Approaches of learning and different styles of learning

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This essay discusses the factor that affect to the motivation in context of education, defines the approaches of learning and styles of learning also it covers the groups work such as benefits, types and discuss problems that faced groups. First, I will talk about the incentives for learning and motivation to study master degree at the University of Bangor. Then I discuss the methods, principles of learning and which approach I adopted in the learning process. Finally I will talk about the groups work, how can we used it to achieve our goals and how to overcome the problems in the groups.

I graduated from Computer Man College for computer studies at computer science department in Sudan. The highlighting for my studies was to learn the primary of electronic principles such as programming languages, how to assembly the computers or other devices and how to maintain it. During these studies at the university I have learned the basics of techniques and methods that we use in our world these days. I planned to continue my higher study in a famous university out of my country that has different cultures and good knowledge. This experience will allow me to get more skills such as languages and thoughts.

I was happy to get selected as an engineer at Information Technology Department in Faisal Islamic Bank Sudan. Faisal Islamic Bank is the one of the best banks of the investment in Sudan. In addition the Faisal Islamic Bank is the one of the best banks in my country interested with staff development as it is to send employees outside the country to study and get qualify. This will allow employees to increase their knowledge and exchange ideas with others. On other side is characterized by the renaissance for the staff to the Europe countries for example United Kingdom to gain knowledge, languages and new cultures.

Theories of motivation

Motivation can be defined as the process of achieving the goals of individuals through the decision-making and what it takes to develop the individual through the use of a particular behavior to achieve these goals (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

Deci and Ryan (1985) Individuals are more willing and enthusiastic in the stimulation and is concentrated in the self-motivation through self-determination and are most of these motives in the context of education.

This indicates that individuals have a desire for change in the identification and development goals to meet their educational needs. Education needs can be achieved through the analysis of individual problems and assess performance. There are also motivated to strengthen these requirements such as an individual's ability to specify the content, timing and locate the stimulus. We also find that the organization of people's behavior can be achieved in two things: respect for the controls in the environment and within themselves.

During my work, I tried hard to understand and study the international trade relations and their regulations and how they work between countries. In the business area I want to learn the concept of business such as strategic management, International business operations, International management and International Banking. After doing numerous hours of research I have determined to study program offered at Master Degree in Islamic Banking and Finance at Bangor University in United Kingdom. This degree offered by our organization to their staff after doing some courses and passing some exams. Bangor University is one of such University that ensures the high standard of education. There are sufficient scopes to prove ability, competence and intelligence in Bangor University. I spent more than three years devoted by researchers and teachers at University of Bangor through chatting via internet or meeting even students from my organization those are my colleagues who completed these courses at Bangor University. This research will put me on the right track to be profession in international business. This study will enable and provide me to deal with changing of commercial by acquiring knowledge and skills from course. I think that my educational as well as functioning achievements are sufficient to make me qualified of being enlisted at University of Bangor after passing some exams to become a successful business professional.

Most of us know that there is a big difference between the theoretical and practical in all areas such as academic or practical area. I hope that this study will be a real addition to my previous studies and help me to be an expert in my career and provide me with good job opportunities in my country.

I hope to gain a Master Degree in Islamic banking and Finance with emphasis on International Banking and Finance, Business and management strategies. When I will get this Master I can better to understand the principles of management and how to manage the business with the belief that technology has affect also.

I am a believer that business management must have a strong infrastructure supported by very strong academic studies to guide and assist companies and organizations to achieve their goals.

What is learning?

"Learning is defined as a process of making sense of life's experiences and giving meaning to whatever 'sense' is made"( Dorothy MACKERACHER, 2004, p. 7).

Approaches to Learning

Deep Approach is characterized by the student to study in depth, show the activity, plans integrated solution to these problems and have the ability to represent the problems on the international level.

Surface Approach is a principle works on the study of surface facts, information and lacks in many cases of interest. It usually exhibits a specific and individual approach usually ends by failure because fear of failure sometimes.

Strategic Approach is a development study of deep and surface approaches. This study reached a third approach known as strategic approach that working to achieve the desired results and with the focus on effective organization and time management (Biggs, (1987)).

