Twenty or so years ago in the 'old' world of work there was emphasis on the following: making a career choice for a long-term career; concern with only one career theme; hierarchical progression (climbing the career ladder); having a career and job for life; loyalty to one company and employer; benefits and a pension in recognition of loyalty.
The 21st century world of work is very different. With rapid developments in technology and globalisation of the economy and job markets, there is an increase in competition. The global economy is focused on information generation and delivery of services. There is constant outsourcing of work, downsizing of companies and customising of jobs. More people are in temporary and part-time employment and increasing numbers of people are self- employed. In most occupations there is a trend towards change, unpredictability, spontaneity, innovation and creativity and a demand for people with interpersonal and intrapersonal skills.
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Many careers today can thus be described in terms of the following: uncertainty, unpredictability, insecurity, reduced likelihood of promotion, work intensification, increased likelihood of mobility out of one's initial occupation, non-standard contracts, part-time work and self-employment In this context one needs to think of oneself as a 'portfolio of skills' (4-8 career changes will probably be made in your lifetime).
There is a constant need to invest in maintaining employability, engaging in life-long learning and enhancing one's personal growth. Increasingly, individuals also have to manage their own benefits such as pension schemes and medical aids.
To be success in career development, we have to continue to have high adaptation. We should be flexible, adaptable and willing to gain knowledge and learn new skills. Besides, as a key of success, we must be prepared for lifelong learning - the ability to access information and develop knowledge and enhance new skills on an ongoing basis. It is essential that you are constantly on the lookout for possibilities to develop yourself and your skills. There is a trend toward multi-skilling: the acquisition of a number of different skills rather than just focusing on the skills in which you were originally trained.
Continuous learning process is essential in career development. In career development, building up a valuable network of contacts so that we are able to increase our network coverage in the future. Besides, we have to be prepared to perform tasks that may not be exactly what you want to be doing, but which could pave the way for future development (develop transferable skills). On the other hand, don't expect to stick to the same job for your entire life. It is advisable to move around while you can. Gain fresh experiences. In fact, find yourself a mentor-someone whom you can rely on to give you feedback, encourage you and help you to find opportunities to develop in your career. The last but not the least, learn to work effectively in a team.
Right from your first year make a start on your career development. Career development is not about planning exactly what you will do for your career from the time you start studying to the day you leave; it's about exploiting every opportunity that you come across to acquire new skills which will enhance your employability.
The career development process is aimed at achieving self-knowledge and learning how you can become as marketable as possible in the current world of work. In order to be able to develop your career and make effective career decisions you need to engage in self-reflection and self-assessment from time to time in order to ascertain your current position and progress. If you know yourself and have insight into who you are, you will be better able to know where you could be going. This knowledge will equip you to plan and develop your career path effectively.
It is important that you ensure that you have the necessary skills and attributes which are needed in the current job market, especially in the light of the constant changes and developments in the various fields of work. Rapid change in the use of technology itself creates a need for continual updating of one's skills. Your academic qualification alone these days will not guarantee you a job.
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These are any relevant skills that you have developed in one context that can be transferred to another. The skill of organising, for example, is one such transferable skill that employers look for. Perhaps you gained this skill through organizing a camp for underprivileged children, which involved arranging a venue, transport, a caterer and a programme of events. Although you might not do exactly the same in another work context, the skill of organizing something is one you could transfer.
General skills such as public speaking, time management, problem-solving and taking the initiative can be built up during your studies. Speak out in tutorials, hand in assignments on time, go beyond what the lecturers require of you by learning to take the initiative and to solve problems.
By participating in activities outside of the lecture room, you will not only develop transferable skills but also learn more about yourself. It is important to get involved as early as possible. Look for organisations such as clubs, societies, teams, church groups, Peer Helping etc. which will give you the opportunity to make a meaningful contribution and learn and practise skills such as communication, leadership and teamwork.
By taking on many different roles, you will learn about yourself. You will get to know what you are you good at and what you enjoy. Consider what excites you and what makes you enthusiastic. Make a note of these activities as they may be the very things around which you should build your career.
To sum up, the dynamic business environment in this society creates the demand for the employees to continue to learn. Career development is a continuous process to enable employees to excel and sustain themselves in when the business undergoes digitalization, globalisation and differentiation.
