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Annotated Bibliography on Causes and Interventions of Bullying

3712 words (15 pages) Essay

8th Feb 2020 Education Reference this


Main symptoms of bullying

  • Being reluctant to go to school
  • Being distressed or anxious
  • Losing confidence
  • Becoming withdrawn
  • Having a problem sleeping and or eating
  • Having unexplained injuries
  • Changes in appearance
  • School grades dropping

Main symptoms of mental illness

  • Sleep or appetite changes
  • Mood changes
  • Withdrawal
  • Drop in functioning
  • Problems thinking
  • Increased sensitivity
  • Apathy
  • Feeling disconnected
  • Illogical thinking
  • Nervousness
  • Unusual behavior

Causes (of bullying)

Causes (of mental health influenced by bullying)

Causes (of mental health)

  • Poor circumstances at home
  • Lack of power or control at home
  • Abuse
  • Jealousy
  • Low self esteem              
  • Loneliness (both can lead to depression)
  • Bullies tend to abuse substances
  • Biological factors, such as genes and brain chemistry
  • Life experiences
  • Lack of support


success rates *mental health overall*

success rates *common mental illness caused by bullying*




**note medication never fully ‘cures’ any mental illness, it is normally paired with regular visits with a professional therapist**

  • There is no ‘overall’ percentage for mental health, it all depends on the type of mental illness, some things are easier cured than others. Below are the most common mental disorders caused by bullying, and their personal success rates.
  • 60 to 70% of depressed patients who are given an antidepressant recover from their depression in three to six weeks
  • 60% of those who receive treatment for an eating disorder make a full recovery
  • 75% chance of full recovery, 25% of people relapse within the first one to three weeks

Famous people with the disorder (if any)

Some famous people who have been affected by bullying are….

  • Mila Kunis- she was bullied for her “funny face” because she had big eyes and wide lips
  • Rihanna- she was bullied based on the colour of her skin and her breasts
  • Jessica Alba- she was bullied because she was an awkward child with buck teeth
  • Tom Cruise- he was bullied as he was having trouble with reading
  • Madonna- she was bullied because she was hairier that the rest of her classmates
  • Bill Clinton- he was teased on his weight growing up

And there was more, these are the most common ones I found

Incidence (% of general population affected)

  • 64 % of Canadian children have been bullied
  • 12 % have been bullied constantly
  • 13 % of Canadian children are bullies
  • 72 % of children have seen bullying happen
  • Only 40 % tried to stop the bullying
  • 64 % thought bullying was ‘normal’

Usual age of onset (when the disorder usually develops)

  • Bullying can start at any age, bullying tendencies and cases tend to start to become common after the age 9 to anywhere from 16-17-year old’s


Duarte, C., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2017). Can Self-Reassurance Buffer against the Impact of Bullying? Effects on Body Shame and Disordered Eating in Adolescence. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 26(4), 998. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0624-1

          This source is mainly focusing on the impact bullying has on a person’s eating habits, mainly focusing on bulimia and anorexia. This source was a small article but went into enough detail where I was able to gather the information needed for my project. Since it was a smaller article, I did feel it lacked information that could have been key for furthering my understanding. This source is a source I would consider very creditable as it was written by two people who work in the Cognitive and Behavioural Centre for Research and Intervention (CINEICC), Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences for the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Although is was not written in Canada, it still gave me information that allowed me to understand the negative impacts bullying can have on a person’s character. It also seems credible, as the authors were able to cite their sources, and while further looking into them, they also seemed very creditable. Another thing to be mentioned is that I found this article on the peel school database. Since this is a secondary piece of information, I was very careful as I did not want to ‘over qualify’ the authors. This source, in combination with others, gave me the information to show that bullying can cause mental illness, whether it is severe or not. This also allowed me to conclude that bullying can impact a person’s mind, in a way that they see themselves as ‘distorted’. To any bias, this article was also written in third person, and did not once use and personal pronouns. As well as that they kept all information straight and to the point, leaving no room for any personal bias. This source provided me with only facts and did not have any opinions or theories about the topic. Overall, this source provided me with the information that was needed so I was able to inference the impacts bullying could have on a person’s opinion of themselves.

