ICT has so many advantages in the learning and teaching process. Classroom management is one of them that gained benefits from ICT. According to experienced teachers who use ICT in their classrooms that ICT may make the classroom controlling more effortless because ICT provides materials that make the class more interesting and easy to control (Cox and Webb, 2004). The existence of several sorts of ICT tools gives the class other support of learning especially in terms of visual and auditory learning. Thus the definition of classroom management "Content management occurs when teachers manage space, materials, equipment, the movement of people, and lessons that are part of a curriculum or program of studies" (Froyen & Iverson, 1999, p. 128). This managing will lead to organizing student's behavior.
Jacob Kounin (1970) has vital studies about effective classroom management, which obtained to systematic results in classroom management techniques. Also, he found critical dimensions of effective class control containing the following issues:
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" 'withitness': teachers know what each pupil is doing; they have 'eyes in the back of their heads' so are able to pay attention to several things at the same time;
Letting pupils know what behavior is expected of them at any given point in time;
Smoothness: teachers are able to guide pupil behavior verbally or non- verbally without having to interrupt teaching;
Maintaining group focus and interest."
Leask and Pachler(2005:44)
ICT is beneficial for teachers too, to discipline student's deportments in the class. In "withitness" teachers never are busy with other things in the class while answering a question or other activities (Leask and Pachler, 2005). They should pay their attention to students behaviour even they observe them out of the corner of their eye, it will be good. In addition, students know what they are going to do next time. Finally, in "smoothness" teachers use efficient techniques that guide students in a way, which does not lead to a noisy atmosphere in the class, but without interrupting teaching process.
ICT and Motivation:
The British educational communications and technology agency (Becta, 2003) has a research about ICT and motivation, which reports that regular use of ICT across various curriculum subjects, may have a useful motivational impact on students learning (cited in Cox, 1997). It is clear that students stand more time in front of their tasks by using ICT like computer than other methods such as: classic method, which was manual, which is manual. ICT may solve discipline problems and decrease them. Moreover, students who used ICT for educational reasons in school feel more successful were more motivated to learn and have raised self-confidence and self-esteem (cited in Software and information industry association 2000). For example, while writing a paragraph by hand there is no grammar check to correct mistakes, but while ICT programs such as Microsoft Office word, which will detect most of the spelling and grammar mistakes. This process will encourage and motivate students certainly.
Leask and Pachler, 2005 refer that the impaCT2 project evaluated the motivation of students through 15 case studies in their books. Researchers found that ICT not only encourages students to become more concentrated on the task. ICT also was seen by some teachers to improve both the competency and cognitive functioning (Cited in Comber et al., 2002, p. 9).
Effective learning and teaching with ICT:
In the late of 20th century and with the beginning of 21st century, ICT has played roles from simple to vital roles especially in developed country's school. Learning and teaching process become more effective by using ICT.
"The use of ICT has developed in different ways to meet the needs of learners in different curricular areas. The use of ICT can:
â€¢ help learners be creative;
â€¢ be a useful aid to problem solving;
â€¢ provide ready access to a world of knowledge and research; and
â€¢ improve the quality of presentation."
(2004, p. 7)
ICT assisted students to be more creative in their learning process and it is a beneficial support for problem solving by using different ICT facilities such as: software programs, Internet, and printer. Today, learners have thousands of resources by using ICT in condition while sitting in their home not by searching for knowledge in libraries. Presentations became visual and auditory for students in addition to using software programs like power point. However, all these factors need effective teachers and managements or administrators to apply and achieve these effective benefits on students.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
"The educational effectiveness of ICTs depends on how they are used and for what purpose. And like any other educational tool or mode of educational delivery, ICTs do not work for everyone, everywhere in the same way." (Tinio(2002), p. 19). The useful use of ICT in educational and pedagogical fields changes from person to person and from place to place. It bases on how they are practiced and for which reason. Undoubtedly, some educators use technology in particular computer and the Internet more efficiently than others. They know very well how they use it and when or where and for which occasion. Hence, teaching students the effective use of ICT especially in enhancing access and raising quality is another reason to promote students performance by using ICT and gaining more.