2. Compare Holland's approach to career development with Roe's. Summarize the similarities and differences.(25 marks)
Osipow (1983) classified John Holland's work under the trait approach to career development and Isaacson (1985) classified it under the personality-based theories of career development. Career choice and career adjustment represents an extension of a person's personality. Holland proposed four working assumptions. Holland's assumption on the nature of the personality types includes people develop relatively permanent sets of behaviors or personalities that they seek to express through occupational choices. Besides, Holland assumed that people project their views of themselves and of the work world onto occupational titles. Assessment of these projections serves to identify information about the occupational areas that might be most satisfying for an individual, as well as to illuminate relevant aspects of the individual's personality.
Holland's topology based on the several principle theories, first vocational choice is an expression of personality. Vocational choice is not only a reflection of specific aspects of
personality. This type of choice expresses who the person is as a whole. For example, it is important to consider their history, their perception of reality and their social context. Second principle is the interest inventories are inventories of personality. Vocational preferences are expressions of personality. Individuals chose an occupation based on their knowledge, their
personality and their aptitudes. Therefore, vocational choice is greater than simply using certain abilities within a specific context. It is also a lifestyle, a way of being. Vocational choice is the actualisation of personality as a whole. The next principle is Vocational stereotypes. A number of stereotypes are attached to various professions. Perception of professions differs according to age, experience and social status. Most psychometric assessments do not take into consideration these different perceptions. Individuals could be influenced to stop their vocational choice based on stereotypes that are more or less valid. It is important for a vocational choice to be made based on a realistic perception of various professions. There are a few more principle includes Members of a same profession share personality types and individual stories that are similar, similarities found in a vocational group play a role in the creation of a specific work environment and vocational satisfaction, its stability and its development are directly attributed to the degree of congruence between the individual's personality and the workplace environment
However, there are two major tenets in Ann Roe's Theory. First, Freud's psychodynamic preposition that focuses on childhood experience, where what happens in the past affects the present. Second, The Maslow's need theory focus on the influences of need to occupational choice, where people look for certain jobs that will help them to fulfil their certain needs. The incorporation of theory in predicting one's occupation will be explained by using Roe's Circular Model.
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In term of findings, Holland found that there are six basic types of work environments in U.S. society; RIASEC. There are six corresponding modal personal orientations; the way the person typically responds to environmental demands; RIASEC. People achieve the most work satisfaction when their work environment matches their modal personal orientation.
R / REALISTIC
Realistic people are doers. They are independent, stable, persistent, genuine, practical and thrifty. They prefer to deal with things rather than ideas or people. They are no-nonsense, matter-of-fact, down to earth individuals. They excel at tasks that are tactile, motoric, physical, athletic or mechanical. They value things that are natural, concrete and tangible. They like the outdoors, tools, machines, animals and working with their hands. (Farmer, Carpenter, Naturalist, Athlete, Police Officer, Military Personnel, Forester, Landscaper, Mechanic, Sculptor, Veterinarian, Chef, Surgeon, Plumber, Electrician, Pilot, Fire Fighter, Repairer, Animal Breeder, Animal Trainer, Steelworker, Miner)
I / INVESTIGATIVE
Investigative people are thinkers. They are intellectual, introspective, introverted and inquisitive. They are curious, methodical, rational, analytical and precise. They excel at tasks that are scholarly, abstract, scientific, medical or technical. They enjoy activities that involve thought, observation, investigation, exploration, discovery and exploration. They are avid readers. They like to solve puzzles, perform experiments and engage in research. (Biologist, Chemist, Anthropologist, Sociologist, Historian, Scientist, Medical Doctor, Botanist, Meteorologist, Astronomer, Environmental Analyst, Pharmacist, Optometrist, Dentist, Engineer, Economist, Dietitian, Psychiatrist, Nurse, Coroner, Lab Technician)
A / ARTISTIC
Artistic people are creators. They are intuitive, sensitive, articulate, expressive and creative. They are unstructured, original and nonconforming. They rely on feelings and imagination. They like to work with abstractions, ideas, concepts and ambiguities. They are emotional, spontaneous and open-minded. They excel at tasks that are literary, verbal, visual and aesthetic. They like art, music, dance, drawing, painting, sculpting, drafting, drama, writing, communications, design and fashion. (Singer, Writer, Dancer, Interior Designer, Painter, Actor, Copy Writer, Playwright, Musician, Composer, Poet, Clothing Designer, Architect, Sketch Artist, Illustrator, Graphic Designer, Printmaker, Cartoonist, Comedian, Choreographer, Photographer)
S / SOCIAL
Social people are helpers. They are kind, generous, cooperative, patient, caring, helpful, empathetic, tactful and friendly. They excel at socializing, helping others and teaching. They like tasks that involve teamwork, social interaction, building relationships, and the improvement of society. They enjoy activities that are public, humanitarian, developmental, educational, philanthropic, altruistic, interpersonal and service oriented. (Teacher, Counselor, Social Worker, Therapist, Nurse, Care Giver, Psychologist, Minister, Priest, Rabbi, Recruiter, Interviewer, Child Care Worker, Home Economist, Arbitrator, Facilitator, Sociologist, Bartender, Homemaker)
E / ENTERPRISING
Enterprising people are leaders. They are adventurous, ambitious, assertive, extroverted, energetic, enthusiastic, confident and optimistic. They are dominant, persuasive and motivational. They are promoters. They generally have a contagious or charismatic personality. They excel at business, management, economics, politics, public speaking and salesmanship. Being adventurous and willing to take risks, they possess an entrepreneurial spirit. They like influencing others by guiding, encouraging, directing, preaching, competing or debating. (Politician, Lawyer, Preacher, Coach, Salesperson, Manager, Public Relations Specialist, Promoter, Event Planner, Trainer, Instructor, Consultant, Supervisor, Entertainer, Newscaster, Director, Lobbyist, Buyer, Administrator)
C / CONVENTIONAL
Conventional people are organizers. They are conscientious and conservative. They are logical, efficient, orderly and organized. They are thorough and detail oriented. They are reliable. They enjoy practical tasks, quantitative measurements, conventional environments and structured situations. They like to work with data and numbers. They like process, procedures, regulations, standards, and rules. They excel at accounting, computer abilities, and clerical skills. They like mathematics, office settings and statistical tasks. (Accountant, Secretary, Banker, Teller, Collector, Bookkeeper, Computer Programmer, Inspector, Auditor, Mathematician, Statistician, Financial Analyst, Data Processor, Scheduler, Filer, Typist, Tax Preparer, Account Analyst, Budget Clerk)
However, in term of Ann Roe's Theory, Anne Roe suggested that there are 6 occupational level within the 8 fields of occupation.
Level 1: Professional and managerial (higher)
Have independent responsibility in important aspect, they are involve in the making of pilicy in an organauzation
Possessed master's degree or doctor of philisophy
Level 2: Professional and managerial (regular)
Have medium level responsibility, for self and others; e.g. policy interpretation
Possessed bachelor's degree
Have low level responsibility for others; application of policy, or determination for self only Possessed diploma
Level 4: Skilled
Responsibilities are less autonomy and less initiative permitted
Possessed a certificates
Level 5: Semi-skilled
Responsibilities are less autonomy and less initiative permitted
Need informal practices
Level 6: Unskilled
Responsibilities are less autonomy and less initiative are permitted
Do not need specific academic qualification
The 6 levels of performance in Roe's occupational classification system are based on:
Responsibility in the label of work
Capacity and skills required for the level of work
Complexity of decision making in the level of work
The higher the level, the more responsibility, more skills are required, complexity of decision making will increase (Roe & Klos, 1972)
Figure 1: Basic Comparison of Ann Roe's Model and Holland Model
Holland Theory Model
Another difference between the models was demonstrated on the basic principle.
According to Ann Roe's work can satisfy needs in different ways. The Occupational groups includes:
Service (something for another person);
Business contact (selling and supplying services);
Organisation (management in business, industry and government);
Technology (product maintenance, transportation of commodities & utilities);
Outdoors (cultivating, preserving & gathering natural resources);
Science (scientific theory and its application);
General culture (preserving and transmitting cultural heritage) &
Arts and Entertainment (creative art and entertainment).
However, Holland focuses on four key concepts:
Congruence: compatibility between personality type & environment
Consistency: similarity among types/ environments
Differentiation: degree to which a person/ environment is clearly defined
Identity: extent to which a person has a clear self perception of his/her characteristics and gaols, and to the degree of stability which an occupational environment provides.
3. Each student will select one professional article on career development to critique. Your critique should contain four sections: a) title, b) short summary of the content, c)your opinion/critique of the article, including strengths and weaknesses, d) your recommendations for further study by researchers in the field. (25 marks)
A Systemic Approach to Career Development at McDonald's
b) Short summary of the content
High-engagement approach is applied by Mc Donald's in USA to improve both their operations leadership pipeline and employee satisfaction with their career growth. This approach is initiated by the top management. However, the strategies are supported by middle-management employees. In this article, the authors has identified the approach used embodies McDonald's cultural values of partnership, collaboration, and openness, and effectively ensured that a critical mass of over 100 field officers and 3,000 middle managers embraced the change.
c) Your opinion/critique of the article, including strengths and weaknesses
d) Your recommendations for further study by researchers in the field
This research article is based on qualitative research method. Case study methodology is used in the research is a single case approach. Case studies can be either a single-case design or a multiple-case design. According to Yin (1994), a single-case design is ideal for studying unique or extreme cases, to confirm or challenge a theory or for cases where the researcher did not have access to before. However, the researcher should be careful not to misrepresent what was observed.