Through we discussed before about the approaches to learning I found myself very closed to the last one (strategic approach) and it's my approach to learn because it newest one and it depend on technical methodology like computer that used nowadays to improve our learning . Also this approach is similar to me that because to my environment and educational are prefer working as group or team to help each other to do work properly. Also in my work we have strategy to learn or to do task through divided the work into sub-tasks and distributed to everyone to facilitate the task and save time, so through this approach I completed my studies at university and got good job in my country . I hope this approach help me to get this master degree from Bangor University.

Learning styles

That the method used by the student in recognizing and addressing the information during the learning process and divided into four methods: the asymptotic, divergent, holding Assimilator and adaptive (Kolb, 1984; p259).

According to (Kolb's, 1984) he put models to explain the learning process based on the principle of theoretical expertise and divided into: first, learning starts from the sensory phase and ends with the formation of concepts. The second conclusion or data processing starts from the observation and ends with the application. This type has the characteristics of effective and we find the best types of learning. We find this type of learning works to adapt the person with the environment surrounding it is done in four stages

Concrete Experience Is based on a sensual experience through discussing examples and integrates them but learners are learning more from each other instead of teachers. And more benefits from the discussion with colleagues and are happy with more of the posts of Foreign Affairs or the reactions of Foreign Affairs. And also positive direction and effective towards others.

Reflective Observation Depend on how the perception and treatment information to the audit observation and accuracy of analysis in the position of learning. Learners prefer more educational situations as it allows them the opportunity for creativity and thinking.

Abstract Conceptualization Works to process information by analyzing the position of learning, logical thinking and understanding. Preferences of individuals who tend to theories, systematic analysis and power when it is difficult to solve some positions by others.

Active Experimentation Individuals who rely on the principle of experimentation for the position of learning through the application and the actual participation of ideas. They consist of small groups to perform certain work and prefer to theoretical lectures but they seem the best and latest

Towards work (Kolb, 1984).

Honey and Mumford (1986 cited in McGill & Beaty 1995; p177) building on Kolb's work and they made studies on it and identified four learning styles:

Activist (enjoys the understanding itself),

Reflector (spends a great deal of time and effort reflecting)

Theorist (good at making links and summarize ideas from experience).

Pragmatist (enjoys the developing and planning stage).



Suited to experiential rather than lectures

Not keen on implementation

Favours independence

Could undertake more research



Conscientious but hard to get started

Assimilates information

Much time spent working it out

Much redrafting

Detailed investigators

Table 1: The learning styles of Honey and Mumford

Source: adapted from Honey and Mumford (1983; 2000)

There are strengths and weaknesses in each of these styles. Honey and Mumford notice that there are strengths and weaknesses in each of these methods and that with the passage of time. The learning styles will improve learning through beginning to improve the methods of learning by working to increase the strengths and minimize weaknesses to get the best tactics. (

According to what we discussed before about learning styles I agree with Honey and Mumford styles because they analyzed the personality of people and who they can agreeable with learning depend on previous studies from some researchers such as Kolb and Dewey. As we see there are more styles for learning but I found my styles it is combination of some styles such as activist and it is more similar to me also I like Pragmatist (more interest) that because my cultures and the way of my educations have more affect to my styles . I think my styles helped me to get high qualification and had good job in my country also it helped me to get this scholarship to study Master degree in United Kingdom especially at Bangor University .I hope that my styles help me to get the master's degree from the University of Bangor.

Definition of Group According to (Schein, 1988) he defined group as "any number of people who interact with one another which are psychologically aware of one another and they perceive themselves to be a group" (Schein, 1988; p 374).

Another useful way of defining a work group is a collection of people who share some or all of the following characteristics:

• Group has consciousness;

• Sense of common purpose;

• Interdependence;

• Interaction; and Innovation.

• Ability to work in a unitary manner (Mullins 2002; P462).

There are two types of group that are formal groups and informal groups.

Formal groups

It established by the organization to facilitate the process of achieving organization goals. Working on the employment of individual efforts in the appropriate direction, always composed of the President and subordinates are formal

Informal groups

Groups are normally appearing in response to the needs of member groups and their goals are always social and organizational. And evolve through the interaction of members (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2004).

