method of teaching
lack of facilities
Over all response of teacher, students and parents are clearly indicate here that in the first item results show that no fully attention of the teacher, the above table indicate that 14.28 % of the teachers are agree with this support that "No fully attention of teacher "is the cause of dropout, while in case of students 85.71% do not agree to it, while student 23.07 % students agree and 76.92% do not agree, in case of parents 47.36% are agree while 52.63 % are not agree. The over all 25% agreed to it and 75 % did not agree. In order of "having bad society", it indicate that 94.59% of the teachers are agree that having bad society" is the cause of dropout, in case of students 5.40% do not agree to it, while students 31.24% agree and 68.75% do not agree, in case of parents 92.59% agree, while 7.40% are not agree. The over all 81.25% agree to it and 18.75 % did not agree. The poverty of the parents draw the picture that 79.41% of the teachers admit that " the poverty of parents" is the cause of dropout, while 20.58% do not agree to it, while in case of students 82.14 % students are agree and 17.85 % are not agree, in case of parents 61.11 % agreed, while 38.88 % do not agree. The over all 76.85 % agreed to it and 23.75 % did not agree. The methodology of teaching is most important factor which affects the teaching. The results shows that 60% of the teachers are agree that " the oldest method of teaching" is the cause of dropout, while 40 % do not agree to it, while in case of students 37.50% students are agree and 17.85 % are not agree, in case of parents 80.76 % agree, while 19.24 % do not agree. The over all 60 % agreed to it and 40 % did not agree. Corporal punishment is the major cause of drop out ratio at primary level. It is clear from the above table that 30 % of the teachers are agree to the corporal punishment is the cause of dropout, while 70 % are not agree to it. while in case of students 74.07 % students are agree and 25.92 % are not agreeing to it. In case of parents 65.21 % are agree, while 34.79 % are not agree. The over all 55 % people are agreeing to it and 45% are not agreeing. Moreover the lack of facilities is the key cause of drop out ratio at primary level, which can easily interpret the data in form of that 76% of the teachers are agree to the view about " lack of facilities" is the cause of dropout, while 24% are not agree to it while in case of students 60.60 % students are not agree to it and 39.40 % are not agree. In case of parents 68.18 % are agree to it, while 31.82 % are not agree. The over all 67.50 % people are agree to it and 32.50 % are not agree
After finding the researcher made the following conclusion by deep study, about the male student's dropout at elementary level (Male) in F.R. Peshawar.
The teachers, students and parents were of the view that the problem of dropout was due to
Majority of the teachers viewed that teachers were responsible for dropout, because of corporal punishment, poor attention towards the students. Unaware ness can cause the dropout of the students.
Majority of the students opined that students themselves are responsible for dropout, because fear of teachers; failure in examination, mental weaknesses and students weak in math and English and over playing is a cause of dropout.
Majority of the parents viewed that parents are responsible for dropout of their children because of their poverty, illiteracy, unawareness of importance of education; having no father at home and no fully control on children are the cause of dropout, which is the responsibility of parents.
After conclusion the researcher made the following recommendation for the betterment of students of dropout at elementary level at F.R. Peshawar Asho Khel. The recommendations are as under.
The study results revealed that teachers were responsible for dropout due to corporal punishment. It is recommended that teachers should show fair attitude and well behave. The government should appoint the talented teacher and local teachers of the area.
The study results showed that teachers were responsible for dropout due to poor attention towards the students. Therefore it is recommended that teachers should give fully attention to the students by providing incentives such as reward. . Teachers may improve and provide variety of approaches of motivation techniques in different teaching situation.
The study results revealed that students were self-responsible for dropout due to cause of fear of teachers; failure in examination, mental weaknesses and students weak in math and English. It is recommended that teachers should provide awareness about education to their students by develop faith and confidence. Teachers should provide peaceful atmosphere.
Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
Dr. Ali Murtaza is working as an Assistant Professor Preston University Islamabad, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
DrHafiz HameedUllah is working as an Assistant Professor, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
Dr. Sajjad Hayat Akhtar is working as an teachers Department of Education, Govt. of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan.