Crime rates Sri Lanka is continued to grow like a social melanoma since 1944. New methods are required in order to take decisions regarding a crime. In such an occasion, the court of law takes assistance of criminology. Main components of the criminology are zoology, chemistry, physics, computer science, statistics, and mathematics. The capital punishment is not reopened with human rights point of view. Unfortunately nowadays we observe that the crimes are so common occurrence in our country. Criminals search for numerous ways in order to commit crimes with the use of advance of the technology. All crime searching mechanisms of our country should be modified with the modern high technology methods in order to curb crimes. Not only the policies of a country, but also techniques which we use to prevent crimes contribute to the increase of the crime rates.
2 Being a democratic country, we do not practice capital punishment regarding offenders. The rate of crimes could be reduced certain extent utilizing the new technology. More over poverty contributes to increase the crime rate of our country.
3. Most of crimes are not reported or not recorded, not followed through, or not able to be proved. Every crime violates the law, while every violation of the law does not count as a crime. As an example: breaches of contact are ranked as offence under the civil law, but it is not considered as a crime.
4. The aim of this paper is to examine the use of technology to curb crimes and to maintain the law and order in Sri Lanka.
5. The idea of crime came from legendary or mythology. Some religious communities consider crime as a “sin”. Good religious preaching’s had pointed out the consequences of committing crimes in historical books. Searching criminals and punishing them is a judiciary process in order to minimize the crime rate of a country or a society. Further the Department of Police has responsibility to submit offenders to the courts. The father of the criminology is considered as professor Edmond Lokard. He made a famous saying that every touch makes substances.
6. Sri Lanka practiced a court system for criminals in the history called “Raja Sabha” and it was an evidence based methodology which had been used to identify the criminals. Presently Sri Lanka use modern technology to detect crimes to a certain extent.
REASONS FOR CRIMES
7. Basically crimes in our country are taken place because of following reasons. Some of these reasons could be controlled with using modern technology for a certain extent. Those reasons are as follows:
a. Poverty of the country.
b. Morale values.
c. Education of the citizens.
d. Religious motivation.
e. Social problems.
f. Public perception.
g. Gun culture.
h. Drugs usage/drugs trafficking/illicit drugs.
i. Degrading minorities.
PRESENT PROCEDURE ON CRIMES IN SRI LANKA
8. Crime can be classified into categories as follows:
a. Crimes against property.
b. Crimes against Public order.
c. Crimes in form of violent.
9. Mainly police handle crimes. When there is requirement of using technology, the police make use the police officers who are well trained on criminal investigation. these officers are called Scene of Crime Officers (SOCO). Once after recover any crime, the police produced relevant suspect or suspects in front of the courts. If not, the police carry out investigation on the order of the court.
10. Magistrate’s court or a High Court is having primary jurisdiction in the cases of crimes. The respective legal domains are provided by the Code of Criminal Procedure.
REQUIREMENT OF TECHNOLOGY IN CRIMES DETECTION
11. Ordinary people commit crimes normally. Legal personals and police personal who are trained in handling crimes may also commit crimes. Then the detection of crimes is difficult.
12. Presently the advance technologies are used for crimes. Therefore, detection of crimes is not easy task like the ancient era.
13. Sri Lanka being a third world country the techniques used for crime prevention is in an infant age. Sri Lankan Crime statistics shows that most of crimes are pending on investigation giving us some idea about the investigation system of our country. Most of occasion’s technological failure paved way for the pending investigations. As examples following statistics relevant to the grave crimes indicate that we are to go for new technology:
Total no of grave crimes
Pending on investigation
(Source: Web Site Department of Police, Sri Lanka)
14. Since we faced 30 years war in recent past, most of people are trained on handling weapons. Some weapons may be remained in underground. There may be so many explosives and weapons which have not been detected by security forces. Though it is not imminent but some time later on, there is a tendency to increase crimes in account of these hidden items.
.15. There were instances where some people tried to print money with common use of computer technology. With the available internet facilities, some people try to get knowledge for crimes. Some people may maintain contacts with foreign terrorists groups and criminals using intent facilities and other public communication systems.
16. General use of mobile phone also may be contributed for organized crimes. It is provided connectivity among criminals or criminal organizations. With commercial aim any one is permitted to get mobile connection without revealing so many personal particulars. Some body may use this easiness of mobile connectivity to achieve criminal objectives. Intelligence sources are bound with the existing law to do their operation freely. But when we are using modern technology to reveal these it is very much speed as well as efficient and effective.
