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In this chapter, the writer will discuss action research, classroom action research, benefits of classroom action research, models of classroom action research, teacherââ‚¬â„¢s competences, and responses.
Action research is a self inquiry which is done by people in a field in order to analyze their own problem and to seek the solution as well. As cited in Hopkins (2002: 43), Kemmis defined action research as "a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in a social (including educational) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices, (b) their understanding of these practices, and (c) the situation in which practices are carried out."
From statement above, it can be concluded that action research assists the researcher in improving their ability in doing their job, their understanding of the field, and the situation which exists in their field, objectively. In the same book also cited that Elliot defined action research as the study of a social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it. Then Rapoport, as cited in Hopkins (2002: 42-43), said that action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns af people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social scients by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework.
As other research practices, action research has systematic steps to do. Metler (2009: 4) proposes four steps of basic process of conducting action research as: identifying an area of focus, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting the data, and developing a plan of action.
Classroom Action Research
Classroom action research is a self inquiry which is done by an education practitioner, especially teacher, in their own classroom in order to analyze their own teaching learning process and to seek the most appropriate teaching learning process to the class. As stated by Phillips, et al (2006: 10), action research "is simply defined as a form of research that is practitioner based." Classroom action research must be done by the teacher who knows the classroom well to analyze the arising problem as well the solution. Research here means to note down the ongoing process, to data the evidence and details as objective as possible. As the researcher, the teacher must be able to daily recognize what is happening in their classroom, realize what deserves preservation, and discover what needs improvement or change.
Benefits of Classroom Action Research
Classroom action research gives some benefits for the education practitioners and also for the education itself. Generally, the result of classroom action research, of course, gives a proper exposition and report of concrete situation of teaching learning process where the research is conducted. Classroom action research does not have final result, instead, cycling process which allows researcher to seek and find the actual teaching learning improvement which is appropriate to the situation at the time.
For the teacher themselves, classroom action research helps them in investigating problem encountered in class and finding the solution. Giving the appropriate and effective teaching learning process to students is the major responsibility of a teacher as cited in .... Providing appropriate and effective teaching learning process, a teacher should know, exactly, the concrete situation af the class. A teacher is not only a practitioner who does what is commanded by school principal or minister of education. Besides that, the teacher should also be able to try varied method in teaching learning. By conducting classroom action research, the process of trying and seeking methods becomes terarah with scientific research. Doing classroom action research in seeking appropriate and effective teaching learning, teacher uses systematic strategy for collecting information from the setting. What is being observed must not be random but be guided by the questions posed or the problem needing to be solved. Through a sufficient number of objective data, the classroom researcher is prepared to build valid inferences from a reliable, rich data base of direct research in natural setting.
Moreover, a teacher must have a reflective thinking. As stated by Lasley in Bella (2004: 19), teacher's reflection is an ability to think creatively, imaginatively, and at times, self-critically about their classroom activities. All teachers need to engage in this type of reflection to strengthen their teaching learning. The process of research also allows teacher getting use to analyzing classroom scientifically and objectively based on detailed evidence. From the first step of conducting CAR, initiating idea, teacher is needed to recall facts of classroom from their experiences and list the problems encountered. Next, teacher tries a method as a problem solution based on previous study or other references. Here, teacher is obligated to have background knowledge about the problem encountered from reading or discussing with experienced. Then teacher observes the ongoing method by collecting data. Teacher must be able to distinguish between pertinent and not pertinent variable to method implication. Teacher also notes down how is the method is implemented at class. From the data collected, teacher concludes and interprets the method implication, failure, and effect to teaching learning. These steps lead teacher to practice their logic to observe situation methodologically and objectively.
In Indonesia, conducting research and reporting the result is one condition of kenaikan jabatan. Classroom action research can be used to fulfill the condition required. As stated in Peraturan Menteri Negara Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara Nomor 16 tahun 2009 tentang Jabatan Fungsional Guru pasal 17, teacher should produce their own scientific writing and publish it to fulfill one of the requirements of kenaikan jabatan from jabatan fungsional guru pertama to guru muda.
For educational field, classroom action research can initiate and develop teacher's pasion in conducting reseach to solve problems. Classroom action research is a research that teachers do based on their daily activities in their own classroom. From their basic environment, teachers can getting use theirselves to logic and scientific problem solving. When teachers are used to logic and scientific problem solving, it will be easier for them to share and discuss to each other about educational problems. It is because the solution found is not based on teacher's personal judgement but is investigated from objective and acceptable way which is research.
Those varied benefits of classroom action research are supported by Rapoport, as cited in Hopkins (2002: 42-43), who said that action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social scientist by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. It can be concluded that classroom action research is necessary to not only problem-solving but also the development of science itself.
Model of Action Research
Some practitioners proposed model of classroom action research in different charts and terms. Nevertheless, in general, there are four steps to do in conducting action research, which are planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The steps are a cyclical process which is pertinent to each other. As stated by Kember (2000: 25) that action research is a cyclical or spiral process with four steps; planning, acting, observing and reflecting.
The first step of classroom action research is planning. In this step, the writer explains and exposes about what, why, where, when, by whom and how the research is conducted. Before that, the writer, of course, must have, in their mind, problem-to-discuss or new method-to-try as background of the research. The background of the research should be based on the writer's daily experiences. The writer, then, exposes and explains it in the methodological writing.
In collaborative research, team can discuss together whose experience will be observed, who will be the researcher and who will be the teacher (the practitioner do the action). Collaborative research can decrease subjectivity by the researcher because the researcher is not the practitioner themselves. If the observation is done by other person, the observation will be more objective and rigorous.
The second step of classroom action research is the action or implementation of planning. In this step, practitioner must follow and obey the plan, but still be natural in classroom.
Next is observation which is done by the researcher. This step is actually done while the action is going. Action and observation cannot be separated and mostly done at the same time. While implementing method, the researcher observes the process, strengths, weaknesses, and possible traits, and notes them down.
In collaborative research, practitioner can do the action (teaching and learning) without bothered by the process of observation because there is other person being a researcher and collecting data.
2.5.1. Pedagogic Competence
2.5.2. Professional Competence
2.5.3. Personal Competence