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private secondary schools. Keeping in view, the slogan of the day that quality waslowering in our schools, it was need of the day to compare thequality of education of public and privately managed schools to the factual position.Without improving the quality of education, we cannot keep pace with the modern era.
The concept of quality in every field is a complex concept. It is complex in
nature, elements, components, and every respect. Quality is the most honorable but the
slipperiest term in the field of education. Sometimes it is used in evaluative sense, for
example as scale of goodness. Sometimes it is implied to seek some distinguishing
characteristics. The quality in education refers to the standard of management,
educational facilities, curriculum, methods of teaching, students, exanimation system,
teaching staff etc.
The quality of education is poor at all levels in developing and under
developed countries, Iqbal (1987) stated that "Students in developing countries have a
mean level of achievement below that in industrial countries and their performance
shows a much greater variation around the mean". According to a report of the World
Bank (1999), the main ways in which governments can help to improve the quality of
education are setting standards, supporting inputs to improve, achievements, adopting
flexible strategies for the acquisition and use of inputs, and monitoring performance.
Generally the spaces are not taken because of the weight of the existing education speeding and management practices. Learning requires five inputs: the students learning capacity and motivation, the subject to be learned, teacher who has good knowledge of subject can teach that subject, time for learning and tools for teaching and learning.
Pakistan appeared on the map of the world on 14th of August 1947 and inherited its system of education from British colonial era. There were two types of educationalinstitutions which were working at the time of independence insub-continent, i.e. DeniMadaris and Formal Schools set-up by the BritishGovernment.
The National Education Policy (1998) presents statistically the picture of
educational institutes of that time. For example, Pakistan inherited two Universities,2,900 primary schools in East Pakistan and 5,500 primary schools in West Pakistan outof 39,000 primary schools which were present at that time in the Subcontinent.Moreover, the new-born country inherited 83 colleges, 3 engineering colleges and 71Agriculture/Technical institutions. India received the lion's share of the financial and military resources. But to make matters worse India received the bulk of the skilled manpower because most of the industry and commercial institutions were on the Indianside of the border (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998). After the emergence of Pakistan the firstthing felt was to develop the system of education for an independent and sovereignIslamic state.
Q1. Why do not people send their children in Schools?
Q2. Why people are unable to bear the dues of schools?
Q3. Why are facilities not fully available in Pakistani Schools?
Q4. How can we increase the literacy rate of people in Pakistan?
Significance of the Research:
ï‚§ï€ Public schools have large, spacious and according to standard school buildings.
ï‚§ï€ Teachers are permanent, highly qualified and trained. All facilities including building, hall, library, furniture and utilities like electricity, water supply, and gas etc are provided and financed by government.
ï‚§ï€ Education is totally free up to matriculation level. Public schools enroll the majority of students belonging to middle and lower middle class families. Education is better at secondary level than private schools. Public schools have larger class size.
The internal efficiency of an education system is related to the improvement of
modern facilities, because physical facilities at school level had a very positive impact
on the performance of the students. There is a vital role of academic institutions, qualified staff, and facilities which were helpful in the uplift of the child. EDO (Executive District Officer) and DEO (District Education Officer) must ensure the provision of physical facilities to the schools' in theirrespective districts for the improvement of quality education at primary level in the country.
Facilities in Schools:
The number of rooms depends on the facilities provided in the school. Normally each section of the class should have a separate room.We can divide the schoolrooms in to the following three categories:
1. Instruction Room, the classrooms and laboratories.
2. Non-instruction rooms, as headmaster's office clerks office, staff-room, library room etc
3. Miscellaneous room as tuck shop, store, water rooms etc.
Playgrounds are necessary for out-door activates. In Pakistan the necessity of grounds is even more apparent as most of the school buildings are outdated and in hygienic. This deficiency could only be compensated with the playgrounds.
Each classroom should have sufficient number of desks or benches for the students. The arrangement of the desks should be such that light be cost on them form the left.
A good library is a necessity in a school. No school can function successfully
without a well-equipped library. It is necessary both for teachers and taught. Every teacher should devote enough time in studying he various books to elaborate his lessons and also increase his general knowledge. Extra reading is very useful for children also. Library books are more interesting and attractive but they are as useful as textbooks as for as learning is concerned. The library books elaborate the lessons of the textbooks. Without library facilities, the textbooks become dry and difficult.
The science laboratory should be adequately equipped with the modern scientific equipment and chemicals that are needed at the secondary stage.