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17. .During the last three decades of war in Sri Lanka, when military forces achieved some gains in north, the consequences were in Colombo. Colombo is the economic hub of Sri Lanka. Any terrorists or any criminal can make grave losses to the economy of Sri Lanka if he or she targets on economic vulnerable places in Colombo. Some time it was revealed that LTTE carders used national identity card with a Muslim name. With using those identity cards they managed to come to Colombo.
18. Banks and other financial institution in our country give chance for anyone to open bank account in their banks. Minimum attention is given to the circulation of money in the account. Criminals can operate somewhere but handler of the criminals may be in somewhere. Even in the Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle’s case: it was revealed that the criminal had another identity card with a Tamil name which he had use to open a bank account to facilitate his expenses.
19. Our security forces ways of searching people and questioning people are not yet improved. It requires modification with new technology. Old searching methods of people are not suit for the present requirements. As an example: the Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle’s case, the police arrested a Tamil girl for questioning about the handler and the suicide bomber and she committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide capsule whilst in custody. In this instance, police found that the capsule had been hidden inside her vagina to avoid detection.
20. There were some abnormal cases where father raped his daughter or grandfather raped her innocent granddaughter. Since society is so much cruel there should be effective way to identify those offenders removing there voluble curtain like “father or grandfather”.
TECHNOLOGY IN PRESENT FOR DETECTION OF CRIMES
21. Present technology to detect crimes can be considered as a guide for Sri Lanka crime prevention technology. During last humanitarian war period, the Terrorist Investigation Division (TID) and the CID of the Sri Lanka Police, were able to detect many sophisticated communication equipment of the LTTE and have arrested many LTTE cadres operating in Colombo with using modern technology. This paved the way for Colombo to be relatively free of incidents.
22. Any criminal from center part of the country may rape an innocent girl in south or north. He may escape without giving any evidence. But since DNA technology is used it is easy to find the suspect. But there is a problem with the cost of DNA research.
23. To judge the time of a murder, researches are conducted on skulk of a human body or else any other parts. It is sometimes help to identify criminals.
24. As technology continues to develop, the accuracy of information is increased. In August 2000 the accuracy of GPS signals was within 2 meters. We can use this technology for crime prevention.
25. Our preventive measures involve an increase in standard domestic intelligence. Understanding of terrorist functions increases the ability to prevent terror attacks effectively.
26. If suspect persons’ any cell of body excluding blood is remained as evidence, genetic code is to be tested. It may be his strait of hair, any small cell of the body. In case of a rape, criminals can be detected with following:
a. Trees and soil of the place where the rape was taken place.
b. Some patches taken place when trying to escape.
c. Any strings of hair of the offender,
d. Sperm of the offender.
e. Suspected person’s cloths.
f. Any small injuries during the rape.
27. Observation of the Place of Crime. Following new technology are used in a place of crime.
a. Use camera for surveillance.
b. Storing data with a computer.
c. Photographing using sensible camera.
d. Storing of evidence with using computer.
28. Touching Evidence. Touching evidence is very much important in criminology. Basic consideration is paved for substance of physical components. Fingerprints are very much important evidence. New technology can be used for identifying fingerprints, recording fingerprints, scanning the small evidence materials, deciding time of a crime, where normal eye cannot identify the small substance. Touching evidence are used for following fields of crimes:
a. Vehicle accident
29. Weapons and Explosives Weapons and explosives are used for crimes. There are so many types of explosives which are in used. Explosives can be a one chemical or compound. It may be a solid or liquid. Now explosives detectors are used. Since the new mine detectors are most effective they can be used for detection purposes.
30. With considering nature of the crimes, tendency of the criminals, there is a higher requirement to use the modern technology. Following problems are identified in order to use the technology in reducing crimes and maintaining law and order of the country. Those difficulties are as follows:
a. Since a considerable time Sri Lankan police service has using communications equipments to communicate with each police station. But when we consider the security, speed, efficiency it is too behind with the requirements.
b. There is a vaccum of capable police personals to be used in crime detection purposes and technology handling.
c. Morden fire arms are used by criminals
d. In competitive world explosives are introduced with so many forms.
e. Research on DNA is very much expensive. But it will help to identify criminals. Lack of researchers to do DNA tests is another problem.
f. there is a lack of laboratory facilities with modern technology to detect crimes.
g. Preventing crime is easy rather than searching after committed a crime and it is saving voluble properties in the form of man power or material.
h. Drugs trafficking is a major issue.
i. There are some places where crimes are repeating. Police dominance of the area is not enough to control the crimes. Sometimes there is a specific time which crimes are repeating.
j. As per the common practice of law of our country, which trial a case in a court not suitable for some cases. As an example a real criminal may be escape from the punishment if a talent lawyer talks on behalf of him. He has to spend a great deal of money to get advices and service of the lawyer. And same manner an innocent man may be convicted for a crime if he is not taking assistance from a good layer.
