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Tourism is traveling for predominantly recreational, leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited". Tourism has become a popular worldwide leisure activity. In 2006, there were over 842 million international tourist arrivals.
Tourism is an important tool for many countries, due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry and the chance for job or employment in the service industries associated with tourism. The tourism services comprise various services such as cruise ships and taxis as transportation, accommodation such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues, and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts.
Historical Background Of Tourism In The World And Nepal
From the books and literature on tourism generally starts with its history in the eighteenth and nineteenth century in the context of Europe, little realizing that in Asian tourism has a hoary past. Even in the Roman world, during the few centuries on either side of the bringing of the Georgin calendar, tourism was a special phenomenon with the people. True, the form of tourism has not always been the sane; what it is today, was certainly not in the past, as the motivating forces of past are not same today, and will hardly remain the same in the future. In the ancient world, there were three motivation forces for the movement of people,
- (1) Trade or commerce
- (2) Religious merits
- (3) Political factors
It is common knowledge that the birth of the ancient cities in the world was always based on surplus economy as well as on the mobilization of human and natural resources available in the country. These things always implied two things: firstly, that there was a ruling authority, which could mobilize the activities of the city, and secondly, that there was a religious symbol which acted as a magnetic force for the people. The latter was very significant since it added not only festivities in their otherwise monotonous worldly affairs, but also created new values for the extramundane concerns of human beings, which have always been a very strong urge with man as we can visualize from thousands of graves all over the world belonging to all the known periods of human history. Thus, the palaces and the temples produced the early cities, as Lewis-Mumford has very right observed. We know from the various research reports of the archaeologists that regular trade linked the ancient cities or palace-and-temple cities of Iran, Egypt, Eastern Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Indus- Sarasvati of the third and second millennia BC in terms. If luxury, such as ivories, spices, and beads and in teams of raw materials, such as copper, gold, silver, steatite, lapis-lazuli and many precious and semi-precious minerals. It was through this mechanism of the Christian era, India maintained a close relationship with Greco-Roman world, with the central Asian states and with the South- East Asian countries.
This somewhat unusual preface has been given to bring home the role of trade in the movements of people, which alone opened the first routes to distant lands. This was the single factor which offered a tremendous amount of opportunity to those young and old whose imagination and initiative impelled them to accompany the caravan of the merchants not so much for purposes of monetary gains but for the purpose of seeing new lands, meeting new people and enlarging the frontiers of their knowledge and curiosity. Some five hundred Buddhist Jataka stories ate full of such references. They tell us the tales of several trade missions, which consisted of a variety of people. For example, there could hardly be a caravan without a priest to propitiate God throughout the journey for the safety and welfare of its members.
Similarly, there was hardly a caravan without a few people who could provide different types of entertainment during the long journeys performed by such caravans. There was also hardily a caravan, which did not have a few scholars, who were there primarily for the purpose of gaining new knowledge or carrying the religious scriptures and secular treatises to the new lands. I, therefore, conclude that the trade-relation caravans of the ancient period provide the earliest form of tourism in the world. In fact, even in modern times, the largest number of tourists moving around the world and those are connected with some sort of trade and commerce. No doubt, with the introduction of Jumbo-jets offering cheap travel around the world, groups of old men and women for the Western world have started moving out purely for purposes of sigh-seeing, still their number is comparatively small; individuals going abroad on one pretext or the other connected with personal ends still count the majority.
Returning to another aspect of ancient Indian and Nepal tourism through the mechanism of trade, we would like to quote from Kautilya's Arthasastra on the subject of passport, the government department to look after the foreigners, and the types of accommodation provided to the travelers midway. This great treaty, much of which is said to be as old as the third century BC, clearly mentions that no one could travel without a Mudra, i.e., a passport with a stamp of a high governmental official known as Mudradhyakas. It has been cleared mentioned that those traveling with fake Mudras or without Mudras will be fined 12 Panas. Forfigners were heavily fined for violating the rules of passport. Interestingly enough, the text mention that traveler had to get them checked mid-way at several places under the command of the Vivitadhyakas, i.e., the officer of local ground. The text goes further and mentions the existence of Dharamsalas in all the big and small towns. They provided accommodation to the travelers at almost no cost, and thereby became the centers for all sorts of traders to exchanges and purchase goods. It is extremely significant to note that the managers of these religious houses were considered the most honest bankers with whom valuables could be deposited and who, because of their varied knowledge from travelers, offered detailed knowledge of religious edifices, the natural environment of different localities, and the socio-politico-economic conditions in lands far and near. The Sarais (inns) of the medieval period served almost the same purposes. They too arranged comfortable night-halts as well as sightseeing trips for the expected ad unexpected traveler.
The proprietors and their companions discharged the duties of knowledgeable guides, as well as those of the host and host in whom confidence could be reposed. We have a large number of villages with the suffix Sarais still existing in northern part of India and some parts of Nepal. During the medieval periods, these must have been important halting places on the way to Agra. In the ancient and medieval periods when the cities were few in number and far between, the roads connecting them necessarily contained such places with most hospitable inns. Apart from affording a comfortable stay to casual visitors, they gave shelter and support to the movement of convoys of traders.
Thus, the history of tourism in Nepal in the ancient and mediaeval periods was closed connected with trade and religion, although political embassies and goodwill mission also played some significant role. Megasthenes, Fahien, Huien-Tsang, I- tsing, Taranath, Al-beruni, are only some of the famous travelers to India and Nepal from China (Tibet) in the ancient and medieval periods.
Origins, Extending The Peripheries And Changing Markets Of World Tourism
The changing economic, social, and technological societies that have created mass tourism continue to drive its demand. Just as the numbers of people, participating in tourism increased continuously through the twentieth century. The peripheries of tourism have also been extended progressively, as is shown in figure in five, there are few places in the world that remain untouched by tourism and with the development of space tourism; the periphery is now set to be expanded beyond the boundaries of the planet.
The notable evolution in the market for tourism manifested itself in the Kater 1980s with a demand for a diversity of destinations and new types if experiences through tourism. A new generation of tourist, more confident and familiar with travel, and more independently minded that their parents drove these changes. These tourist are referred to by Poon (1993) as ‘new tourist' who are less predicated and homogeneous than the ‘old tourist', characterized by being less interested in package holidays and group travel, instead wanting to emphasis their individuality and have control of their own experiences. Poon ‘(ibid.) suggest that in place to the vacation representing an escape from work and home, new tourist go on holiday to experience something different, consequently integrating travel an vacations into their lifestyle.
Alongside the emergence of new tourist, there has also been a diversification in the types of tourism, with terms such as ‘eco', ‘Culture', ‘alternative' and ‘adventure' becoming part of the tourism lexicon. Beside begin representative of a maturing of the tourism market; it is also important to understand these developments within the context of changes in the home society of tourists. Just as the popularization of wilds cape as part of the Grand Tour was attributable to Romanticism and urbanization, similarly it is difficulty to disassociate the emergence of ecotourism and Cultural tourism. Which emphasis the natural and authentic as being independent of a perceived disassociation form nature and pre-industrial culture by post- industrial societies.
Similarly, just as the entrepreneurial activities of Cook and Raitz was essential to a mass participation in travel, the efforts of new entrepreneurs in developing low-cost air travel have been instrumental in the lowering of the prices of air travel, diversifying the number of destination, and increasing the opportunities for independent travel. The rapid progress in information technology in the last decade of the twentieth century, brining into the home the possibility of making online airline and hotel reservations, has also had a great impact on the diversification of travel. As the WTO (2003c: 6) comments: ‘” Do it-yourself”” is becoming more and more common, particularly for the mature and experienced travelers, vigorously stimulated by the possibilities offered by low-cost airline and the Internet.
The Industrial Revolution: Laying The Roots For Contemporary Tourism
The effects of the industrial Revolution upon society were, as Hobsbawm (1962) suggest, enormous. These included economic, social, political, technological, and cultural changes, the interaction, and amalgam of which, besides radically changing society, help to explain patterns of contemporary tourism. As the name suggests, the Industrial Revolution is significance for making a period of change for and agriculture based economy to an industrial one, It origins lie in the mechanization of cotton and wool production in the north of England in the last two decades of the eighteenth century.
In terms of explaining how the Industrial Revolution influences the development of mass participation in tourism, certainly key themes are evident: urbanization and increase economic production; the technological advancement of transport and the emergence of a tourism industry; and the development of the seaside as a spatial area for mass tourism.
Prerequisites Of Tourism
Before people are able to experience tourism they usually need unrestricted profits (i.e. money to spend on non-essentials); time off from work or other responsibilities; leisure time tourism infrastructure, such as transport and accommodation; and legal clearance to travel.
Independently, suitable health is also a condition and of course the preference to travel. Additionally, in some countries there are legal restrictions on travelling particularly out of the country. Certain states with strong governmental control over the lives of citizens (notably established Communist states) may restrict foreign travel only to trustworthy citizens. The United States prohibits its citizens from traveling to some countries, for example Cuba. Suitcases are also necessary for luggage.
Tourism In Nepal
Tourism, as post- Second World War phenomenon, has revolutionized the economies of many countries of the world to an extent, which to us in Nepal may see unbelievable. International tourism has now become world's number one industry-roughly twice the size of the oil industry. It is the single largest factor in world trade today and earns the maximum foreign exchange in the shortest time. The Annual Report 2000-2001 (Department of Tourism, Government of Nepal) estimated foreign exchange earnings of NRP 35% percent of foreign currencies.
Tourism like live is a many -splendor things, the meaning of which differs from person to person, depending on which side of the fence one is sitting. Primarily, it is associated with travel, a temporary human migration within the country on the one hand, and beyond the seas to other countries and climes in the other. It is an urge to get away from the humdrum, or a thirst for adventure or and experiences, a sources of Knowledge, and above all, relaxation.
Tourism, however, should not be taken only as a source of financial gains and personal relaxation. It has another very great role to play in the life of humans: it is a source of our appreciation of the culture of the other. For example, Nepal is a small country with a great past and great tradition. It can boast of more than 6000 years of civilized life with special cities, monumental temples, great palaces, beautiful sculptures, and paintings and a host of other artistic creations. More than this is the fact that is a living civilization, whose traditions arise directly from its past. In this sense in Nepal is unique. Obviously, for any foreigner a visit to Nepal must have a profound culture impact. In different terms and with different emphasis the same can be said of many ancient civilizations of the world whether they belong to West Asia, Japan, China, India, or South East Asia, or to Mesoamerica. To a certain degree, the same can be said of Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, etc., in Europe. However, except for China, India and Nepal, no other country has the living past since the later cultures cut them off from their past.
Modern tourism has one more aspect: it concerns man's health. In every country of the world, there are a few selected places, which have been favored by nature. They offer a life giving and health-promoting environment which all human beings at one stage or the other of their lives need. Nepal has its own share, not only in the picturesque valleys of the Himalayas, but also on the broad sunny places Janakpur. Nepal is also known for its Yoga, not only as sources of rejuvenation but also as a source of spiritual upliftment. The country is full of Yoga centers and every year a large number of tourists ate attracted to these centers.Tourism is not only for the old person with curiosity for exotic scenes, but it is also for the youth who likes to amuse him with different types of sports. Pokhara, the famous valley in the surrounding mountains of Kaski, provides a fantastic opportunity for winter. Some of the rivers and black waters in eastern part of country are a great attraction to tourist, who is particularly interested in ‘Regatta'.
Civilization has done many good things to the human race. It has confiscated man for nature. In addition, nature without its wildlife is like a beautiful rose without thorns. There are people in the world who have a special fascination for life. Children all over the world derive the most innocent joy while observing the queer behaviour of the wild animals. Cities as big as New York, London, and Tokyo are provide zoos primarily for children. In Nepal, besides several zoos, there are many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries situated. For those who like hunting and shooting, these types of parts also found in Nepal. Tourism in Nepal, however, has not become a social phenomenon for the Nepali people to the extent it ought to have become. In western counties it has already become part of one's annual routine. The stage recognize it, the employer recognizes it, and the worker feels it as his right to go out for a change for a period of at least two-to-four weeks in year with the expenses met by his employer. It is this sort of recognition, which has created tourism mindedness throughout the Western world. Although the government does provide some travel facilities to its workers in the railways, the airlines and the waterways, in Nepal such recognition has yet to be achieved on a mass scale.
The only type of tourism that has really been a part of our life is ‘religious tourism' science Nepal, largely, is a country with a distinct emphasis on religion. Hinduism and Buddhism, for example, enjoins on its followers at least one visit to its four great temples of Pashupatinatha and Greatest Gumbas of Lord Buddha. However, with the phenomenal growth in educational and industrialization, tourism has already caught the imagination of the younger generation. If tourism has yet not become a great attraction for all the people in Nepal, the reasons will have to be located in the economic backwardness of the large majority of our people as also in the low percentage of educated people. We are, however, sure that proportionate to the development in these two spheres a rise is bound to occur in domestic tourism. Now, educational institutions are already trying to offer facilities to its inmates for not only cultural tourism but also technological tourism. It means, every year thousands of students are taken out to the centers of new industrial development. Its serves a very specific purpose: the new generation, on the one hand, is becoming conscious of the directional changes in the widening fields of Nepal's industrial development, and on the other it is becoming tourism-minded.
Types Of Tourism In Nepal
All types of tourism in Nepal except beach tourism have registered phenomenal growth in the last decade ever since the Nepal government decided to boost revenues from the tourism sector by projecting Nepal as the ultimate tourist spot.
The reason why Nepal has been doing well in all types of tourism in Nepal is that Nepal has always been known for its hospitality, uniqueness, and charm - attributes that have been attracting foreign travelers to Nepal in hordes. The Nepal government, in order to boost tourism of various kinds in Nepal, has set up the Ministry of Tourism and Culture. This ministry has been launched since long time in order to encourage different types of tourism in Nepal.
Among the 550,000 tourists that came to Nepal in 2007AD, 360,350 used air flights while others entered the country by land. According to the National News Agency RSS, in 2006, the number of tourists entered Nepal through air was 283,516 in total which swelled by 27.1 percent than last year. According to the Immigration Department, 153,000 tourists has arrived Nepal by bus. The result was that in 2007, foreign tourists spent around US$ 15.4 billion during their trips to Nepal. Being a country with tremendous diversity, Nepal has a lot to offer in terms of tourism and related activities. The diversity that Nepal is famous for ensures that there is something to do for all tourists in Nepal, no matter what their interests. The different types of tourism in Nepal are as follows:
As a kind of tourism in Nepal, adventure tourism has recently grown in Nepal. This involves exploration of remote areas and exotic locales and engaging in various activities. For adventure tourism in Nepal, tourists prefer to go for trekking to places like Pokhara, and Himalaya. Himalayas, pokhara, Eastern part of Nepal and lots other places are popular for the skiing facilities they offer. White-water rafting is also catching on in Nepal and tourists flock to places. The various kinds of adventure tourism in Nepal are:
Rock climbing, Skiing, Elephant safari, Para gliding, Mountaineering, Rafting in white water, Trekking, Jungle Safari, Mountain Biking, Mountaineering, Expedition, Bunjee Juping, Peck Climbing, World Heritage Tour, Sightseeing, Mountain flight, Hot air ballooning and Bird Watching.
Nepal have variety of adventure activity that could be the fantastic way to explore to Nepal like Mountain biking. The allow tourists to travel independently and stop wherever you want. Tourists do not have to tortuous buses. They can discover secluded places and reach places that cannot be visited any other way. Nepal has many tracks to journey and travel. Tourists can make an interesting climb thousands of meters to reach a viewpoint with fantastic views. Then they make an exciting descent. It is an interesting trip ride to Royal Chitwan National Park.
The long bike tours require that tourists are physical fit. Unless they plan to ride along a trekking route, there is no required paperwork. To do any serious biking they need a mountain bike, and a normal bike will not do.
The Kathmandu Valley has some great places to ride. It has many trails and back roads. It is a good way to visit the interesting towns, temples and Buddha stupas. To get around the valley tourists most likely will want a good map, such as the Schneider or Nelles Verlag map. Most of the other maps are not very good and are often inaccurate. Many trails are not on maps and they will need a good sense of direction and will have to stop and ask directions to get around.
Nepal is a country well known for its Himalaya Mountains. Among the 10 highest peaks in the world, eight, including the highest peak Mt. Everest, crown this country. Nothing on earth can beat the exhilaration of scaling them. No wonder Nepal is the favourite destination for mountaineers and every year more than 600 expedition's trudge up the Himalaya, including the trekking peaks.
There is no doubt; Nepal is the one of the best destination or site for adventure activities in the world among them Bungee jump is one. Tourist can be experienced ultimate thrill of it. Nepal's first bungee jumping site is situated 160m over the wild Bhote Koshi River. This is located close to the Nepal-Tibet border, a three-hour bus ride from Kathmandu.
The jump, at 160m, was created by one of New Zealand's leading bungee consultants and is operated by some of the most experienced jumpmasters in the business. It's mishap-proof. The agency takes security "very, very extremely".
Beside, Bungee Jump numerous trekking peaks open for alpine climbing under NMA (Nepal Mountaineering Association). The climbing of these peaks are organized under the rules & regulations conducted by the association. High mountains of Nepal give hobby-climbers an opportunity to tackle a high Himalayan peak without having to organize a major expedition. Although these peaks are lower than their more famous cousins are the 8000m mountains, many of the climbs are no less challenging and adventurous in nature. By Himalayan standards, these are considered minor peaks, but in fact, some of them are relatively challenging snow and Ice climbing of high standard.
Paragliding is a relatively new adventure sport in Nepal. Paragliding in this Himalayan country can be a truly perfect and satisfying experience for the adventure explorers. Tourists can experience unparalleled scenic grandeur as their share airspace with Himalayan griffin vultures, eagles, kites, while floating over villages, monasteries, temples, lakes and jungles, with a fantastic view of the majestic Himalayas. The last three years have seen the activity flourish in Pokhara, and it now is an internationally recognized destination for free-flight enthusiasts.
The southern part of Nepal is called the Terai. It is lowland covered with dense subtropical forest. Here tourists will find some of National Parks in Nepal. The national parks and game reserves of the Terai offer some of the finest Wildlife experiences in Asia, and it definitely is the ultimate in sub-tropical adventure. Rare species such as one-horned rhinos, Bengal tigers, and Gharial crocodiles abound on the ground, while uncountable species of birds and butterflies dominate the air. The indigenous Tharu ethnic groups live in the lowland Terai areas around the parks areas, and provide a surprising cultural contrast to the mountain peoples of the north. The protected areas of Nepal's offer incredible Wildlife viewing opportunities just choose the best one to suit for tourist's time and interests. Tourists will be going into deep jungle on elephant back or four-wheel drive to view wild animals in their natural habitat. The movement of Nepal Jungle Safari contains canoeing, nature walks, bird watching, excursions and visit to an ethnic Tharu village in the Jungle Safari Park. There are fourteen national parks and wildlife reserves in the Kingdom. Royal Chitwan National Park, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, and Royal Bardiya National Park are most famous and popular.
For over forty years, Nepal has been an extremely attractive destination for travellers, scholars and academics. For people concerned in culture, the Kathmandu valley is endowed with World Heritage sites listed by UNESCO. This valley was divided into three kingdoms less than a century ago. It now covers immeasurable architectural monuments and vestiges of diverse cultural and religious customs.
Nepal has a rich forest cover which has some beautiful and exotic species of wildlife - some of which that are even endangered and very rare. This has boosted wildlife tourism in Nepal. The places where a foreign tourist can go for wildlife tourism in Nepal are the Royal chitwan National Park, Langtang National park; Annapurna National Park, etc are famous.
Tourists from all over the world have been thronging India to avail themselves of cost-effective but superior quality healthcare in terms of surgical procedures and general medical attention. Several medical institutes in the country cater to foreign patients and impart top-quality healthcare at a fraction of what it would have cost in developed nations such as USA, UK, China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Japan.
Nepal is famous for its temples and that is the reason that among the different kinds of tourism in Nepal, pilgrimage tourism is increasing most rapidly. The various places for tourists to visit in India for pilgrimage are Pashupatinath, Bouddha, Manakamana, Swyambhu, etc.
Among the types of tourism in Nepal, ecotourism have grown recently. Ecotourism involves the maintainable conservation of a naturally endowed area or region. This is becoming more and more significant for the ecological development of all regions that have tourist value. For ecotourism in Nepal, tourists can go to places such as Royal chitwan National Park, Rara National Park, Langtang National Park, Annapurna National Park, and Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park etc.
Nepal is known for its rich cultural heritage and an element of mysticism, which is why tourists come to Nepal to experience it for themselves. The various fairs and festivals that tourists can visit in Nepal are the Dahain, Tihar, Red Machchhendranath Festival, Buddha Jayanti (The Birthday of Lord Buddha), Indrajatra Shivaratri-The night of Shiva etc. The types of tourism in Nepal have grown and this has boosted the Nepali economy. That it continues to grow efforts must be taken by the Nepali government, so that the tourism sector can contribute more substantially to the nation's GDP.
Tourism And Globalization
In my mind, one question has been created after reading lots of literature regarding to history and component of Globalization. Is Globalization a recent or long -term historical process? With different understanding of globalization come widely different views on the timing of globalization. Is globalization a recent process if the last thirty years or so, as most economists have it, or a long-term historical process? Is the component of globalization different according to era? I found different answers according to social science discipline, which are listed below.
Travel and tourism,
Foreign aid, etc
Among above instruments, this research focuses on tourism, because this is direct related to people's social, cultural and economic life and can have more impacts than others in general. It is widely considered that tourism has playing a key role in the process of globalization on Nepalese economy, culture and society from past to present. Because, other instruments of globalization has not seen any important role for globalization in Nepal.
Regarding to tourism and globalization few researches has done in global context but not in Nepal.
Today, tourism, like other previously non-anthropological topics such as development and globalization, has gained a regular place at annual American Anthropological Association (AAA) meetings. Along the way, however, it has been transformed into an anthropological object, one which is scrutinized and critiqued by an anthropology which claims to operate from a position outside of and distinct from tourism, a stance that works to mystify the relationship between anthropology and tourism. As an object of anthropological inquiry, it has been defined and shaped by a series of questions that tend to revolve around three issues: individual motivation (why do people travel?), economic gains and losses (who benefits from this travel?) and tourism's cultural impact (what ‘cultural' changes does tourism bring?) Graburn, 1983: 10; Nash and Smith, 1991: 22.
A research paper published by Sega publication (2002) on, tourism and development: globalization and power concluded Tourism development is integral to processes of globalization that much is obvious. Indeed, the analysis of tourism development needs to take account of theoretical advances in the study of processes of globalization in order to produce more sophisticated comparisons of both core and periphery experiences of the localization of tourism development (Lofgren, 1999). Franklin and Crang, (2001: 8) point out that, ‘tourism has broken away from its beginnings as a relatively minor and ephemeral ritual of modern national life to become a significant modality through which transnational modern life is organized'. Because of processes of globalization, virtually everyone now lives in a region that is subject to tourism development. Globalization processes have resulted in greater flexibility, hybridity and difference, as various localities are restructured (Potter et al., 1999). Such restructuring has, in turn led to many conventional oppositions and divisions being questioned.
