/The study of crime is an important aspect in criminology as it helps students understand the concepts applied in criminology. Students learn different concepts in criminology. For example, students learn on sources of crime, how different theories are used to explain crime. Also, students learn how to measure crime. Reflecting what one has learned is important as it helps one apply the knowledge acquired and identify major issues in the area of study. Most students find it hard to reflect on what they have learned. This paper analyzes the concept learned in classes so as to demonstrating understanding. Also, the paper will show how to apply the knowledge gained the society. The thesis statement is reflecting the content learned in class and applying the new knowledge in future.
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The chapter focuses on methods of measuring crime and importance of measuring crime. Also, it helps one identify the weaknesses of the methods used to measure crime and how to improve the methods. Measuring crime is important as it helps enhance how police officers investigate crimes. Measuring crime reveals the trends in investigation of crimes. It is important to ensure accuracy when measuring crimes. Accuracy helps implement measures to curb crime effectively. This is because the measures are based on valid and reliable data (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
It is difficulty to measure crime in the society as crime is secretive in nature. The chapter measuring crimes helps one understand methods used to measure crime in the society. There are different methods of measuring crime in the society. According to the chapter, criminologists can use surveys, statistical records and self report survey can be used to measure crime. The methods give different results and are used differently. Most people value statistical measures as they provide accurate information on how to measure crime. The government has authorized criminal justice agencies to store information about crimes (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
The agencies store details of crimes committed in a database then analyze the information using statistical methods. Most people claim that statistical methods provide accurate results unlike other methods like surveys. Victim survey can be used to measure crime in the society. In victim survey, the police officers measure the degree of criminal behavior by focusing on the victim. Victim surveys method does not provide accurate information as victims may fail to report the crime to the police. In addition, the victim of the crime may lie and this leads to wrong results. Some people disagree with the victim survey method because it is likely to give invalid results. Some people argue that counting the victim of crime is not similar to counting people who have committed the crime. This is because people give different views and this interferes with the accuracy of the results. The method does not measure victimless crimes. For example, police officers do not use survey method to measure victimless crimes like drug abuse. This interferes with the results and police officers end u0p giving wrong results (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
Another method used to measure crime, is personal survey. In personal survey, the criminal is allowed to give information about their violation of the law. Police officers ensure confidentiality and privacy so as to encourage the criminal to give accurate information. The method has some weaknesses as the criminal might lie or give a fake description so as to escape conviction (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
The type of method to be used to measure crime has become a major issue in the society. This is because the current methods used by law enforcement officers to measure crimes are not effective. Some people do not agree on police officers using statistical methods to measure crime. This is because most crimes are not reported to the police and this interferes with the results provided. People in the society experience various types of crimes. Some are major while others are minor. Major crimes like murder are reported to the police and a law enforcement officer might have enough information on major crime happening in the society. Most minor crimes are not reported as the victims in the society consider them to be of less importance. For example, it is difficulty for people in the society to report crimes like snatching. This implies that law enforcement officers do not have adequate information on minor crimes. This interferes with the results released by the police officers. Thus, most people do not agree with statistical methods (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
Another issue in the area is accuracy of results and information provided by the criminal. Law enforcement agencies find it difficulty to get accurate information from the criminal. This is because the criminal or the victim might not give correct information. This makes it hard to implement the right measures to curb crime (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
The development of criminology theories and production of research in the field is difficulty. This is because criminologists do not have data that is reliable and valid. This has influenced progress in the area of criminology. Hence, the high rate of crimes in the society. For example, governments and law enforcement officers find it hard to enact measures to curb crime. This is because they do not have enough information (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
Further, it has become difficulty to compare the rate of crime internationally. This is because the society has become diverse and the methods used to carry out research are not effective. The methods used to carry out research are not able to cover various items like gender, race, ethnicity etc. The factors differ from one place to another (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008).
The chapter has helped me learn how to measure crime and how the methods used to measure crime work. It has also helped me learn the weaknesses of the methods used to measure crime and how to improve the methods. In addition, the chapter has helped me learn the issues that need to be addressed in the area so as to make prevention of crime effective (Maxfield &Babbie, 2008)
The criminal agencies should find better ways of measuring crime. They should develop a new system that will be used to measure crime. The system should integrate survey methods and statistical methods together so as to overcome the weaknesses of each method and make the results valid and reliable. The knowledge gathered from the chapter will be applied in criminal agencies to design a new system that produces accurate and reliable results (Siegel, 2009)..
Economic, social and cultural sources of crime
The chapter analyzes the causes of crime. It analyzes how economic factors, social factors and cultural factors contribute to crime. Identifying cause of crime helps the student apply the knowledge learned in class to control crime in the society. The causes of crime include economic factors, social factors and cultural factors. Economic factors are the major causes of crime. This is because of the gap between the poor and rich. Criminologists have linked poverty with crime. They believe that poverty is the major cause of crime in the society. This is because people do not have enough money or material things to cater for their daily needs. Most people in urban areas and rural areas do not have enough income to sustain themselves. This forces young children and adults to adopt behaviors that are against the societal norms. For example, children and adults in slum areas are likely to involve themselves in crime so as to earn their living. Most people have written theories to explain the causes of crime in the society. They argue that the disparity between the rich and poor has led to increase in crime as people have to find an alternative method to earn their living. The researchers claim that criminals are influenced by economic factors to steal as they want to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich. Thus, economic factors increase the rate of poverty in the society (Siegel, 2009)..