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k. Our country’s judiciary system is functioning well. But in criminal cases pending on trial cases are very much high since the criminal cases are to be proved beyond the reasonable doubt. It requires some modification. In modern technology computers can be feed with intelligence and our penal code as well as other laws which help to take the decisions. Then the judgment could be taken without delay.
l. Normal tendency of an offender is to do the offence habitually. When we consider about the data of a local police station this is a common tendency. Normally inquiries are recorded in a book. For minor offences are neglected for first or second times. Then someone may compel to do the crimes. Because the police have to search in so many books some offender’s past behavior may be hidden. If a police station got a data source which can available immediately police can go for a study of any offender’s history. As a result even a minor offences are repeated, the offender is to be punished to avoid crimes. When we consider about few criminals it is common truth that they have initially done small offences and later on crimes.
m. Vehicles are being used by so many types of people. Criminals are also using vehicles. Criminals may commit a crime in a far away distance, and come back in few minutes using vehicles. Then tracking the criminals using search dogs is much difficult.
n. Emergency telephone numbers which were published by the Department of Police are commonly use by the general public. That will help Police personals to locate the place of crimes and take actions without delay. For example 119 and 118 numbers are commonly used. But most of times these numbers are engaged with some conversations.
o. Sudden provocations are making so many crimes in our country. When we consider about crimes history of our country it is so much clear. We can use modern technology to enhance the patient ability of such selected group of people with using computer games.
p. Punishment may be helped to reduce crimes to some extent. But if we are going for a major reduction of the crimes in Sri Lanka following crimes generating areas are to be addressed giving reasonable solutions with using modern technology.
q. In some occasions fingerprints are being used to identify the criminals. The fingerprint system had been used by prehistoric people.
31. There are numbers of poisons which are used in Sri Lanka for making crimes in the form of murder, committing suicide, homicide, culpable homicides. There is a new tendency in Sri Lanka for abortions with using illicit means. When in such a case researches on the victim’s body is to be carried out. New technology is used for those researchers. There is a scarcity of laboratory facilities with modern technology for these purposes.
32. Considerable number of reason is contributing to increase crimes in Sri Lanka. Controlling crimes is a need of hour in the country. In the process of controlling the crimes, Sri Lanka may face some barriers. Reconciling those barriers is required to reduce the crimes. Reducing crimes will help to maintain the peace and order of the country.
33 It is recommended that:
a. Every police station is to be provided with LAN and WAN system to impart information quickly.
b. In order to reduce pending investigations of crime, police personals should be provided training on special equipments which are used for crime detection.
c. Selected police personals should be provided with training on special arms which small in size.
d. All police personals to be trained to identify various explosives. New equipment to identify explosives is proposed to import.
e. Studies on DNA to expose crime can be expanding under the guidance of the government of Sri Lanka.
f. In order to detect crimes there is a requirement to enhance laboratory facilities.
g. Most of financial institution, government money lending institutions, and even some large scale business places are advised to fit camera and associate security systems with using computers to identify criminals.
h. House can be secured with fixing small electronic alert equipment which is not expensive.
i. Vehicles can be fixed with special remote sensible alert system. Costs of this equipment are very less but must be produced in larger scale.
h. Media and other new technical ways and means can be utilized to educate people. Even in films may also be subjected to give the message to general public.
i. With good intelligence combine with technology, will reduce drugs trafficking rate. On the other hand it will help to minimize other crime pertaining to robbery.
j. New technology to detect crimes with using satellite, radar system or any other technology means of detection methods.
k. National identity card which we are using can be produced by some body. In order to enhance security system of national identity card some magnetic sensitive identity(bar coded) card can be introduced. Though it is expensive at the beginning it will be reduced the large scale property damages and the cost of the detection of crimes.
l. New technologies for detection of communication in the form of telephone, mobile phone and internet means of communication to be introduced for crime detection personals.
m. By using technology the detection process to be accelerated to suit with future requirements
n. We need new technology as well as specialized knowledge on computer and internet.
o. Media got so many responsibilities to prevention of crimes. But some instance media also contribute to produce criminals. Media in terms of government and private sector is to be used for preventing crimes.
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