Similarly, journal published by Vesna Peric (2002) on tourism and globalization explained tourism is the important means of globalization. He mentioned different variables to prove it. He used tourism as the means of internalization and globalization. Tourism has increased the interdependence between countries, economies and people. This process has led to the certain and operation on equal basis regardless of the country of origin, function interactively. Tourism has opened a completely new world of development opportunities. Millions of people travelled abroad in the year of 2009. Tourism has become big business and is run by great trusts. He used hotels (six continental, Radisson etc), tour operators, travel agency and the air travel industry as the examples of globalization created by tourism. Finally, he concluded tourism has helped to create globalization and globalization has helped to create homogeneous society and culture on the destination.
A research done by Deobrah McLaren(2003), “Rethinking tourism and eco-travel” a fully revised and comprehensive overview of the history and global development of tourism provides updated information on the global tourism and includes many case studies on how local communities in deferent parts of the world. Especially Indigenous people are affected by this seemingly insatiable industry and have responded to the challenges posed by tourism and eco-travel.
The findings of this research were, tourism plays an increasingly important role in international relations. Links exist between tourist flow and regional integration, governments, military, and economic aid. “Most nations have several policies toward foreign tourists that are based not only on anticipated length of stay, but also on the degree of international cooperation existing between the two countries.”
Tourism is enormous business for governments and private enterprise alike. Any state with still-pristine areas of forests, seashores, mountains and parks or with ethnic tribes and other unique rural cultures has something to market in the global economy.
“In the new global economy, production everywhere will be focused on the needs of a single, Western monoculture, while Indigenous cultures and diverse location-specific adaptations will be steadily erased. Local self-sufficiency will become an ever more distant memory.”
Organizations have become leading governing institutions, often exceeding governments in size and power. As David Korten states, “Increasingly, it is the corporate interest more than the human interest that defines the policy agendas of states and international bodies, although this reality and its implications have gone largely unnoticed and unaddressed.” Nowhere is this truer than within travel and tourism.
An article(2004) published by Sega publication on the behalf of international sociological association mention that, tourism has been playing important role for globalization from past. It has been connecting people, culture and society from one place to another. Whether actual tourism itself or nature series broadcast in one's own home, consumer demand leads to the supply of commodities and activities, for economic profit, by a variety of actors, from individual entrepreneurs to big corporations and governments. Travel agencies, airlines, hotels, car rental agencies, art dealers, wildlife trackers, anthropologists, television channels, publishing houses are all drawn into these activities and by promoting them, advertising them, also sustain the continued consumer demand. Some of these operators are small-scale entrepreneurs, such as freelance photographers and tour guides or local cafe owners. Many others are very centralized and quite removed from the locality or object that is exhibited. The tours are pre-packaged and pre-paid, the hotel chains, travel agencies, television channels and travel magazines are corporate-owned, all part of the same globalization trends that also generate the consumer appetite for the packaged exhibit of the other, of the different.
Study done by Martha C.E. Van Der Bly (2007) on globalization and the rise of one heterogeneous world culture accomplished Tourism is the most powerful instruments of globalization and key factor of heterogeneous society and culture in Ireland.
Culture And Globalization
Globalization lies at the heart of modern culture; cultural practices lie at the heart of globalization. This is the reciprocal relationship. This is not a reckless claim, “it is not to say that globalization is the single determinant of modern cultural experiences, not that culture alone is the conceptual key that unlocks globalization's inner dynamic”. It is not, therefore, to claim that the politics and economics of globalization yield to a cultural account, which takes conceptual precedence. However, it is to maintain that the huge transformative processes of our time that globalization describes cannot be properly understood until they are grasped through the conceptual vocabulary of culture; likewise that these transformations changes the very fabric of cultural experience and, indeed, after our sense of what cultural actually is in the modern world. Both globalization and culture are concepts of the highest order of generality and notoriously contested in their meanings.
Technology has now created the possibility and even the likelihood of a global culture. The Internet, fax machines, satellites, and cable TV are sweeping away cultural boundaries. International entertainment corporations shape the perceptions and dreams of ordinary citizens, anywhere they live. This spread of values, norms, and culture tends to promote Western ideals of capitalism. Will local cultures inevitably fall victim to this global "consumer" culture? Will English eradicate all other languages through tourism? Will consumer values overwhelm peoples' sense of community and social solidarity? Will tourism influence the local culture? Alternatively, on the contrary, will a common culture lead the way to greater shared values and political unity? This research will look at these and other issues of culture and globalization.
Globalization and Culture Globalization demands some degree of structural changes in the various dimensions of a society. As can be expected the effects of these structural changes on the normative and value systems (and their attendant institutions) of the non-Western societies are most dramatic. These "structural adjustments" have all too often created traumatic experiences for those who often find themselves helpless to prevent the erosion of their cultures and economic well-being.
Several clashing notions of cultural difference have accompanied globalization or the trend of increasing international interconnectedness. The awareness of the world “becoming smaller” and cultural difference receding agrees with a growing sensitivity to cultural difference. The increasing salience of cultural change forms part of a general cultural turn, which contains a wider self-reflexivity of modernism. Modernization has been advancing like a steamroller, erasing cultural and biological diversity in its way, and now not only the gains ( rationalization, standardization, control) but also the losses ( alienation, disenchantment, displacement) are becoming apparent. Earmarking out cultural variety has been a form of disenchantment of the world.
Yet it is fascinating to note how the notion of culture difference itself has changed form. It used to take the form on national differences, as in familiar discussion of national character or identity. Now different forms of difference have come to the foreground, such as gender and identity politics, ethnic and religious movement, minority rights, and indigenous peoples. Another argument is that we are experiencing a “clash of civilizations.” In this view, cultural differences are regarded as immutable and generating rivalry and conflict. At the same time, there is a common accepting that growing global interconnectedness leads towards increasing cultural standardization and uniformization, as the global sweep of consumerism. A shorthand form of this momentum is McDonaldizaton. A third position, although different from both these models of intercultural relations, is that what is taking place is a process of cultural mixing or hybridization across locations and identities.