Preliminary Literature Review:
IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION:
Education is a powerful catalyzing agent, which provides mental, physical,
ideological and moral training to individuals, so as to enable them to have fullconsciousness of their mission, of their purpose in life and to equip them to achievethat purpose. It is an instrument for the spiritual development as well as the materialfulfillment of human beings. With in the context of Islamic - perception, education isan instrument for developing the attitudes of individuals in accordance with the valueof righteousness to help build a sound Islamic society (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998).
Education plays an important role in human resource development. It raises the
productivity, efficiency of individuals and produce skilled manpower that is capable ofleading the economic development. Importance of Education for human resourcedevelopment does not need any justification and clarification. The developed countriesattach highest priority to education; same is the case with the developing countries.The constitution of Pakistan accepts education as one of the fundamental rights of acitizen as well as constitutional commitment of the government accepts to provideaccess to education to every citizen (Govt. of Pakistan, 2000).
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN:
The education system in Pakistan consisted of a number of stages, primary,
middle secondary, higher secondary/intermediate, and college and university levels.
These categories overlap and so does the administration of institutions overlap in each
category. For example, there are schools/colleges offering education from nursery to
degree level (class XIV), even to masters' level. Principals of such colleges areresponsible for over all administration of the colleges. But staff of that college/schoolmay be under the directorate of schools or colleges for the purpose of transfers,promotions and posting etc. The structure of formal education system in Pakistan canbe summarized as following.
Level Schooling Age
1. Primary Five years 5-9 years
2. Middle Three 10-13
3. Secondary Two 14-15
4. Higher Secondary/Intermediate Two 16-17
5. Higher (College) Two 18-19
6. Higher (University) Two to Five 20 and above
Objectives of Education:
The National Association of Secondary School Principals identified following goals for secondary education.
ï‚·ï€ All youth need to develop salable skills and those understandings and attitudes that make the worker an intelligent and productive participant in economic life.
ï‚·ï€ All youth need to develop and maintain good health and physical fitness.
ï‚·ï€ All youth need to understand the rights and duties of the citizen of a democratic society and to be diligent and competent in the performance of their obligations as members of the community and citizens of the state and nation.
ï‚·ï€ All youth need to understand the methods of science, the influence of science on human life, and the main scientific facts concerning the nature of the world and of man.
ï‚·ï€ All youth need opportunities to develop their capacities to appreciate beauty in literature, art, music and nature.
ï‚·ï€ All youth need to develop respect for other persons to grow in their insight into ethical values and principles, and to be able to live and work cooperative with others.
The major purpose of the study was to compare the quality of education in
Public and Private secondary schools of Pakistan. For this, survey was conducted to get the opinions of the respondents. Hence, the nature of study was descriptive type. Following methods and procedures wereadopted to conduct this proposed research.
All the schools in public and private sector of Pakistan, their heads,
secondary school teachers and students constituted the population of thestudy.
Random sampling technique is used and description of sample is as follow.
Sample of Schools:
Total two hundred and sixteen secondary schools in public and private sector
(twenty- four secondary schools from each sample district) were randomly selected.The proportion of public sector schools and private sector schools, boys and girlsschools was fifty- fifty.
Sample of Heads:
All the heads of already sampled 216 secondary schools of public and private
sector (the proportion of public sector schools and private sector schools, boys andgirls schools was equal) included in sample.
Sample of Teachers:
One thousand and eighty teachers teaching secondary classes (120 teachers
from each sample district) were randomly selected in which proportion of male femaleteachers was fifty fifty. In such a way that from each sample district, the proportion ofthe public and private and male and female teachers are equal.
Sample of Students:
Four thousand three hundred and twenty students (480 students from each
sampled district) were randomly selected in which proportion of male female studentswas fifty fifty. In such a way that from each sample district the proportion of thepublic and private and male and female students were equal.
The study revealed that private sector schools had actually less number of
students and teachers at secondary level as compared to public sector schools. With respect to ownership of building almost 98% public sector schools had their own buildings while majority of private schools were running in rented buildings. In public schools, studentteacher ratio was higher than private schools.The quality of education is the most burning issue of the day. Administration is considered to be the most important ingredient of any organization, for it serves as the asset for the most previous assets of the nations which are educational institutions. The entire study reveals that heads of private sector secondary schools are better than heads of public sector secondary schools regarding involvement of other staff in decision making, keeping themselves as a part of team while leading them and carrying out the tasks in a well organized fashion.