Gallo, L. L. (2017). Professional Issues in School Counseling and Suicide Prevention. Journal of School Counseling, 15(11). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1151461

This source focused on the relationship between bullying (which resulted in a mental illness) and suicide, and the coloration that occurs between them. This source was a very small article, practically one paragraph, but did link a full reference guide that contained a longer journal. Although it was a small article, I found I was able to gain all necessary information needed for my project on bullying and mental health. This source was again found in the peel school database, which I used for most of my sources, and kept all information in a professional language. This author is Laura L. Gallo, who has a Ph. D from Boise state University, and works for the department of counsellor education. This information proves she is qualified to conduct research and make a report on the data collected. This was a great piece of information as it used multiple different references, 40 to be exact which proves this author was through with her investigation. This source allowed me to prove that mental illness and bullying had a direct coloration. The main piece of information that allowed me to do that was, and I quote, “Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents and has become a public health concern” (Gallo, 2017). This article also avoided as much bias as possible, as it was written in third person. The small paragraph was straight to the point, but the longer article was 27 pages long, which I tried to avoid as much as possible, as I do feel with an article that long, bias may be a problem. Overall, this source allowed me to further prove that, negative mental illness caused by bullying is a lot more common and is a much bigger problem than people think.

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Jenkins, L. N., Mulvey, N., & Floress, M. T. (2017). Social and Language Skills as Predictors of Bullying Roles in Early Childhood: A Narrative Summary of the Literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 40(3), 401–418. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1154278

          This source is about the different skills, both social and language, that can be considered ‘predictors’ or signs of bullying roles (both bullies and the bullied), in young children. This source was a good length and went into great detail about the signs of bullying and the age where it is most common. This article was written by three different authors that work for the education and treatment of children, which is a company that gathers information all about young children. This allows for proper observations and data collection, as it is done by a company studying a specific age group. This article used proper language and terminology, that was easy to use, which allowed me to gather more than enough data needed to use in my presentation. I also found this source within the peel school database and can say that this was a secondary source. This article helped me gain further knowledge of the signs of bullying and what age does bullying personality traits onset. To avoid bias this article was written in third person, and did not use any personal pronouns, which helped eliminate any personal opinions. Since it was written by three different authors, I feel confident that this source has very little bias and is purely based on observations and facts. Overall, this source helped me gain information of the common signs of bullying before and after it happens, including indicators that a child will be a bully. It also helped me cross reference when the age it occurs, as a previous source had a similar conclusion.

Lee, D. G. D. B. (2013). Bullying in schools. Points of View. Retrieved from   http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=t6o&AN=89158068

           This source is about when bullying becomes a common issue among schools, and which group ends up being affected the most. This source went into enough detail where I understood what the points they were making, but I feel that I would benefit more if it went into greater detail in the section talking about the groups who were most affected. This source is very creditable as it was partly written by Deborah Geier who is a qualified author who has been put into the school database. This was one of the first options available and used proper terminology, sticking to the topic, with out going on any inappropriate tangents. The source I used from the database provided by the school, in which I can assume that the source is extremely credible, as it is recommended by most teachers. This source gave me the information that spoke about the age groups that are being affected most by bullying. Lee concluded the most common ages for bullying were, pre-teens to teens aged 12-17. I noticed that to avoid bias, the article was written in 3rd person completely avoiding ‘I’ and ‘You’. This article was also written among other authors, which helped avoid any personal opinions. The database only contained facts and both direct and indirect quotes from people who have witnessed, or had a child being bullied first-hand. Overall, I was able to use this source for two pieces of key information, the age where bullying starts and affects most, as well as the groups being affected most. This helped me make inferences on how bullying and mental health are related and understand why certain groups were being targeted by bullies themselves.