This is a meta-theoretical image on cultural variance that argues that there are three and only three, perspectives on cultural modification: cultural differentialism or lasting difference, cultural convergence or growing sameness, and cultural hybridization or ongoing mixing. Each of these positions involves particular theoretical precepts and as such, they are paradigms. Each represents a particular politics of difference- as lasting and immutable, as erasable and being erased, and as nixing and in the process generating new trans-local forms of difference. Each encompasses various subjectivities and wider perspectives. The first vision, according to which cultural difference is immutable, may be the oldest viewpoint on cultural difference. The second, the thesis of cultural convergence, is as old as the earliest forms of universalism, as in the world religion. Both have been revived and renewed as varieties of modernism respectively in its romantic and Enlightenment versions. While the third perspective, hybridization, refers to a post-modern sensibility of travelling culture.
Globalization and cultural is not an innocent theme. The intervening variable in most accounts is modernity. Three vectors globalization, modernity, culture- come together in a package with modernization as the deciding variable. Consider the subtitle of Bernard Lewis's recent book, the clash between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East (2002). This is the subtext of the alleged clash of civilizations. Modernity is also a polite, sociological way of saying capitalism. The sociologists Oxford (1995) and Tomlinson (1999), among others, struggle with this question and in the end tiptoe over to the side of modernity shaping cultural dynamics. It's difficult to argue with the combined power of modernity and capitalism, with technology and economics on their side, and therefore, it seems, global wins out from local cultural. Yet one wonders whether these accounts are actually about culture or about power.
Cultural globalization is familiar to almost everyone, though it may not always be recognized. Everybody knows that prominent icons of popular culture, like Coca-Cola, blue jeans, rock music, and McDonald's golden Arches, can be found “everywhere.” We are also all aware of the seeming sameness engendered by the diffusion of such cultural objects and genres. Add to the list such items as Hollywood, Bollywood, movies, French philosophizing, and Japanese organizational technology that have been widely adopted by American and European companies, and it is easy to believe that cultural globalization inevitable acts as a universal solvent that will dissolve all cultural differences in a dull and colorless homogeneity throughout the world.
Americanization, Westernization or cultural imperialism (and many have, both within and outside the West) - the driving forces behind this homogenization, crisis claim, are the mass media. Controlled mainly by American and European companies, spreading their ethereal tentacles through the airways to the farthest reaches of the globe, the media impose their powerful images, sounds and advertising on unprepared peoples who succumb meekly to their message, which are designed to increase the profits of cabalist firms. Such is the kernel of one side of the debate on the role of the media in world society. However, contrary voices can also be heated, and changes in the structure of the global news, television, radio, music, and film industry have changed much of the received wisdom about cultural imperialism.
An empirical research done by Boike Rehbein, for more than ten years titled on “Globalization, Culture and Society in Laos” one of the first sociological investigations into modern Laos. He gives a fascinating overview of contemporary Lao culture and society, whilst linking local and national phenomena to tendencies of globalization and the history of the region and clearly shown the impact of globalization on present Laos in the culture, society, economic, political Education, religion, Education and language. Finally, he concludes his research by attempting to synthesize these cultural elements with the impact of globalization to give a synopsis of contemporary Lao society.
Why Globalization Matter For Culture And Society
Globalization disturbs the way we conceptualize ‘culture'. For culture, has lone had connotations trying it to the idea of a fixed locality? The idea of a culture implicitly connects meaning construction with particularity and location. As Eade (1997:25) notes an emphasis on blondeness and coherence traditionally dominated the sociological treatment of the idea of culture, particularly in the functionalist tradition where collective meaning construction was dealt with largely as serving the purposes of social integration. So, a culture parallels the problematic notion of a society as a bounded entity (Maan 1986) occupying a physical territory mapped as a political territory (predominantly the nation states) and binding individual meaning constructions into this circumscribed social, political space. The connectivity of globalization is clearly threatening to such conceptualizations, because not only the multiform penetration of localities breaks into this binding of meaning to place, but also because it undermines the thinking through which culture and fixity of location are originally paired.
In anthropology, James Clifford's work in ‘travelling Cultures' ( Clifford 1992, 1997) has focused on prising culture apart from location. Writing of the practices of crossing and interaction that troubled the localism of many common assumptions about culture, he argues; ‘In these assumptions authentic social existence is, or should be, centred in circumscribed places-like the garden where the word ‘culture' derived its European meanings.
Clifford goes against the grain of this inheritance to think of culture as essentially mobile rather than static, to treat, practices of displacement…as constitutive of cultural meanings. In addition, in this he raised something very closed to the conceptual challenge globalization makes to culture. Culture cannot be thought of as having these makes to culture. Culture cannot be thought of as having these inevitable conceptual ties to location, for meanings are equally generated by people on the move and in the flows and connections between cultures.
Yet the notion of travelling culture can also be tendentious. It is not that we have to reverse the priority between roots and routes insisting on the essence of culture as restless nomadic movement. Rather we need to see roots and routes as always coexistent in culture and both as subject to transformation in global modernity. To return to the earlier discussing of travel, we have to remember that a huge proportion of cultural experience is still for the majority the day-to-day experience of physical location, rather than of constant movement. In fact, Clifford admits this point in describing an objection to the trope of travel, made by another anthropologist Christina Turner. Turner pointed to the obvious limitations on movement that vast numbers are subjects to-being kept in their place by their class and gender position. Her ethnographic work with female Japanese factory workers, women who have not travelled by any standard definition, led her to question Clifford's stress on literal travel. However, these women's local cultural experience and practice also disturbed the culture locality connection: they do watch TV; they do have a global/ local sense; they do contradict the anthropologist's typifications; and they do not simply enact a culture (Clifford 1997:28). In accepting this, Clifford concedes that the notion of travelling culture can involve forces that pass powerfully through -television, radio, tourists, commodities, armies (ibid).
