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Organised Crime: Structure, Development and Counter Measures

Info: 4056 words (16 pages) Essay
Published: 3rd Nov 2021 in Criminology

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In this essay I will be stating the major organised crimes which are formed in our everyday life. I will also be stating and evaluating the organised structure, and the ways it is effectively curtailed using the counter-measures through the law, civil society and enforcement.

Globalisation can thus be defined as ‘the intensification of worldwide social relations which links distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa’ [1] .Globalisation was dated in the mid 1980’s. It was suggested that it came into force due to the turn towards the liberalism by the UK, USA and World Bank. Globalisation had its structural adjustment programmes and the ability to have free trade and sound finance. The contractual partners towards a group all play rules in different stages which forms stages of a value chain of sourcing of materials through the production, distribution and delivery to the end consumer. Each of the value chain supplies a value to the final product.  Globalisation of marketing has been referred to as Multinational Enterprise which has the capacity to serve buyers across the world with their outputs in contrast to serve national markets as essentially separated. [2]

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The transnational organised crimes are a types of serious transitional offence which undertakes by people that have the aim of material gain. The groups are tending to focus on the multi-crime groups which have the career of crime. The groups are intended to be more serious than the offences which are committed by the transnational organised crime[3]. Law enforcement officials are accepted as a transnational organised group crime, because of the structure carried out by the group. The power of action taken on the groups which   can form the possession of arrest on any of the individuals. The TOC are often caused by factors which are related beyond the people suggested. The matters can only be solved when tools are need by the law enforcement officials.[4]

The law enforcement officials are limited from their powers by the national jurisdiction. ’Facilitated by the Convention and similar mechanism, bilateral and regional cooperation are possible’[5] The TOC group is manly global which is a problem to the law enforcements, as it requires a lot of strategies.

Information required resolving global issues may not be an easy task to be suggested. The conventional crimes such as rape and robberies are rarely reported to the police for compliments. [6]The offences which get committed are victimless, in the sense that parties do not want to participate and have no interest within the police.  Therefore the organised crime activities are only reported or registered when police take action by investigation.

Gathering most of the information, the most criminal crime known is drug trafficking. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the concerned government, have showed through serves  of the’ areas for coca bush and opium poppy for may years’ and so investigations show how much cocaine and heroin is produced.  Most countries drug data is passed to the UNODC and, some countries have survey data on the size of drugs using the population. [7]The supply can show evidence on how drug markets operate. But however it is failure on how drug markets operate in different countries, where there is less information on areas on transnational organized crime work. Transnational organized crime is changing a lot from time to time.  Drugs finding has been hard to find when being transferred into new environments.

The human trafficking and firearms flows have expanded in the area which have conflicted in the environment.

Trafficking in person has been a crime in the globalisation. It was reported by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime victims in 2010 ‘from at least 127 countries were detected, and 137 countries also detected reported having detected victims’[8]. Two thirds of the victims were reported to be women and the 79% of the victims were subjected to be sexual exportation’. The EU has the documents of victim trafficking for the use of sexual exploitation within the nation.[9]

The trafficking of women at the end of the World War 1, showed a large number labourers moves from the east to the west of the European. Many became sex workers and most came voluntarily. Within 2005/2006, 51% of the human trafficking were detected in the EU, immigrates where from Balkans, Soviet Union, Ukraine the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova[10]. But due to the UNODC data it has been said that it has changed women trafficking in the world, and has become marked in most countries. In many cases some of the women who have been victims themselves, play the roles of exploiting the victims. And so the traffickers are mostly the same nationality as the victims but there are other exclusions towards the offence[11]. It is shown recruiting victims are done by the source of the country, where the Eastern European, the victims may be linked through employment agencies.

Cocaine is another offence supplied by the organized groups. Cocaine comes from countries in the Andean region. It has been said most cocaine production has came from the north of the United States of America, but it has been said it has been denied since the 1980s. Cocaine has been demanded in Europe and has increased during the years.

Cocaine is moved from South America to the North America many different ways, in the response to enforcement efforts and markets doing the trafficking.   The transport of Cocaine today has been transported by Colombia to Mexico and to America by sea, and then on land by Mexicans. ‘The US authorities estimate that close to 90% of cocaine enters the country’[12] the supply of cocaine enters 70% of the US/Mexico border and the cocaine from Colombia, only 70% and the Pacific ocean, 20% from the Atlantic and 10% from the Bolivarian republic of Venezuela[13]. From the 1990’s it was stated that the organized crime groups of Colombia got smaller and offences where less reported. In the sense of Mexicans, groups grow and Mexico today has the most violence in there organised crime groups.

