Ancient India Vedic System Of Education

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In ancient India, Vedic system of education was widely prevalent. Under the Vedic system of education, education was imparted through Monasteries under the supervision of a guru. The knowledge in these Monasteries was mostly related to the tasks performed by various sections of the society. In addition to these monastic orders, various institutions of higher learning and universities flourished in India well before the Common Era, and continued to deliver education into the Common Era. Secular Buddhist institutions cropped up along with monasteries. The important urban centers of learning were Taxila and Nalanda, among others. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topics such as logic, grammar, medicine, metaphysics, arts and crafts. The education system in ancient India was a source of inspiration to all education systems of the world.

The Present system of education in India can be considered as the legacy of the British Empire which they developed to sub serve their own political and administrative interest during the colonial era. As a result, various Colleges, universities and technical institutions came into existence during British Empire period.

The education system developed by British found to be grossly inadequate to meet the growing aspirations of the nation after independence. At the time of independence of India in 1947, central government took upon itself the task of developing a uniform educational system throughout the country. The Central government initiated a planned development of higher education in the country particularly with the establishment of University Grants Commission in 1953. Radakrishnan Commission on Higher Education (1948-49), articulated the goal of development of higher education in country in following words:

"The most important and urgent reform needed in education is to transform it, to endeavor to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the people and thereby make it the powerful instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation necessary for the realization of the national goals. For this purpose, education should be developed so as to increase productivity, achieve social and national integration, accelerate the process of modernization and cultivate social, moral and spiritual values." 1

1.1 Growth of Higher Education in India

Our policymakers visualized the education system as a chief agent for bringing change and overall development, hence government of India undertook massive expansion of education- particularly higher education- by setting up new universities, Indian institutes of technology (IITs), Agriculture and Medical Colleges, Indian Institutes of Managements(IIMs), and autonomous institutes for research in science and technology across the country within a couple of decades of attaining national independence. The objective was, as enshrined in the constitution of India, to transform India into a modern egalitarian society.

At present, India possesses a highly developed higher education system which offers facility of education and training in almost all aspects of human creative and intellectual endeavors: arts and humanities; natural, mathematical and social sciences, engineering; medicine; dentistry; agriculture; education; law; commerce and management; music and performing arts; national and foreign languages; culture; communications etc.

In its size and diversity, India has the third largest higher education system in the world, next only to China and the United States. The following table depicts the growth of higher education in India since independence:

At the time of Independence, access to higher education was very limited and elitist, with enrolment of less than a million students in 500 Colleges and 20 universities. Since independence, the growth has been very impressive; the number of universities has increased to 564 universities and the numbers of Colleges have increased to 33023. Since 1950-51, there is 18.8 fold increases in the no. of universities and almost 48 times increase in the no. of Colleges. On the same pattern, there is an exponential growth in no. of teaching staff as there is 35 fold increases in the teaching staff since 1950-51.

Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. The institutional framework consists of Universities established by an Act of Parliament (Central Universities) or of a State Legislature (State Universities), Deemed Universities (institutions which have been accorded the status of a university with authority to award their own degrees through central government notification), Institutes of National Importance (prestigious institutions awarded the said status by Parliament), Institutions established State Legislative Act and Colleges affiliated to the University (both government-aided and -unaided). As per the source, there were 564 Degree awarding Universities/University level institutions including 43 Central Universities, 297 State Universities, 129 Deemed Universities and 95 Private Universities. In addition to it, there are 65 Institutes of National Importance established under Central legislation.2

There were 33023 degree and post-graduate Colleges (including around 1902 women's Colleges), of which 14,400 came under the purview of the University Grant Commission, the rest were Professional Colleges under the purview of the Central Government or other statutory bodies like the AICTE, ICAR, MCI etc. Of the Colleges under UGC purview, 6417 Colleges are covered under 2(f) & 2(b) while 1385 Colleges are covered under 2(f) only but are not covered under 12(b). The total number of Teachers in the higher education system is 8.17 lakh as compared to 6.99 lakhs in its previous year, registering an increase of 16.9%. Out of the total teaching faculty of 8.17 lakh in higher education system, 83.5 per cent Teachers were employed in Colleges and only the remaining 16.5% in the universities. 3

Education in India is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state and local. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. The share of private unaided higher education institutions increased from 42.6 per cent in 2001 to 63.21 per cent in 2006. Their share of enrolments also increased from 32.89 per cent to 51.53 per cent in the same period. There has already been a de-facto privatization of the Professional education sector, with more than 80 per cent of the engineering Colleges being privately funded and managed. The higher education sector currently faces major challenges of quality and excellence, and of improving access with inclusiveness. While there are strict entry barriers for the private sector, there is not enough regulation on the products and outputs of the private sector.