The following are some types of data collection techniques employed in this case studies (Stake, 1995 and Yin, 1994). The interview is applied in this research. Researcher has interview the top management and middle management at McDonald. The interview is an important technique for data collection and there are two forms of interview are applied in the research, closed or structured Interviews and open-ended Interviews. Open-ended interviews allow subjects to express themselves more freely and insight into events.
Besides, observations techniques are used to study the attitude and behaviour of the management and their employees. This direct observation of the employees on satisfaction towards leadership was applied.
The researcher used letters, memos, agendas, administrative documents, newspaper articles and any other relevant documents to analyse the operation leadership pipeline. Documents are useful for making inferences about events. Documents are communications between persons in the study.
The author has successfully identity the research gap in the journal. The first reason was there are no other studies that have used systemic approach in career development especially in fast food industry. Besides, the objective of this research is rather direct that to study how high-engagement approach to improve both operation leadership pipeline and employee satisfaction.
To enhance the writing up for this journal, author can consider providing a small paragraph to indicate the construct or operation definition for culture short and social support. Reader would have a clearer picture how the construct does by providing the operational definition.
The author has given a clear and depth discussion in the approach used by McDonald to career development. The area of discussion includes talent management imperative, task force chartered, open, meaningful dialogue across solos, getting broader leadership input and support, the content of the change: a systemic approach. The author supported the discussion with the various previous researches.
In the last session of this journal, the author has identified the limitation of the studies and future directions. I feel the discussion on the limitation is not thoroughly considered. Even the research design of cohort studies was mentioned, however the various types of bias was ignored. The limitation of specifying and selecting study sample, non-response, volunteer bias, bogus control bias should be discussed. Besides, the author should take care of limitation in measuring exposure and outcome. Obsequiousness bias, expectation bias and errors that could occur during recording the transcribing data should be fully discuss in the last session.
However, the author has given a very clear future direction for other researcher to follow so that they can contribute to the knowledge gap. More researches should be conducted in the area of career development in systemic approach so that a strong fundamental will be provided to support the theory in this area.
In my opinion, a quantitative study should be used to study the relationship between leadership and the employees' satisfaction. Besides, the cross sectional studies should be conducted to look at various area in career development of the staffs including talent management, training, career planning and others.
As conclusion, this journal article provides a good fundamental background for the reader to understand the concept of systemic approach and career development. By understand the concept of systemic approach and career development, intervention program can be done to help to employees to develop a secure career planning in the organisation.
4. Apply a career development theory to your own career development. Using Super's developmental stages, identify your current stage of development and the ages at which you accomplished other stages.(25 marks)
I would apply Holand approach in my career development. This approach gives explicit attention to behavioral style or personality types as the major influence in career choice development. This is described as structurally interactive.
Family influences, to a certain degree, the development of personality types. For example, my parents promotes investigative abilities, could favour the development of an investigative type personality. Parents pass on some hereditary characteristics that can influence the development of certain personality types. Since my parents are from medical field, I was strongly influenced by them. Also, the family unit is a member of a certain social context. This social context can also participate in the development of certain personality traits
According to Holand, there are 6 types of personality traits.