This is precisely the point, he want to stress globalization promotes much physical mobility than ever before, but the key to its cultural impacts is in the transformation of localities themselves. It is important to keep to the fore the material conditions of physical embodiment and to political -economy necessity that keep people in their place and so for me the transformation of culture is not grasped in the trope of travel but in the idea of deterritorialization. He understood is that complex connectivity weakness the ties of culture to place. This is in many ways a troubling phenomenon, involving the simultaneous penetration of local words by distant forces, and the dislodging of everyday meaning form their anchors in the local environment. Embodiment and the forces of material circumstance keep most of us; most of the time, situated, but in places that to define the terms of our existence. This is undoubtedly an uneven and often contradictory business, felt more forcibly in some places than others, and sometimes met by countervailing tendencies to re-establish the power of locality. Nevertheless deterritorialization is, he believe the major cultural impact of global connectivity. In addition, it is not all bad news.
For the final point to make is that connectivity also furnishes people with a cultural resource that they lacked before its expansion: a cultural awareness, which is, in various senses, global. Roland Roberson has always stressed that globalization intrinsically involves the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (1992:8) and Giddens (1991:187) argues that people's phenomenon words, though situated locally, for the most part truly global. This does imply that the global increasingly frame our existence. The penetration of localities which connectivity brings is thus double-edged: as it dissolves the securities of locality, it offers new understandings of experience in wider- ultimately global-terms.
Grasping the nature and worth of this global awareness constitutes an important agenda in the cultural analysis of globalization. The Japanese women Christian Turner describes are surely not unusual in having a global/ local sense as part of their everyday life, and one obvious sources of this is the images and information that flows to them- as to millions of us -through the routing use of globalizing media technologies like television. One task for cultural analysis is therefore to understand the phenomenology of this global consciousness, particularly in the mediated from in which it mostly appears to us. And it is not difficulty to see that the horizon of significance made available by the connectivity of media technologies suggests possibilities not only for the reconstitutions of the cultural meaning and identities depleted by deterritorilization, but also for association forms of global culture politics. A sense of our mutual interdependency combined with the means for communicating across distance is producing with the means for communicating across distance is productised new forms of cultural/ political alliance and solidarity. These are undoubtedly weakly developed at present in comparison with the concentrations of power within, for instance, transitional capitalism. However, as some argue (Castells 1997), the global perspective of the new social movements'' nay prove to be embryonic forms of a wider, more powerful order of socially resistance to the repressive aspects of globalization. However, this turns out, it is clear that the reconfiguration of cultural experience that connectivity produces will be crucial to the possibilities of a cosmopolitan politics. Globalisation therefore matters for cultural in the sense that it brings the negotiation of cultural experience into the centre of strategies for intervention in the other realms of connectivity: the political, the environmental, and the economical. This summarized the wide debate of the scope of cultural globalization.
On the paper presented by Boike Rehbein on Configurations of Globalization in Laos and Cambodia: Does Faster Globalization Mean Better Development? He said, “Globalization has been one of the key terms in the social sciences during the past few years. We have now established a certain consensus about the term. There is not only one globalization, but there are several tendencies, most of which have been effective for centuries. Globalization is a complex interaction of the global and the local with the different parts of the world growing together in many respects. This not necessarily entails unification but rather a differentiation that Robertson termed glocalization. After the general discussions that already reached a certain conclusion several years ago, we now need to take a closer empirical look at the processes of globalization. We now have to link the abstract discussion on globalization with social theory and empirical methods. What actually happens with local cultures and social structures?”
Globalization In Nepalese Society And Culture
Nepalese society, which is characterized by diversity in caste/ethnicity, language, religion and culture, has a very long unrecorded history mostly preserved through oral history cultural practices, included myths and legends, such as Mundhum of the Limbus of eastern Nepal, handed down from one generation to the next. The written history is less than two thousand years old. The indigenous people of Nepal, most of whom speak Tibeto-Burman languages, have been practicing animism and Bon since time immemorial, and Buddhism and Lamaism for two and a quarter millennia. Indigenous people have very egalitarian social structure and social economies based on reciprocity. Various indigenous groups developed their own social, cultural and economic system within specific geographical boundaries. Each group developed its own system of rituals from birth to death; each group has its own system of marriage, family, kinship, religion, magic, law, politics and distinctive language.
The first socio-cultural and political invasion began in the thirteenth century followed by mass exodus of Indo- Aryan Hindus, who fled away from northern India to the hills of Nepal due to Muslim invasion. It caused displacement of the Indian Hindus, specially the rulers, who subsequently took refuge in the hills of Nepal. As these Indo- Aryan Hindus had developed their skill as rulers, it was very easy for them to rule in the principalities in the hills. They gradually assimilated indigenous peoples into their own Hindu culture.
Since, then indigenous peoples' society and culture never remained the same. It begun to erode due to a powerful influence of Hindu social, cultural, political, economic and linguistic system, The Bahuns and Chhetries developed their political and socio-cultural ambition of homogenization in terms of Hindu religion and socio-cultural systems. King Prithivi Narayan Saha, the founder of modern Nepal, translated it into reality. He succeeded in unifying politically, twenty-two and twenty-four principalities, and the Kirant Pradesh in eastern Nepal into the modern Nepal in 1768. During that time, India was under the British colonial rule but these principalities in the Himalayan region were enjoying their respective autonomy, there was no influence of European society and culture in the region. After 1768 A.D., King Prithvi Narayan Shah developed a foreign policy that helped to shield the country form any Western, particularly the British influence. The king's internal policy of making Nepal ‘Asali Hindustan', however, did not help indigenous societies and cultures to guard againstalien Hindu religion and culture through the homogenizing processes of Hinduization; Sanskritization, Brahamanization, and Nepalization of languages ( Nepali), religion ( Hindu), and culture ( Hindu), and centralization of power and authority. After the Sugauli Treaty with brithish India, the high-caste rulers, particularly the Ranas, adopted a policy of appeasing the British rulers by allowing them to recruit indigenous people, particularly the Gurungs, Magars, Rai, and the Limbus.
Until 1950, there was hardly any external culture invasion in Nepal because the autocratic Rana rulers had closed the country for the outside world. With the establishment of democracy in 1950, Nepal was opened up to the outside world and the saga of external cultural invasion has been unfolding since then. In Nepal, external cultural invasion has penetrated through various subtle and gentle but powerful media, following Jurgen Habermas, money and power. Both money and power are translated into foreign aid, Western's technology, television programs, radio, newspapers, magazines, CD Rom, internet, books, motion pictures, missionaries, and education. All these means invaded underdeveloped countries like Nepal as part of the process of neo-imperialism. This process is often represented by sugar -coated terms such as modernization, globalization, market economy, privatization, democracy, Westernization, and human rights.