Cocaine was reported of 196 tons in the US and a value of US$38 billion was made in 2008. Cocaine farmers in the Andean region earned a profit of US$1.1 billion the year of 2008. The processes and trafficking actives within the country for cocaine, shipped to the North of the US amounted to US$400million. The total profit made importing cocaine to Mexico by shipping was rounded to around US$2.4billion[14].  The largest profit in the US was $29.5 billion which was between the wholesale and the consumers. From the gross profit it is stated between the dealers and consumers US$24 billion of the total is sized by the US cocaine market. [15]

Europe cocaine users have increased from a figure of 2 million in 1998 to 4.1 million in 2007/2008. This is lower than the US, but however individual countries in the European have higher annual prevalence rate that the US. The value of the European cocaine market growth in US was $14billion in 1998 and $34 billion in 2008[16].  The preliminary data showed a growth of European cocaine being grown by European markets.

The trafficking of cocaine to Europe is mainly by sea.  Cocaine shipment is transported from one to another regional hubs, such as Portugal and Spain and Netherlands and Belgium. It is said that Colombia is the main source of Cocaine in Europe, and the shipments from Plurinational state of Bolivia are popular that the US market. Routes around the European have changed during 2004 and 2007. The trans shipment hubs where imported in ‘West Africa, one centred on Guinea-Bissau and one centred in the Bight of Benin which spans from Ghana to Nigeria’[17] it was said the northern hub where successful in the import, but however  the transmit route was dampened from the time being. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela have also emerged a key transmit for the country for shipments, which are for large maritime shipments. 124 tonnes of cocaine are imported into the EU, which are worth around US$34 billion. It shows that 1% of the value of cocaine sale goes to Andean coca farmers and the other 1% goes to the traffickers in the Andean region. The international traffickers who ship cocaine from the Andean Region, to the main points get 25% of the sale value[18]. 17% is also given to shipments entry points which cross the final destination across the European. Large incomes are formed by the entry of a county between the consumer and the wholesaler which is totalled to around 56%. Therefore the income if dealers at a national level in the European is lower than another small groups operating cocaine dealers.

Heroin is concentrated in the Afghanistan. Afghanistan feed the largest heroin global market which is worth US$55 billion annually[19]. Routes such as the Balkan and Northern routes are the main trafficking areas which link Afghanistan to the Russian Federation market and the western European. Most profits are gone to organized crime groups.

Afghanistan and the Russian federation, it suggested that after the Soviet Union, heroin became a rapid growth, and so it did decline in 2001.  Heroin users from this day have more than 1.5 billion users in the Russian Frederation, which is the largest national heroin consumer in the world.  The land transport was appeared to be popular from the Russian markets to Afghanistan. The new starters of Afghanistan were mostly poor and some had problems with the political insurgencies.  It was stated twenty years ago, the country of Afghanistan were part of the USSR so the boarders where linked in the transport areas[20]. Today there has been several tons of heroin which is sized every year, but some are managed to make their way into the Russian Federation.  Tons of heroin to the Russian consumer, is formed by 25% of all Afghanistan exports, pass it into the Central Asia and the handling of Tajikistan. The organised groups appear to engage in trafficking with the drug and changing hands many times before reaching it to the consumer. There is an estimated of 70 tons of heroin sold  for the US$13 billion in the Russian Market, and the flow has been increase from the 1999’s.[21]

The country route is proceeded as a Balkan route, where by transport is through the Asian countries, like Pakistan into the Islamic Republic of Iran. Europe contains 87 tons of heroin, 104 tons are transported from Afghanistan, with the special routes as level of seizures are formed in Islamic Republic of Iran[22]. However is shows the packages of heroin are consumed in countries as, Italy, France, United Kingdom and Germany.

The Organised Crime Groups traffic on the Balkan routes, which often are confident on transporting the sources into the countries. However there a various stages, and so the organised crime groups may be professions contracted to do the job, it is no always the member of groups that own the drugs. Drugs are formed into the Western Europe, by it being passed out of the Afghanistan from the Baluchi and Pashtun border regions of Afghanistan, to Pakistan and Iran. The Baluchi are believed to transfer there shipping in the Islamic Republic of Iran, to groups like the Azeri, Persian and Kurdish group[23]. When the opiates have changed hands, the groups are responsible for the shipping; the substances are transported from the eastern to the western boarders of Iran.  When located in Turkey, large shipments are broken down and ready to be transported to the Europe.

The Balkan groups are organised in the Balkans, but however they do not control the opiates in the markets that are located. But however in other countries the nationals do control the amount of drugs located in the local drug market[24]

Trafficking of firearm is a different form of goods which is suggested as they are durable goods. As the modem pistol or rifle which are a mature technology, which shows weapon holders do not need to update on the stock of fire arm. In addition the number of fire arms purchased each year is estimated as 1% which applies to the illicit and licit markets. The illicit and licit are two primary markets, that need weapons for criminal activities and political. 