There are social sources of crime. Most people agree that social factors contribute to the high rate of crime in the society. This is because family members and peers influence children differently. First, family members can contribute to crime among children. This is because the child spent most time with the parents and family members. In addiction, family actions increase the rate of crime in the society. For example, parental supervision influences young children. Children who do not get parental love and care are likely to indulge in criminal activities. This is because the children are left to move from one place to another. Another social source of crime is harsh punishments. Children who are subjected to harsh punishments are likely to indulge in criminal activities than children who are not subjected to harsh punishments. Harsh punishments create fear in the child and force him to involve in criminal activities. Rejection of the child leads to criminal activities. This is because the child does not get proper care and love (Siegel, 2009)..
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Apart from rejection if the child per pressure contributes to high rate of criminal activities in the society. Most children learn how to commit crime from their friends. Young children are easily influenced by friends who commit major crimes like drug trafficking or killing. Criminologists argue that peer pressure leads to increase in crime rate as the child is not able to avoid the influence from other people. The pressure forces him to commit crime in the society (Siegel, 2009)..
There are main issues in the area of sources of crime. First, people differ on the causes of crime in the society. Some think crime is caused by factors like social, economic factors and cultural factors. Others think the factors do not contribute a lot to crime. Most researchers argue that economic factors do not contribute a lot to crime. This is because countries that have good economic growth experience crimes like countries that do not have good economic growth. This implies that other factors work together to cause crime. The researchers claim that reducing the economic gap between the rich and the poor will not reduce the rate of crime in the society. This is because other factors also contribute to high rate of crime in the society. Others argue that social factors and cultural factors cause crime. Social factors like methods of parenting and peer pressure contribute to high rate of crime. The controversy surrounding causes of crime has made it difficulty for criminologist to identify the main causes of crime. This has also affected the efforts to prevent crime in the society (Siegel, 2009).
Another issue in the area is the belief held by various people in the society. Criminologists have different views on the sources of crime. Some think criminals are subjected to various factors that force them to commit crime. They argue that criminals are subjected to social factors, economic factors, and cultural factors. Genetic factors also contribute to crime. The difference in opinion has made it hard to control crime in the society. Criminologists do not agree on the causes of crime. One school argues that physical abnormalities contribute to crime while another school emphasizes on environmental, social, economic factors. In order, to prevent crime in the society, the different schools have to agree on the causes of crime (Siegel, 2009).
I have learned how social, economic and cultural factors influence people to commit crime. According to the knowledge gathered from the chapter, social, economic and cultural factors have led to increase in crime in the society. This is because people do not understand how the factors influence crime and this has made it hard to prevent crime. In future criminal agencies should identify social, economic and cultural factors and integrate them together to prevent crime. They should educate the society on how to prevent crime by addressing the factors above. The knowledge acquired from the chapter will used to develop new methods of preventing crime that address social, economic and cultural factors so as to prevent crime (Siegel, 2008).
Biological and psychological explanation of crime
The chapter helps one understand how biological theories and psychological theories are used to explain crime and how they affect prevention of crime. There are various theories that have been developed to explain crime. For example, criminologists and other people have developed theories like biological theories and psychological theories to explain crime. The theories have different views and they influence prevention of crime differently. Advocates supporting biological theories argue that criminals are influenced by biological factors to commit crime. The advocates argue that genetic factors contribute a lot to criminal behavior in the society. According to biological explanation of crime, criminals inherit genetic materials from the parents and the genetic factors force the criminal to commit crime. Criminals have a certain hormones that influence them to commit crime. Psychologists have developed psychological theories to explain crime. They base their argument on the mental disorders as the major cause of crime. Psychologists believe that people having mental disorders are likely to commit crime than people who do not commit crime. Most people who have been imprisoned have committed crime because of mental disorders. The victims of crime claim that mental disorders influenced them to commit crime (Siegel, 2008).
The difference in opinion between the advocates for biological theories and psychological theories has made it difficulty to control crime. It has led to increase in the rate of crime in the society. The controversy has become a major issue as it affects control of crime (Siegel, 2008).
From the chapter above, I have learned that several factors should work together for a criminal to commit crime. For example, biological factors and psychological factors force the criminal to commit crime .This has increased my knowledge as I have known what influences criminals to commit crime and why there is high rate of crime in the society (Siegel, 2008).
The knowledge gathered from the chapter above will help design new methods to prevent crime in future. The current methods used to prevent crime do not encompass biological explanation and psychological explanation of crime. The methods are only aimed at preventing crime. Criminologists should integrate biological explanation and psychological explanation of crime in the prevention methods. This will make it easy to control crime in the society. Biological factors contribute a lot to criminal behavior and criminologist in future should identify biological factors that cause criminal behaviors so as to prevent crime in the society. Also, criminologists should work together with psychologists to identify psychological causes of crime and identify ways to prevent the factors from influences the person to commit crime. The law enhancement agencies should not be aimed at preventing crime, but they should be aimed at helping people in the society not to commit crime (Siegel, 2008).
The thesis statement is reflecting the content learned in class and applying the new knowledge in future. The three chapters above have helped me acquire new knowledge. There are various issues identified in the three areas that need to be addressed. First, measuring of crime has become a major issue. This is because the current methods used to measure crime are not effective. The methods do not provide reliable and viable results. Also, accuracy is a major issue when measuring crime as the methods used to measure crime do not ensure accuracy of information collected and results. The chapter has helped me learn how to measure crime, methods used and how to apply them.
The cause of crime is a major issue as people differ on the cause of crime. Social, economic and cultural factors are the major causes of crime in the society. The law enforcement agencies should integrate social, economic and cultural causes of crime so as to make prevention of crime effective. Lastly, the biological and cultural explanation of crime has helped me know how crime is related to biological and psychological factors. This will help improve prevention of crime in future. Law enforcement agencies will work on identifying how biological factors and psychological factors influence crime.
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