1.2 Position of higher education In Punjab:

Punjab is a well-known state of north India, famous for its agriculture, culture and tradition. As far as education sector is concerned, Punjab is continuously striving to increase the number of educational institutions in Punjab so as to provide education to all. There is no dearth of institutions for higher Professional and higher technical education in Punjab. Further, to meet the requirement of changing environment, new engineering and technical institutes are coming up. There are about 17 Degree awarding universities/ universities level institutions in the state of Punjab out of which 1 is central university, 8 are state universities, 2 are deemed universities, 3 private universities and 3 institutes of national importance. There are total of about 852 Colleges, out of which 44 are engineering/Technology/architecture, 66 Medical and 14 education/teacher training institutes. Out of 225 degree Colleges covered under UGC act, 213 degree Colleges are covered under section 2(f) and 12(B) of the UGC Act, 1956 while 12 degree Colleges are covered only under section 2(f) but are not covered under section 12(B) of the UGC Act, 1956.The state has also been ranked 7th amongst the all Indian States in terms of education.3

The state is playing an active role in providing higher education. There are 55 Govt. Colleges and 136 Govt. aided Colleges in the state of Punjab. In addition to it, there are 188 private Colleges which are engaged in imparting higher education in the state of Punjab. Punjab Colleges have relatively higher enrolment per College than all India level.

1.3 Problem statement:

Higher education has always been considered as a catalyst of overall development by our policymakers from the time India got its independence. Since the early 1950's higher education has been diversified and extended its reach and coverage quite significantly so as to achieve the goals of national importance. At the time of independence, the size of higher education system in terms of number of educational institutions, and Teachers was meager but since that time there has been an exponential increase in three indicators of higher education, namely the number of educational institutions, Teachers and students. But to achieve the objectives of national importance it is the well being of human resources involved in the education system i.e. the Teachers that matters the most. The satisfied lot of Teachers can contribute a lot towards the achievement of goals of national importance.

Teaching is a very noble and honourable profession that requires greater level of knowledge, dedication, integrity and patience. Rather In earlier days, teaching was considered to be a mission rather than a profession. Teachers have always been held in high esteem as 'Nation Builders' since time immemorial. Even in Gurukul era of education, Guru(Teacher) commanded highest regard not only from his pupil but from all classes of society and even from rulers. A teacher is a dynamic person. He plays many different and vital roles in the grooming and development of his students' personalities. He acts as a communicator, disciplinarian, conveyer of information, counselor and surrogate parent. Education, in the 21st century, is becoming more complex due to vast environmental changes. In the changing circumstances, ever mounting expectations of the nation as well society as a whole from teaching community can only be fulfilled if the teacher feels satisfied from his job and has a positive attitude towards his job of teaching.

Satisfaction of the Teachers becomes all the more important in an educational institution where the quality of job performed more or less depends mainly on the framework of the mind of the teacher. In the present age of competition, any organization that can attract, motivate and retain satisfied individuals, will be better positioned to succeed. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their job and are more loyal to the organization.

Job Satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. Job Satisfaction is an attitude, which results from the experiences of an employee from his job. It is an individual's feeling or state of mind. In simple terms, it is the extent to which one feels good about his or her job. Job Satisfaction is a multi-pronged concept. The source of Job Satisfaction is not only the job; it also emanates from the business environment, government policies, working environment, supervision style, interpersonal relationship, and organizational culture and personality factors. Various studies have established that it is the set of both internal and external factors which affects the level of Job Satisfaction among College teacher.

In the state of Punjab, Higher education is provided by both Professional and Non-Professional Institutions. There are glaring differences in the working environment and organizational culture of Professional Institutions as compared to Non-Professional Institutions. These differences are visibly quite strong enough to have impact on the personality and working style of the Teachers working there. Whether it will lead to higher Job Satisfaction or lower Job Satisfaction, is yet to be explored. Further it will be in the interest of the Institution concerned, State and Nation itself to explore the impact of Job Satisfaction level on concerned individual teacher's performance as well as on institution's performance.

This study sought to investigate the following areas of Job Satisfaction of College Teachers in Punjab. First, the study sought to investigate the factors responsible for different levels of Job Satisfaction, if any, among College Teachers of Professional and Non-Professional Institutions in Punjab. Second, the study sought to determine the effects of Job Satisfaction on the individual performance of the College Teachers. Third, the study sought to explore the effects, if any, of Job Satisfaction levels of College Teachers on the performance of their respective Institution.