Realistic - work with hands, machines, tools, active, practical, adventurous
Prefer concrete occupations (e.g.: carpentry) that are relatively solitary and do require a lot of interaction with people
Their range of interests is relatively restricted. They limit their relations and seek people who share the same values, interests and beliefs as they do
Values and career objectives
Possess traditional values and prefer to work within an institutional setting
Have many ambitions and see the practical side of things
Rather close minded when it comes to changing their belief system or their values
Investigative - thought, analytical approaches, explore, knowledge, ideas, not social
Prefer activities that require observation, systematic investigation of natural, biological, cultural, medical or technical phenomenons
They seek to understand and control what is happening
This type does not invest much in social or interpersonal activities
Values and career objectives
Their values influence them to seek academic activities where they can feel a sense of autonomy and personal independence
They are intellectuals who like logic and can be ambitious. Their belief system is open
However, family, security and friendship are values that are less important to them
Artistic - literary, musical, artistic activities, emotional, creative, open
Prefer artistic activities and avoid conventional type activities
Like to socialise with people who have similar values and belief systems as they do, and avoid people who do not
Values and career objectives
Believe aesthetics are very important. They have an expressive, courageous and imaginative personality
Avoid conformity and servility
Belief system is very open - open to new ideas and to the feelings of others
Social - train, inform, educate, help, supportive, avoid technical skills, empathy, relationships
Prefer occupations with social requirements
Avoid more realistic type activities
Associate with people who share similar values and beliefs as they do
Values and career objectives
Like to serve others in a medical, institutional or community setting
Want to help and believe in equal opportunities
Are not attracted to the world of ideas or logic
Find spiritual values important
Enterprising - verbally skilled, persuasive, direct, leader, dominant
Prefer activities that put their business skills to work
Like to develop in the business world
Avoid activities that require research or investigative work. Prefer to be with people who share similar values and beliefs as they do
Values and career objectives
They have a traditional belief and value system
Strive to become leaders and manage others
They are very ambitious
They take pride in their physical appearance and aim to climb the social ladder
Conventional - rules and routines, provide order or direct structure, great self control, respect power and status, punctual, orderly
Prefer conventional type activities like accounting, finances or administration
Avoid artistic type activities
Like to be with people who are similar to them and avoid people who are different
The diagram summarises the characteristics of the Holland type of expression.
Holland Types are usually expressed in 3 letters- Ex: RIA
Most Masculine Types -- R & E Most Prestigious Types -- I & E
Most Feminine Types -- A & S Least Prestigious Types --R & C
From my profile, I found that I belong to IRS. Hence, it represents the career I am doing now as a medical specialist.
Super Developmental Stage
Vocational development is the process of developing and implementing a self-concept. As the self-concept becomes more realistic and stable, so does vocational choice and behavior. People choose occupations that permit them to express their self-concepts. Work satisfaction is related to the degree that they've been able to implement their self-concepts.Career maturity includes readiness to cope with developmental tasks at a given stage. It is both affective and cognitive. Most career education programs have been affected by Super's ideas. They provide gradual exposure to self-concepts and work concepts in curriculum that represents Super's ideas of career development/vocational maturity. (National Career Development Guideline Standards)
I am currently at establishment stage. (25 - 40 year old). In this age, the major tasks are to find secure niche in one's field and advance within it. I have found my permanent and appropriate field of work when working and establishing my work in the field of medical. Besides, I have expanded my field of working in the area of business, consultancy and training.
These years are considered to be the most productive and creative years of the life span. I am able to work for more than 24 hours without sleep to complete a task. The energetic during this stage motivates us to work under stress and pressure.
Not only that, in this trial and stabilization stage, I have undergone the process of settling down, if unsatisfactory may make 1-2 more changes before the right job is found. I have been trying to work in various environment including private and government sectors. After trying various working environment, I learn a few concept and decided not to work for any organisation and work for my own. I believe a concept that, if working in an organisation, the maximum they are able to pay me is RM 10 000. However, if I work for several organisation, I am very sure it would be more than working singularly in one organisatiom. It is proven now that I have multiple income.
During this stage I begin to support myself and my family. I have to start to buy my own belongings like properties, car and investment in share markets. I start to understand the tangible assets and intangible assets. All these development enable me to appreciate the real concept of self dependency. Besides, I begin to develop a lifestyle, make use of their abilities and past training. I also begin to become involved in meaningful interests.
It further to advancement where the efforts directed at securing one's position, acquiring seniority, developing skills, demonstrating superior performance, resume building actions. I have tried to development myself by attending various conferences, writing various journals articles to be published in order to establish myself in my career. Besides, I start to write in various magazines and books to create my personal branding in the organisation. After several years of hard work, my name can be googled and it is popular among bloggers internationally.
In addition, I begin to become more focused on my place in their occupation. Job title, remuneration has become my main focus on all tasks in my career. Not only that, I start to become interested in my work security and advancement. I create my own company and ensure the company has the fix income and passive income to support my expenses. Besides, before investing further, I would ensure my budgeting is done completely so that I would run into financial crisis. Hence, I also have the expectation that they will become financially stable and move towards challenging levels of responsibility and independence. Sometimes, this stage may become very frustrating if advancement is not forth coming
In short, in this stage I realise that I become stable in a chosen occupation, consolidating chosen occupation and continue with my advancement. All these inline with the Super theory that the stage of development and the ages at my current age.