The United States of America is a source of weapons which are criminals in Mexico.  The gun trade in America is based on pressure which the weapons are cheaper the other countries where the sale are higher. The firearm trafficking into Mexico is purchased from by 6,700 gun dealers[25], and the straw purchasers.  Small batches of weapons are moved across the border, which are covered up in private vehicles. Around 88 million passenger cars cross the border each year, and most cross every day. However a single smuggler can transport more than 500 weapons per year in loads[26] which cannot be suspected.

Mexico has a lot of illicit markets, which have 10 million unregistered weapons.  The trafficking is formed to make the markets in the country presentable. However on the knowledge of the size of groups that provide the drug cartels, around 20,000 weapons are trafficked a year, which is worth an estimated US$20 million.[27]

The former Soviet Union left many countries, manly on strategic boarders, it was said that large stockpiles of aging, but had useful ammunitions. Ukraine passed down 30% of the Soviet Military in dustrial complex.   The country contains 7 million worth of small arms. In addition this it is the third largest stock pile in the world, after the Russian Federation and China, however Ukraine has firearms per soldier. The large stockpiles contain a risk, as attempt or complete transfers have been subjected to threatened penalty for disobeying a law in Africa. To arm revolution of a country, there are many weapons required. However it can be difficult to steal number of weapons and so, traffickers operate clandestinely and so it shows why trafficking is taken place under a legality way[28]. Most commodities which are imposed by the law must have paper work, but the use of large scale of arm is tackled by dishonesty and fraudulent conduct in those that are in power. Transactions are also formed with a combination of officials and international arm brokers. The brokers sell their contracts where there is dishonest paperwork and the transportation services are passed to the insurgent groups and embargoed states. The brokers operate a chain of companies own small fleets and types of vehicles. The parties’ lack in international currency, which the brokers may take money in the form of national resources concessions which money is made on the sale of the arms and the sale of exportation commodities. Therefore they have areas in dealing with national resources.


[1] Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Stanford University Press 1990) 64

[2] Theodore Levitt, ‘The Globalization Of Markets’ (1983) May Harvard Business Review <https://hbr.org/1983/05/the-globalization-of-markets> accessed 04 January 2020

[3] Home Department, Serious and Organised Crime Strategy (Cm 8715, 2013).

[4] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment, (United Nations 2010).

[5] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment, (United Nations 2010).

[6] Saylor Academy, ‘The Problem of Crime’ <https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s11-01-the-problem-of-crime.html> Accessed 06 January 2020

[7] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[8] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[9]European Commission, (2018). ‘Data collection on trafficking 2018 in human beings in the EU. 15 Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

[10] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, ‘Trafficking in Persons’ (2010) < https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/tocta/2.Trafficking_in_persons.pdf> Access 04 January 2020.

[11] United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime ‘  Global Repoort on Trafficking in Persons’ https://www.unodc.org/documents/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf Access January 06 2020

[12]  United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ‘World Drug Report 2010’ <https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HB9PuEhHahQC&pg=PA74&dq=The+transport+of+Cocaine+today+has+been+transported+by+Colombia+to+Mexico+and+to+America+by+sea,+and+then+on+land+by+Mexicans.+%E2%80%98The+US+authorities+estimate+that+close+to+90%25+of+cocaine+enters+the+country%E2%80%99&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR7qaEwvHmAhXjnFwKHZsPCpUQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=The%20transport%20of%20Cocaine%20today%20has%20been%20transported%20by%20Colombia%20to%20Mexico%20and%20to%20America%20by%20sea%2C%20and%20then%20on%20land%20by%20Mexicans.%20%E2%80%98The%20US%20authorities%20estimate%20that%20close%20to%2090%25%20of%20cocaine%20enters%20the%20country%E2%80%99&f=false  > Assessed 06 January 2020   

[13] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[14] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[15] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[16]’United Nation Office On Drugs and Crime’ Cocaine< https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/tocta/4.Cocaine.pdf> Accessed data 6th January 2020

[17] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[18] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[19] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[20] ibid

[21] ibid

[22] European Monitoring Cnetre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, ‘Perspective on Drugs Opioid trafficking routes from Asia to Europe <http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_239691_EN_Opioid%20trafficking%20routes_POD2015.pdf> Access date 6th January 2020

[23] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[24] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[25] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[26] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

[27] Guilhem Fabre, Criminal Prosperity: Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering and Financial Crisis after the Cold War (Routledge 2013)

[28] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment (illustrated, 2012)

 

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