1.4 Need and Significance of the Present Study:

Behaviour of employees at work is an important factor in organizational growth. A satisfied workforce is essential for the success of organizations and their businesses. Dissatisfied employees make organizations dysfunctional in businesses, damaging their financial performance. Such employees, when unattended, do not have loyalty towards their organizations and therefore, cannot deliver the desired results.. They endanger the very existence of their organizations, jeopardizing the creation of national wealth in the long run. Organizations are focusing on enhancing the quality and loyalty of their workforce.

The literature on employee satisfaction remains immature compared to that on customer satisfaction. Therefore, employee satisfaction, particularly on employee satisfaction in the higher education sector, still requires study and survey. While several employee satisfaction studies have been performed, very few studies have concentrated on Job Satisfaction among College Teachers. Certain studies have been conducted on national and international level to measure the level of Job Satisfaction of College Teachers. Only a few of them are concerned with assessing the impact of Job Satisfaction of College Teachers on their individual performance and on the performance of their respective institution. Certain studies out of them have concluded that level of Job Satisfaction effects all such variables while in other studies, Job Satisfaction has been taken as a dependent variable in which rather Job Satisfaction depends upon Teachers own performance and on various other factors. None of the study has put a thrust on comparison of Job Satisfaction among Teachers of various Professional and Non-Professional Institutions.

It is hoped that results of present study will create a sense of awareness in the general public as well as the designers of educational institutions regarding the factors responsible for Job Satisfaction. The results of this study will greatly help the administration to determine policies and strategies to make Teachers stay in the academe. As a result it may possible to provide the most conducive atmosphere for effective teaching. Such type of work will be useful to institutions to retain their Teachers and increase their involvement in the institution. Moreover, causes of dissatisfaction, once discovered, can easily be cured thus leading to improved Job Satisfaction. It will also help to improve the quality of education.

Moreover, this study on Job Satisfaction on College Teachers of Professional and Non-Professional Institutions in Punjab will not only be useful for administrators and others who influence the working climate, but, it might also be useful for the present and future College Teachers while making personal decisions about their future careers. Thus, Job Satisfaction is good not only for employees but also for the employers, as it increases productivity and decreases staff turnover thus increasing creativity and commitment.

1.5 Objectives of the study:

The present study is to be carried out with a basic mission of exploring the factors which affects the Job Satisfaction among College Teachers of both Professional and non-Professional Institutions in Punjab, which in turn might affect the performance of individual Teachers as well as the performance of their respective institutions. More specifically the following are the objectives of the study::

To study and compare the Job Satisfaction level of College Teachers of Professional and non-Professional Institutions.

To study the factors of different levels of Job Satisfaction among College Teachers of Professional and Non-Professional Institutions.

To find out the effect of Job Satisfaction level on the performance, absenteeism, and job turnover.

To examine the relationship between Job Satisfaction of College Teachers and performance of the institutions.

To give suggestions relating to measures to be taken to enhance the levels of Job Satisfaction among College Teachers of Professional and non-Professional Institutions.

The present study attempts to examine the role of certain factors /variables presumed to be related to Job Satisfaction in the selected groups of employees namely College Teachers in Punjab. The relationship that factors/variable has to Job Satisfaction is studied in two steps. First, attempts are made to examine the factor, which contributes to Job Satisfaction. Secondly the impact of Job Satisfaction on certain other variables is examined. More over effort has been made to compare the level of Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Professional Institutions and that of non-Professional Institutions.

1.6 Professional and Non-Professional Institutions:

As in the study, the main emphasis is on finding out Job Satisfaction level of Teachers of Professional and non-Professional Institution of Punjab and its impact on their individual performance and on the performance of their respective institution. Here for the purpose of their study it is very important to distinguish between Professional and non-Professional institution. According to the 'Karnataka Professional educational institutions (regulation of admission and determination of fee) act,' 2006, '"Professional Educational Institution" means College or school or an institute by whatever name called imparting Professional education or conducting Professional educational courses leading to the award of a degree, diploma or a certificate by whatever name called, approved or recognized by the competent statutory body and affiliated to an university.' 4 So According to it, all those institution imparting Professional education will be termed as Professional Educational institution.

Now to understand the meaning of Professional institution, we have to make distinguish between General Education and Professional education. As per the sources of DPI Punjab, Professional education, 'includes the study of courses which prepare students for various professions/vocations such as Agriculture, Teacher Training, Physical Education, Engineering and Technology, Architecture, Fine Arts, Music Dancing, Sculpture, Journalism, library, Science, Law, Medicines, Business Management, etc.'

Whereas, General Education, 'includes the study of Arts, Science, Commerce, Home Science, Modern Indian/European languages, Theology, Public administration, Statistics and other similar subjects.'

