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Universities and college campuses across the United States are engaged in developing policies and programs to reduce risks and maintain safety on their campuses. Currently the California State University (CSU) system does not have a system wide emergency management program. Developing emergency preparedness curriculum and maintaining a structured emergency management program, are the most important elements for creating a disaster-resilient university system. The focus of this annotated bibliography is on planning, warnings, crisis management, and activities that are designed to minimize the effects of disasters at higher education institutions. This bibliography will review the points of consensus among emergency management professionals in disaster-related activities. The information gathered will provide supportive documentation from various authors that will be utilized to develop a CSU system wide emergency management strategic plan. This strategic plan will be presented to the CSU Chancellors office and executive board for approval and implementation on October 10, 2019.
Ashland University Center (2014).https://www.nifi.org/en/groups/who-should-do-what-
These are notes from a community conversation held in Ashland County, Ohio regarding the roles each sector (government, non-government organization, and citizens) need to play before and during an emergency. Through this conversation, the community outlined specific tasks and challenges for each sector. The notes emphasized personal safety and preparedness providing information on what citizens can do for themselves prior and after a crisis. There should be no expectation that the government or nongovernmental organizations will provide all that is needed during a disaster.
The notes stress that each sector has its own role to play but that it is the combined effort that is required during an emergency. This is a useful tool for those working within communities to create a preparedness strategy. It is also an example of what can be created when citizens and government working together. This article supports the need for campuses to have emergency supplies and established relationships with local government.
Baxter M., Taylor, K., Meszaros, P., Henscheid, M. (2008). A Time of Crisis. Retrieved
This entire volume of About Campus addresses issues of crisis. This includes a chapter from Lori Patton on how painful experiences can be used to teach and learn critical life lessons. In addition, there is an article from Terry Wildman about the process of creating the kind of community that can sustain itself through traumatic events, such as the tragedy that occurred at Virginia Tech, long before those events ever occur. Additional information includes creating nurturing cultures, the practical example of Hokies United, and facing mental health crisis on campus.
Blanchard-Boehm, D. (1997). “Understanding Public Response to Increased Risk from
Natural Hazards: Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286694793
This paper applies the risk communication framework and its principles to a case study where probabilities were increased in 1990 of future earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area.
Following the scientific community’s announcement, a low-key warning was issued to approximately two million residents through large-scale information sharing. This is often called a mass notification system. This study demonstrated that the risk communication model is an invaluable tool for helping us to understand the behavior of individuals who must learn of and act upon warning information that could save their lives and property. Further, the researchers were urged to find ways to adapt this risk communication model to other types of natural and man-made hazards. This research paper supports the importants of all institutions of higher education having a practiced communication plan, and mass notification system.
Block, R. (2005). “Documents Reveal Extent of Fumbles on Storm Relief.” The Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB112658472240639074
This Wall Street Journal article details the mishandling of the federal response to Hurricane Katrina. It mentions a variety of bureaucratic and interagency failures that prevented enough rescue materials to arrive at the scene on time. The many failures ranged from an inoperable internet server at FEMA to FEMA actually asking the wrong governmental agency for ambulances. The article discusses the long delay in declaring Hurricane Katrina an Incident of National Significance and the underestimation of required resources. There also was a lack of experienced emergency managers in FEMA. This caused major delays in organizing the distribution of the simplest resources, which contributed to the suffering following the hurricane. This article supports the argument that experienced emergency managers are needed on campuses of higher education.
Connolly M. (2016). Campus Emergency Preparedness (Meeting ICS and NIMS
Compliance) CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group Boca Raton, FL
This book takes a look at the after math effects of Hurricane Katrina on the local college institutions and their students. The author explores the question what could the colleges and universities have done better to retain their students when their buildings became uninhabitable. It questions why these institutions did not have emergency preparedness plans in place. The author conducts a complete investigation to retrieve answers to these questions and provides a sound argument as to why these institutions were not properly prepared. The book also investigates what guidance and resources were available through the United States Department of Education and FEMA. This book supports the need for all institutions of higher education to have a practiced emergency preparedness plan.