During my life I would join a lot of groups such as in educational period. I intend a lot group for doing some assailments and some bigger project that it was very difficult to do as individuals. Also in my work the important thing that is you able to work as team to doing the job because the job divided to some tasks distributed to the employees to complete all task. Work as a group help me to get this scholarship from my bank because there are more exams and duties you must to pass its and it's difficult to do it alone. Sharing the work is more useful if the members of group are interactive, coherence, effectiveness and have similarity to each other such as language, cultures, etc. and have a common goal.

Work as a Group allows us to share the work, developing the skills and discover the challenge of working together and through a group we can do bigger project together with sharing to the members of group depends on their skills. Your work as an administrator of a group will possibly be concerned as much with the behaviors and customs members of the group work together as with technical issues around the task. It doesn't matter to be a professional on group process to manage group tasks, although it is very successful if you have worked on a project or two as a member of a group. You'll be able to ask questions about the ways and working group and try to suggest different ways that can be organized the same group to help members to solve their own problems from the process group instead of trying to solve it by yourself. So leadership is the important things must be attendant on the group to be successful and the leader must have the characteristics of the good leader. The first things that faced me and here in United Kingdom especially in Bangor University that you must joined group to do some assignments together as a group in this action well force you to deal with different students that have different nationalities, cultures and languages these difference well affect to me to deal with the members of group because my language isn't good enough to interact with the members and also different cultures but doesn't have high effect (diversity). Now I am trying to solve these lacks of my language by doing some exercises and studying hard as soon as possible to improve my language to be able to deal with group members.

Development of groups

There are many groups have been developed in the previous periods in each period the members will challenge hardly to prove their development and their capabilities which should be available in the next stage. These stages are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning:

Forming group members will learn about each other, the task at hand and try to orient them to the situation (testing the water).In this stage may include unclear objectives, no involvement, low morale, etc. Supervisors can play important role in this orientation stage.

Storming Working to address the issues of other groups such as the problems that must be solved, how to solve it and how they work (work independently or together). Storming groups meet each other's ideas and views. These may occurred a conflict in opinions or views and criticism may happen (Sorting out roles and responsibilities).

Norming Work to unite the goals and to reach a joint work plan in agreement with the team members to achieve the objectives of the team. Each team members have ambition to work on the success of the objectives of the team.

Sometimes the members of the team may be giving up from their ideas for the team. They develop social harmony by using some indictor such as Questioning performance, Reviewing/clarify objective, Changing/confirming roles and Identifying strengths and weaknesses.

Performing groups have the ability to work as a single unit to accomplish the task smoothly and efficiently without problems or conflicts or foreign intervention.

Adjourning some groups have specific time period expires after the achievement of objectives of the team also some groups may be determine in the situation of layoff and downsizing their members (Tuchman, 1965).

There are some elements for any group to success and achieve their goals

It is physical or intellectual output that acceptable to management and to those parties who working on it (match group size to task demands).

Group members need to be satisfied rather than frustrated by the group or other (Determine level of cohesiveness).

The group experience is important for members to continue to work together (Determine level of cohesiveness).

Any organizations can achieve work team effectiveness by establishing self-management teams.

It depends on leaderships.

As we discussed before about group I mentioned that I was joined a lot of groups during my live such as educations and work. Through all these periods most my group work was successful because my members was from my abroad so I can communicate with them very easily that depends on the languages, cultures , ages, Religion, etc..All these things it similar to my and the members, so I didn't find any obstacles or issues to deal with the group accept few things that can happen but it doesn't have high effect .When I came here to study in Bangor University I found different people, cultures, languages and also climate that have affected to me from the beginning because I came from Sudan that has different culture, language and also Religion but the most important thing that is the language because it will help you to communicate with people and know their cultures. These Obstacles have stopped me to join any group in the beginning of entering UK because I am not English spoken and I am not familiar with this cultures, so I worked hard and still work to improve my language by joined some Institute, study alone and make friends those are English spoken .

Conclusions To conclude, this essay identified how important of motivation for the students to learn and study to achieve their goals. it explained the approaches of learning and found out that strategy approach is the best approach depend on the studies. Finally i described the formation of work groups and how to develop it and find that the leader has important role to success the groups work and the strategies to solve the problems in the groups work.