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An organization can use any learning style and justify it according to their expectations. However the suitability of organizational learning style selection will be not considered as mandatory fact in this decision making by most of the organizations and will be gaining no business benefit after an expensive training session. You are newly appointed as the Human Resource Development Manager in a Group HR department in the above named organization. You are requested to develop a documentation differentiating different learning styles available in the world to you Board of Directors as an explanation of theoretical value reflected in business decision making. Prepare a document detailing difference between different learning styles.
Learning Outcome: Explore a range of differing learning theories and learning styles
Assessment criteria for pass: Differentiate between different learning styles
Learning stylesÂ are various approaches or ways of learning. They involveÂ educatingÂ methods, particular to an individual that are presumed to allow that individual to learn best. Most people prefer an identifiable method of interacting with, taking in, and processingÂ stimuliÂ orÂ information. Based on this concept, the idea of individualized "learning styles" originated in the 1970s, and acquired "enormous popularity".
David Kolb's model
TheÂ David A. KolbÂ styles model is based on the Experiential Learning Theory, as explained in his bookÂ Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and developmentÂ (1984).The ELT model outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience:Â Concrete ExperienceÂ andÂ Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective ObservationÂ andÂ Active Experimentation. According to Kolb's model, the ideal learning process engages all four of these modes in response to situational demands. In order for learning to be effective, all four of these approaches must be incorporated. As individuals attempt to use all four approaches, however, they tend to develop strengths in one experience-grasping approach and one experience-transforming approach. The resulting learning styles are combinations of the individual's preferred approaches. These learning styles are as follows:
Convergers are characterized by abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. They are good at making practical applications of ideas and using deductive reasoning to solve problems.
Divergers tend toward concrete experience and reflective observation. They are imaginative and are good at coming up with ideas and seeing things from different perspectives.
Assimilators are characterized by abstract conceptualization and reflective observation. They are capable of creating theoretical models by means of inductive reasoning.
Accommodators use concrete experience and active experimentation. They are good at actively engaging with the world and actually doing things instead of merely reading about and studying them.
Kolb's model gave rise to the Learning Style Inventory, an assessment method used to determine an individual's learning style. An individual may exhibit a preference for one of the four styles - Accommodating, Converging, Diverging and Assimilating - depending on his approach to learning via the experiential learning theory model.
Honey and Mumford's model
In the mid 1970's Peter Honey and Alan Mumford adapted David Kolb's model for use with a population of middle/senior managers in business. They published their version of the model inÂ The Manual of Learning StylesÂ (1982)Â andÂ Using Your Learning StylesÂ (1983)].
Two adaptations were made to Kolb's experiential model. Firstly, the stages in the cycle were renamed to accord with managerial experiences of decision making/problem solving. The Honey & Mumford stages are:
Having an experience
Reviewing the experience
Concluding from the experience
Planning the next steps.
Secondly, the styles were directly aligned to the stages in the cycle and namedÂ Activist,Â Reflector,Â TheoristÂ andÂ Pragmatist. These are assumed to be acquired preferences that are adaptable, either at will or through changed circumstances, rather than being fixed personality characteristics. The Honey & MumfordÂ Learning Styles QuestionnaireÂ (LSQ)Â is a self-development tool and differs from Kolb's Learning Style inventory by inviting managers to complete a checklist of work-related behaviours without directly asking managers how they learn. Having completed the self-assessment, managers are encouraged to focus on strengthening underutilised styles in order to become better equipped to learn from a wide range of everyday experiences.
A MORI survey commissioned byÂ [The Campaign for Learning] in 1999 found the Honey & Mumford LSQ to be the most widely used system for assessing preferred learning styles in the local government sector in the UK.
Anthony Gregorc's model
Dennis W. Mills, Ph.D., discusses the work ofÂ Anthony F. GregorcÂ and Kathleen A. Butler in his article entitled "Applying What We Know: Student Learning Styles". Gregorc and Butler worked to organize a model describing how the mind works. This model is based on the existence of perceptions-our evaluation of the world by means of an approach that makes sense to us. These perceptions in turn are the foundation of our specific learning strengths, or learning styles.
In this model, there are two perceptual qualities 1) concrete and 2) abstract; and two ordering abilities 1) random and 2) sequential.
Concrete perceptions involve registering information through the five senses, while abstract perceptions involve the understanding of ideas, qualities, and concepts which cannot be seen.
In regard to the two ordering abilities, sequential involves the organization of information in a linear, logical way and random involves the organization of information in chunks and in no specific order.
Both of the perceptual qualities and both of the ordering abilities are present in each individual, but some qualities and ordering abilities are more dominant within certain individuals.
There are four combinations of perceptual qualities and ordering abilities based on dominance: 1) Concrete Sequential; 2) Abstract Random; 3) Abstract Sequential; 4) Concrete Random. Individuals with different combinations learn in a different ways-they have different strengths, different things make sense to them, different things are difficult for them, and they ask different questions throughout the learning process.
Sudbury model of democratic education
Some critics (Mazza) of today's schools, of the concept ofÂ learning disabilities, ofÂ special education, and ofÂ response to intervention, take the position that every child has a different learning style and pace and that each child isÂ unique, not only capable of learning but also capable of succeeding.