“Until the first half of the 1980s the role of the Nepali state has been active in the sphere of production (land, foresee, mines, capital foods, industrial units, and labor) in the organized sector regulation financial capital and technological policies, circulation foreign trade, foreign policy, transport, credit, banking, planning, distribution, and control bureaucracy, army, police and civilian forces” (Dahal, 1997:1). HMG/N abandoned previous inward looking protectionist policy in March 1985 by adopting a stabilization program sponsored by the IMF, and later in 1987-89, structural adjustment program (SAP) with financial support from the World Bank and IMF.
Non-communists treat globalization as liberalization/ marketization but the communists and many intellectuals of underdeveloped countries treat is as a powerful force if imperialism ( Panday and Arya, 1997; Bahracharya and Sharma, 1996; Baral, 1998; Dahal, 1997; Gura- Gharana, 1996). “Indeed, how are we to understand what is meant by the world “liberal” these days? If the Regans and the Thatchers of our time are the political gurus of liberalization as we are expected to understand by this term, than what is the meaning of “conservation”? The liberalizers of today have changed the English language inside out in many ways. “Reform”, for example, no longer means the adoption of progressive ideas and policies as in the case of, say, land reform, as understood in yesteryears. Now by reform, “the SAP peoples” means a process which addresses the problems not of the tillers of the land or the workers in the factories but of the owners of the land and the owners of the capital” (Pandey, 1996:5). Clearly, multiple actors have multiple, often contradictory, perspectives on the meaning of liberalization of globalization, and clearly, top dogs' defined benefits the top do themselves but the underdog's never ever received any chance to do so. When most of the scholars, politicians, development practitioners talk about globalization, it generally means globalization of Western culture and values. Globalization of non-Western culture and values had been either ignored or underestimated.
The main instruments if the process of globalization in the country includes Missionaries, foreign aid, mass media (Particularly (electronic media), multinational corporations, international financial institutions (Such as the World Bank and the IMF), Tourism and Tourists, Technology, Education, Human tights and politics and diplomacy.
All these instruments actually revolve around foreign aid, and the motive of foreign aid has been to promote and fulfill the interests of multinational corporations (MNCs). Nepal has been receiving foreign aid since the early fifties and about two- third to three-fourth of the annual budget relies on foreign aid ( grants and loans) and as there is no such things as “free lunch”, foreign aid has been given by the donors for the promotions of mass media, multinational levels. It is always difficult to pinpoint a single factor for any impact, nerveless; the impact of globalization on Nepalese society is so immense that it is not at all difficult to notice it.
Impact Of Globalization In Nepalese Society And Culture
By the year 1994/95 His Majesty's Government approved altogether 265 industries with tie total foreign investment of 6879.20 million rupees. By the year 1996, 46 finance companies were registered with the Nepal Rastra Bank; by the year 1995/96 accumulated debt was Rs 121430.9 million, by the year 1995/96 trade balance with India was Rs 21609.4 million; and was Rs -35178.6 ,million with the third country. The total number of tourists in the year 1995 was 363395 (NSFAE, 1997:11). In spite of the fact that “the overall picture of foreign investment in Nepal is thus very small even after globalization because of intrinsic constraints such as landlocked geography, lack of skilled and trained personnel, poor infrastructure and power, macro-economic instability, policy fluctuations and political instability. One can easily infer that transnational corporations have already begun to generate an adverse impact on Nepalese society and Culture (Dahal, 1997:4). It should be noted that the Nepalese society cannot remain immune from what UN report (UN 1978; 74) said that transnational corporations have impacts on the political systems and institutions of the host countries and “the impact may be direct and deliberate or it may be a side-effect of activities and decisions that are primarily economic”.
Positive impact of globalization such as the benefits of modern science and technology, including better health care, transportation and communication, education, and foreign consumer products can be seen in Nepal, but such benefits are the exclusive “privilege” of the elite class. The overwhelming majority of Nepalese people are actually experiencing all possible kind of negative impacts.
The negative impacts of Multinational Corporations on less developed countries in the areas of balance of payments, local business, employment creation, technology transfers, and general economic development appear to be true in Nepal as well ( Cohen and Frieden, 1981: 163). The majority benefits of multinational corporations, such as capital, technology, managerial skills, access to foreign markets, low cost products, enhanced competition, increased government revenues and capability, change in traditional value systems, social attitudes, and behavior patterns, appear to be inapplicable to in Nepal (Biersteker, 1982). On the contrary, seven first-order consequences if multinational corporations:
(1) Net outflow of capital and a worsening balance-of payments position
(2) Displacement of indigenous production,
(3) Transfer of a small or limited amount of technology,
(4) Introduction of inappropriate technology,
(5) Inappropriate patterns of consumption,
(6) Development of allied local groups, and
(7) Uneven income distribution
According to Asian Development Bank (ADB), “Globalization and technological changes are likely to have an increasingly decisive influence in Asia's economy opportunities and relationship with the rest of the World”. ADB predicts, “Within the next three decades the quality of life of Asians would be more prosperous. For example, per capita income would quadruple and Asians would live longer and healthy, better education, affluent, urbanized, with small family size, empowered women.”
In Conclusion, one might agree, “Capitalism or globalization are not bad in themselves, it is the conditions that are applied in that make them good or bad. One could work for global capitalism, hat could benefit no one but the most efficient and experienced multinational company, or for national capitalism that could benefit national companies” (Uprety, 1996:87). But at least on the socio-cultural front, the effects of globalization in Nepalese society and culture have so far been mostly negative, detrimental, and damaging, and there is no indication whatsoever in sight to be optimistic about significant change in such a sad state of affairs.
It should be noted here that no indigenous society and culture could be untouched by the process o