Lieberman, E. J. (2005). 50 Signs of Mental Illness: A User-Friendly Alphabetical Guide to Psychiatric Symptoms and What You Should Know About Them. Library Journal, 130(7), 107. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=16770918

           This source was written on the signs of mental illness and some common symptoms that people would experience if mental illness has affected a person. This source was short and to the point, but I was still able to gather all the information I needed to have an understanding a basis of mental illness in general. This source was written by a single author who works for the George Washington University School of Medicine, in Washington, DC. This shows he has the proper credentials to conduct, and interpret any collected data, without a question of certainty. This source used proper language and terminology, while it was still easy to read and understand. I also found this source within the peel schools’ database, and it was relatively easy to find, within the first few pages of the matched articles. This article helped me gain information that I used to explain and show how the symptoms of mental illness and bullying are very similar. This source did not use any personal pronouns and avoided and personal opinions. This helped make this source reliable, as it was based around facts and interpreted data (the common symptoms). The author’s credentials indicated to me that due to his position the author would completely avoid any bias. The author also kept his article straight to the point leaving no room for opinions to be added into the information. This source gave me the information to not only compare the signs and symptoms or mental illness to bullying symptoms, but it also allowed me to make inferences that helped further my understanding about the relationship between bullying and mental health.

Menesini, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2017). Bullying in schools: the state of knowledge and effective interventions. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22, 240. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2017.1279740

           This source contained information on bullying and a vague introduction to who is being affected by bullying most and how common bullying actual is. This source was a decently long article, that went into detail, within multiple different topics, that all furthered my understanding on my topic. This article was again found within the peel school database and was not one of the first articles I saw, I actually had to go threw a couple of pages of recommended articles before I found this one. This article was written by two university graduates that worked for the department/division of physiology within their country. Due to these titles, and their ongoing workplace, the authors writing this article do have the qualifications to make conclusions and provide information for an individual to use as research. This article had also used multiple different pieces of information to piece together for the article, showing that this article has little room for personal opinions and little to no bias. Later in looking at this article, I learned that the authors used cross references to avoid any bias. This article was written in third person and did not use any personal, or general, pronouns. This allowed for no unnecessary information and or bias to be integrated into the article. This article gave me a key piece of information which was boys are more likely to be bullies than girls when it became physical and girls are more likely to be involved in verbal bullying. Overall, this article can me information I used to gain an understanding on bullying alone, and it mentioned briefly how common bullying is. This source allowed me to make an educated guess on how mental health could tie into the issue of bullying.

Mental Health. (2017). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=funk&AN=ME087400

           This source was written on mental health and any information needed about mental health. This includes the treatments, causes and preventions. This source was a decently sized article, not too long where it became opinion, and not to short where I couldn’t find the necessary information I needed. This source was also found in the peel schools’ databases, making the source credible and reliable. While further looking into this source, I found there was no specific author listed but instead an encyclopedia, specifically the Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. This encyclopedia is written by many authors and all work for the World Book in Chicago. This source was written in third person and did not use personal pronouns such as I or you, and even did not include the pronouns he or she. There were no sources cited anywhere in the documents, making me assume this source was a primary source, which is why I used this for multiple different parts of my assignment. Due to this being an encyclopedia, there was no specific authors as there is many, which would result in as little bias as possible, and eliminating personal opinions. The encyclopedia also completely avoided any personal pronouns which made the information purely facts and easily to understand the data provided. Overall, this source allowed me to gather information on the causes, treatments, and prevention of mental illness. This information allowed me to give background information and a basis of what mental health is in my presentation.  

Moore, B., & Woodcock, S. (2017). Resilience, Bullying, and Mental Health: Factors Associated with Improved Outcomes. Psychology in the Schools, 54(7), 689–702. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1147412

           This source focused on reporting information on the relationship between bullying and negative mental health and proves that bullying can lead to mental illnesses. This source was a long scholarly article that went into great detail about the coloration between my topic (mental illness and bullying). This source was written by multiple different authors, one of them went to Macquarie University and studied psychology which proves that the authors are qualified to conduct an experiment and use the data collected to draw valid conclusions. Later into looking into this article it stated that it had been peer reviewed, which means that other people, most likely in their field, have looked it over. I also found this article within the peel school database, and it was one of the first articles that match with my search. This source gave me a key piece of information which was “bullying is a way to gain social dominance”. This shows that bullies just want to assert dominance, maybe due the fact that they can not at home. This article was also written in third person and avoided any ‘I’ or ‘you’ completely. This source was also written by multiple authors which would eliminate any personal opinions coming through the writing. This article also used a lot of facts and interpretation of data collection, which does not requires personal experience which leaves little to no room for bias. This source helped me directly answer my focus question by showing the coloration between mental health and bullying. This source provided me information that I used to explain my focus question in my project.


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