Kenney, P. (1997). When a Crisis Occurs: A Trustee’s Perspective. New Directions For
Community Colleges. Retrieved from Wiley Online library
This article states that crisis management, crisis communication and crisis planning should be vital elements on any institutions’ strategic planning. Components of a crisis / emergency management plan were described. The article stressed every campus Emergency Operation Center should have a knowledgeable emergency manager and crisis manager. These two individuals should have a strong working relationship with the campus president. The article emphasized this as a major key to developing and implementing a successful emergency management plans.
Lipka, S.(2005). After Katrina, Colleges Nationwide Take a Fresh Look at Disaster Plans.
Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from
After 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina, many institutions of higher education began reviewing their disaster policies. This article takes a look at how universities used Hurricane Katrina as motivation to improve their emergency preparedness programs. Several universities in the article conducted disaster exercises and tested their emergency response systems to spot weaknesses in their plans. The article also discussed the value of universities involving campus stakeholders in their emergency preparedness programs. Lastly, the article stressed the need for institutions to have a strategic plan. This plan should be tested frequently, ensuring communication can survive any catastrophic event and options for displaced students are available.
McClellan G. & Stringer J. (2009). Dealing With Campus Crisis. In The Handbook of
Student Affairs Administration (3nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
This book gives suggestions in dealing with various crises. Some of these crises may be regarding a student on campus, or others may be a natural disaster. Knowing these inevitable disasters are lurking in the horizon, colleges and universities must be prepared. The book lays out specific responsibilities that must be carried out by executive staff on campuses of higher education. These executive staff members include the president and his or her cabinet, public relations, and even attorneys. The book also shares tools on how to deal with the media. Providing guidelines for the Public Information Officer, on what to say and what not say when dealing with a crisis on campus.
Virginia Tech Review Panel (2007). Retrieved from
On April 16, 2017, Seung Cho opened fire on innocent students at the Virginia Tech Campus. The Virgin Tech Review Panel (VTRP) report provides an inside look at the shooting and provides a detailed assessment of the aftermath and recovery stages. The Virginia Tech Review Panel reviewed several separate but related issues in assessing events leading to the mass shootings and their aftermath.
The panel conducted over 200 interviews and reviewed thousands of pages of records assessing these nine key areas: These areas included the life and mental health history of Seung Hui Cho. The double homicide at West Ambler Johnston (WAJ) residence hall and the mass shootings in Norris Hall. The responses of Virginia Tech leadership and the actions of law enforcement officers and emergency responders. The mass notification system alerts and messages. The Emergency Operation Center response and emergency medical care immediately following the shootings (VTRP 2007). This review was published and risk managers at universities nationwide began reassessing their crisis management and emergency preparedness procedures.
- Ashland University Center (2014).https://www.nifi.org/en/groups/who-should-do-what-role-citizens-government-and-nongovernmental-organizations-disaster
- Baxter M., Taylor, K., Meszaros, P., Henscheid, M. (2008). A Time of Crisis. Retrieved from http://aboutcampus.myacpa.org/
- Blanchard-Boehm, D. (1997). “Understanding Public Response to Increased Risk from Natural Hazards: Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286694793
- Block, R. (2005). “Documents Reveal Extent of Fumbles on Storm Relief.” The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB112658472240639074
- Connolly M. (2016). Campus Emergency Preparedness (Meeting ICS and NIMS Compliance) CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group Boca Raton, FL
- Kenney, P. (1997). When a crisis occurs: A trustee’s perspective. New Directions for Community Colleges. Retrieved from Wiley Online library https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cc.9808
- Lipka, S. (2005). After Katrina, Colleges Nationwide Take a Fresh Look at Disaster Plans. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.chronicle.com/article/After-Katrina-Colleges/7486
- McClellan G. & Stringer J. (2009). Dealing with campus crisis. In The handbook of student affairs administration (3nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Virginia Tech Review Panel (2007). Retrieved from https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/prevail/docs/VTReviewPanelReport.pdf
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