The Barriers or Obstacles to the development and integration of ICT in education
"In the twentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties including integration of information and communication technologies into the teaching and learning, education curriculum and change in methods in pursuit of developing learner lifelong learning skills" (Sabaliauskas and Pukelis, p. 1). Undoubtedly, this is a complex process to change the system of learning and teaching from a traditional method to ICT method. Some people like (Schoepp, 2005) called difficulties as "barriers". A barrier is defined as "any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective" (Schoepp, 2005, p. 2).
"There are many barriers or difficulties that stand up in front of the development of ICT in education. Teacher-level barriers are lack of teacher confidence, competence and resistance to change & negative attitudes. Also, there are school-level barriers, which are lack of time, lack of effective training, lack of accessibility, and lack of technical support" (Bingimlas, 2009, p. 237- 241)
Disadvantages of ICT
Obviously, there are several kinds of drawbacks of ICT in the classroom or outside classroom. The costs of equipments are so expensive that prevent more schools to purchase. Sometimes, students engage with ICT tools for other purposes. Also, ICT is not safe usually for saving data and information because the potential errors may occur in the Windows program or other software programs and hacking by others.
"The following disadvantages give a list of objectives that staff and facilitators may be required to deal with should problems occur throughout using the ICT equipment.
(Anon, 2008, http://www.newman.ac.uk/Students_websites/~s.r.i.whitton/Advantages%20&%20disadvantages.htm)
Integrating ICT throughout the curriculum
Jhurree (2005) states that the educational and pedagogical mend happen throughout the world to promote educational level. The integration of ICT in education system is one of them. The effective integration of ICT into classroom needs a systematic plan and scheme. Also, it depends on the policy makers how well understand the dynamics of integrating of ICT. Yet, ICT has been a complex issue because it will change the education completely.
"The difference that ICT will make in education is conditioned by what education wants to realize with ICT in the context of its needs and strategic ends. The educators must have developed the practice. It begins by good planning that provides the real state of the learners based on globally accepted curricular standards. The value of the ICT tools to make a difference is dependent on the educator's identification of the instructional outcomes, methods and materials that ICT can bring efficiently and effectively deliver for the teachers and the learners"
(Macasio, J. (2008), http://aralaneteacher.ning.com/forum/topics/integrating-ict-in-teaching)
Levine (1998) emphasises that the significance of planning, which is based on serious school needs then to be achievable and realistic. The scheme or policy should be practical to solve or change the school situation and to improve learning environments that will be effective. "To attain objectives that have not been attained efficiently otherwise: expanding access, promoting equality, improving the internal efficiency of educational systems, enhancing the quality of education, and preparing new and old generations for a technology-driven market place" (Haddad and Jurich, 2002, p. 47). The integrating ICT into education offers many useful factors such as: an evolved learning environment for learners by giving motivation that make them to work with instruction interestingly and efficiently. ICT has the capability for making instruction easier, more challenging and motivating for teachers. Nowadays, it is possible to contact with people throughout the world by using ICT especially computer and the Internet.
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"Teachers play a crucial professional role in ensuring that the integration of ICT into pedagogies is educationally sound. They evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of available technologies, deciding when and how to use them with their students."(MCEETYA (2005), p. 4). Teachers integrating ICT into their education need suitable learning activities and facilities to: motivate, engage, and personalize learning. Also, developing ICT literacy establishes communities of learning.
ICT and assessment
Previously, teachers were assessing their students in different methods such as: exam, quiz, writing essay, assignments, and oral exams, but all these methods were inside the class. Nowadays, information communication technology has changed the situation by using computer and the Internet but it is in the beginning of the loop. Students can send their assignment to their teacher by e-mail or exams and also (open-book; structured; timed).
"Participation in online discussions
Publication of student work /presentations
Experiential activities, such as role-play
Journals and reflection"
These are all methods that give students an opportunity to access online and share their ideas and requirements?
"As can be seen, assessment opportunities making use of the web are still rather similar to non-computerized methods and often only use computer communication to submit or comment on students' work in traditional ways. Where computer - testing per se is used it often comprises short answers and multiple- choice questions"
Leask and Pachler(2005:136)