Although documentary evidences as available provided by the sources of DPI Punjab and Karnataka Professional Educational Institution act are sufficient to conclude that Educational Institutions imparting Professional education as explained above can be termed as Professional institution. There are certain educational institutions which are engaged in providing Professional education only. Such type of institutions can clearly be termed as Professional institution and similarly there are certain educational Institutions which are engaged in imparting General Education only, they can simply be termed as Non-Professional Institution. At the same time, there are certain educational institution which are imparting, both General and Professional education. The documentary evidences available in India do not provide any specific criteria to determine whether such educational institution is a Professional institution or a Non-Professional institution, but there in a Professional educational institution Act of republic of Estonia which state that if any institution, two-thirds of pupil are getting Professional education, then such educational institutions will be termed as Professional institution. So 'Institutions of Professional Higher Education Act' of Republic of Estonia states that 'Institution of Professional higher education' is 'An institution of Professional higher education is an educational institution where Professional higher education is provided, where Master's study and studies according to secondary vocational education curricula conducted on the basis of secondary education may be undertaken, and where at least two thirds of the pupils and students study according to Professional higher education curricula.'5

So in the absence of documentary evidences in India, The criteria used in the Professional educational institution act of Republic of Estonia will be used to decide whether any educational institution is Professional institution or a non-Professional institution. So in nut shell it can be concluded that:

Any educational institution imparting Professional education only will be termed as Professional institution.

Any educational institution imparting General education only will be termed as Non- Professional institution.

If any educational institution is imparting both Professional General educations, then in such institution, it will be seen that whether two third of students are getting Professional education, then such educational institutions will be termed as Professional institution, otherwise that educational institution will be termed as Non-Professional Institution.

1.7 Scope and Methodology of the Study:

Present study has been carried out through 500 College Teachers which are selected using stratified sampling of male and female staff from urban as well as rural areas. More emphasis has been given on comparable representation from private, grant in aid Colleges and govt. Colleges.

A descriptive survey using questionnaire, individual interviews and career histories of College lecturers will be conducted to investigate the level of Job Satisfaction among College Teachers in Punjab. The data thus collected will be tabulated and will be statistically analyzed.

1.8 Organization of the Study:

The study has been organized into the following proposed chapters:

Chapter 1 - Introduction, is an introductory chapter of the study where background as well as present position of higher education in India as well as in Punjab has been discussed so as to have a clear understanding of changing role and position of teacher involved in higher education system. Further this chapter also throws light on the problem statement of the study; followed by brief discussion on the objectives, need and importance of the study and research methodology of the study.

Chapter 2 - Review of Literature, Reviews both empirical and theoretical literature concerned with the key variables of the study. On the onset, meaning of Job Satisfaction and theories of Job Satisfaction have been discussed. These theories clearly outline the factors concerned with the Job Satisfaction of an individual. Further various studies carried on in developed and developing countries were reviewed in a classified manner. Firstly those studies where Job Satisfaction has been taken as a dependent variable were reviewed and then those studies where Job Satisfaction has been taken as an independent variable were reviewed. The results of these studies and the various statistical tools used in the studies were summarized and tabulated so as to clearly bring out the outcome of the studies carried till date and the gap in literature.

Chapter 3 - Research Design, elaborates the research methodology used to accomplish the objectives of the study. This chapter throws light on research question pursued in the study, population of the study, sampling procedure, sampling size and Research instruments (i.e. questionnaire used and data analysis techniques).

Chapter 4 - Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Professional Colleges brings out the overall level of Job Satisfaction among College Teachers of Professional Institutions and the factors responsible for the same. This chapter further explores the relationship of Job Satisfaction level of Teachers of Professional Institutions with job performance, absenteeism trends, intention of turnover and their respective institutional performance.

Chapter 5 - Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Non-Professional Colleges brings out the overall level of Job Satisfaction among College Teachers of Non-Professional Institutions and the factors responsible for the same. This chapter further explores the relationship of Job Satisfaction level of Teachers of Non-Professional Institutions with job performance, absenteeism trends, intention of turnover and their respective institutional performance.

Chapter 6 - Comparative Study of Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Professional and Non-Professional Institutions presents a comparative picture of overall level of Job Satisfaction among College Teachers of Professional and Non-Professional Institutions in Punjab and the factors responsible for the same. This chapter further presents the comparative picture of impact of Job Satisfaction level of Teachers of Professional and Non-Professional Institutions on job performance, absenteeism trends, intention of turnover and their respective institutional performance.

Chapter 7 - Summary and Suggestions, is the final chapter of the study. It presents the summary of the conclusions drawn from the study. The broader implications of the findings for the theory and practice, the limitations of the study and recommendation for the future studies are also discussed.