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I. Q1 This paper will critically review Q1a primary schools behaviour policy. Q1bIn addition, it will address the topic of class room behaviour and how improving this may benefit pupils. Furthermore, ??????questions to be discussed are q2How can teachers pre-empt misbehaviour? 3RD Finally how can teachers approach the issues of misbehaviour? In conclusion of answering the above questions, a summary will be made to indicate how inclusive learning can be implemented within the classroom environment as well as the role of the educator in these situations.
link with theory/reading
II. GENERAL Q1b
One theory based on the individual psychology of Adler titled Psycho educational theory attempts to promote positive behaviour. The fundamental belief of this theory is that it is that it ultimately establishes the behavioural pattern of an individual (Arthur, Gordon & Butterfield, 2003). The theory based upon positive behaviour promotions through development of self beliefs; therefore, can only change once the negative beliefs are changed to positive beliefs (Arthur et al., 2003).
Encouraging pupils to promote positive behaviour can also be achieved by allowing pupils and young people to feel they are valued as individuals within the learning environment (Arthur, et al., 2003). However, this is multi part process; the first enabling pupils to negotiated class rules with clear. The second part is to develop conflict resolution techniques. The third part is encouragement aimed at all pupils allowing them to feel valued. Finally, satisfaction, this should be an individualized plan to meet the needs of each student (Arthur, et al., 2003). However, Curwin and Mendler (1997) would suggest a model of responsibility. The model proposes, welcoming warm environments, clearly defined rules and encouraging conflict resolution skills found within the National Curriculum (2000) within the subject of Personal Social Health Education (PSHE) to be positive way forward in addressing these issues within the Primary school environment. Curwin and Mendler (1997) suggests that this is a more difficult strategy and is more time consuming to implement, although believe it to be a worthy strategy as it seems to be more effective with higher achievers.
Observational learning is yet another theory which can be implemented to encourage positive behaviour. Practitioners' model acceptable behaviour at all times, this is seen to be good practice (Kauffman, Mostert, Trent & Pullen, 2006). Pupils receiving rewards in front of others for acceptable behaviour may also increase the desired behaviour. This can be seen within the enquiry school as Work Based Research Task ?? suggests, (WBRT??) This technique may be utilized when minor misbehaviour is perceptible; an educator can ignore the misbehaviour and therefore, rewarding others for their acceptable behaviour may distract the misbehaving pupil (Kauffman et al., 2006).
The final theory for promoting positive behaviour is rewards theory, by offering students rewards for positive behaviour, such as stickers or table points, house points which can be collected (Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett & Little, 2004). This theory is evident within the enquiry schools behaviour policy indicated within WBRT ??? where pupils are awarded points which, when accumulated, allow them to exchange them for goods in increasing value depending on the amount obtained each term. ADD ANY OTHER REWARDS CLASS WHOLE SCHOOL. Controversially, this does not apply to all pupils. However, studies show positive results if this strategy is used correctly as Akin-Little et al (2004) suggested.
Educators prevent unacceptable behaviour by raising positive behaviour standards may assist in reducing misbehaviour as indicated by Moore, Anderson and Kumar (2005) In addition, it maybe that some behaviour can be interpreted as misbehaviour can actually be escape behaviour as described within independent observations (WBRT??). However, another cause of unacceptable behaviour maybe that the work set is not set at the correct level and therefore does not engage to pupil moreover misbehaves to avoid the task.
deal with misbehaviour?
Simply by using the extinction theory and therefore, removing any reward or reinforcement, the pupils was receiving for the undesirable behaviour will also obtain the desired behaviour. Response cost punishment is another behaviourism strategy- used within workplace at playtime behaviour this results in the loss of an event or task which is of value to them, for example a Golden time, free play and even football pitch allowance. (Kaufman et al 2006 65). Punishment by presenting aversives is the final behaviourism solution involves reprimands or timeouts (Kaufman et al 2006) within workplace some pupils use timeout cards and visit the BM..
The final section of this paper will address the issue of how all pupils can be included in learning. Two theories discussed within this paper focus on the individual and therefore the teacher is encouraged to include and consider the needs of all students. These theories are psycho educational and goal-centered theory. Salend and Sylvestre (2005) also support that individual attention is required to ensure that all students are given work that is at an optimal level for them. This idea is reiterated by Greenspan (2005) as a major contributing factor in creating an inclusive classroom in his article on the topic. It could be concluded from this analysis that teachers play an important role in creating of the inclusive classroom.
ARGUEMENT---- can lead to other not reaching their full potential in learning due to unacceptable behaviour of others within the same classroom environment.
ONE SOLUTION --FAMILY SUPPORT When schools work together with families to support learning, children tend to succeed not just in school, but throughout life. A child's achievement in school is not actually based on income or social status it is in fact based on the family's ability to create a home environment that encourages learning, express high expectations for their children's achievement and future careers and to become involved in their children's educations at school and in the community (Wherry).