Sudbury ModelÂ democratic schools assert that there are many ways to study and learn. They argue that learning is a process you do, not a process that is done to you. That is true of everyone; it's basic.Â The experience ofÂ Sudbury model democratic schoolsÂ shows that there are many ways to learn without the intervention of teaching, to say, without the intervention of a teacher being imperative. In the case of reading for instance in the Sudbury model democratic schools, some children learn from being read to, memorizing the stories and then ultimately reading them. Others learn from cereal boxes, others from games instructions, others from street signs. Some teach themselves letter sounds, others syllables, others whole words. Sudbury model democratic schools adduce that in their schools no one child has ever been forced, pushed, urged, cajoled, or bribed into learning how to read or write; and they have had no dyslexia. None of their graduates are real or functional illiterates, and no one who meets their older students could ever guess the age at which they first learned to read or write.Â In a similar form students learn all the subjects, techniques, and skills in these schools.
Describing current instructional methods asÂ homogenizationÂ andÂ lockstepÂ standardization, alternative approaches are proposed, such as theÂ Sudbury Model of Democratic Education schools, an alternative approach in which children, byÂ enjoying personal freedomÂ thusÂ encouraged to exercise personal responsibility for their actions,Â learn at their own pace and styleÂ rather than following a compulsory and chronologically-based curriculum. Proponents ofÂ un schoolingÂ have also claimed that children raised in this method learn at their own pace and style, and do not suffer from learning disabilities.
Gerald Coles asserts that there are partisan agendas behind the educational policy-makers and that the scientific researches that they use to support their arguments regarding the teaching of literacy are flawed. These include the idea that there are neurological explanations for learning disabilities.
Fleming's VAK/VARK model
One of the most common and widely-usedÂ Â categorizations of the various types of learning styles is Fleming's VARK model (sometimes VAK) which expanded upon earlierÂ Neuro-linguistic programmingÂ (VARK) models]:
Kinesthetic learnersÂ orÂ tactile learners.
Fleming claimed that visual learners have a preference for seeing (think in pictures; visual aids such as overhead slides, diagrams, handouts, etc.). Auditory learner's best learn through listening (lectures, discussions, tapes, etc.). Tactile/kinesthetic learners prefer to learn via experience-moving, touching, and doing (active exploration of the world; science projects; experiments, etc.). Its use in pedagogy allows teachers to prepare classes that address each of these areas. Students can also use the model to identify their preferred learning style and maximize their educational experience by focusing on what benefits them the most.
Once after the successful presentation of information to the Board of Directors as requested in Task one, you have been asked to further emphasize the viability of using them in planning and designing of learning events and their contribution on each situation. Further they request you to explain the significance of guarantying the transfer of learning to the workplace and the implications of the learning curve in such a situation. Prepare a manuscript to be presented to them detailing the above expected criteria.
Learning Outcome: Explore a range of differing learning theories and learning styles
Assessment criteria for pass: Analyze learning theories and explain their contribution to the planning and design of learning events.
Explain the implications of the learning curve and the importance of ensuring the transfer of learning to the workplace.
It is identified that the Boots organization needed to be shaped with proper training initiative to avoid its labour cut down and new recruitment minimization. Further it is noticeable in most of the success stories of training and development, the utilization of systematic approach will always result fruitful benefits 360o. Critically evaluate the approaches to training can be utilized by Boot's, elucidating the vital factors taken in to the account when planning such event. Illustrate a model of systematic approach that could be used within the organization highlighting the training cycle stages, explaining how training contributes the achievement of the above organizational business objective and further in future.
However while explaining all these to the management you may have realize that the Boot's unavailability of Training policy is one of the mandatory facts of causing most of these issues. Detail the Training and development policy in an Organization and advantages that could be gained out of implementing it.
Learning Outcome: Critically evaluate the planning and design of training and development
Assessment criteria for pass: Explain how training contributes to the achievement
of business objectives and the role of a training and development policy
Explain and describe a systematic approach to training and development using a model and outline each stage of the training cycle
Critically evaluate the factors to take into account when planning a training and development event
Evaluate an organization's approach to training
Systematic approach means a methodical approach repeatable and learnable through a step by stepÂ procedure.
By adopting a systematic approach to training helps make certain that supervisors are getting the most out of themselves and their employees. A systematic approach to training includes taking the time to scrutinize what results the organization needs from its employees, if employees are accomplishing those results, and what training and development approaches are needed by employees to better accomplish those results. A systematic approach includes evaluating approaches before, during and after training to ensure employees truly benefited from the training in terms of enhanced results to the organization. Effective training and development includes using sound principles of performance management and good, basic training techniques.
According to the specification of previously explained task the Board of Directors has given you the permission to start your implementation of the training and development programme. However they suggested that they will be delighted if you could present them the evaluation mechanism planned to practice along with following information as a report to the board of Directors for further green lights.
ï‚·The importance of the evaluation process along with the key stakeholders within it and their role in the training life cycle.
ï‚·The evaluation process system mapped with training and development life cycle.
ï‚·The available evaluation techniques and advantages and Disadvantages of them.
ï‚·Use of evaluation models in Boot's training and development plan and expected complicatedness in practice.
ï‚· How these evaluation process lend a hand to training and development marketing with in the business.
This should be given in the format of report.
Learning Outcome: Explore the role and purpose of evaluation and evaluation techniques
Assessment criteria for pass: Examine the importance of evaluation and how it can help to market the contribution of training and development to the business
Explore the way that evaluation needs to be on-going and systematically planned for at each stage of the training cycle
Review the key stakeholders in the evaluation process and the roles that they play
Compare and contrast a range of evaluation techniques and the pros and cons of these
Analyze the contribution of evaluation models and the difficulties that these can pose in practice