Measuring The Cost Of Cybercrime Criminology Essay

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Australasian's policing (this also includes New Zealand Police) vision statement, as indicated in its strategic directions document is "A safer and more secure community". Because technology, which includes the internet, is a very essential part of life today, the term "community" in Australasian's vision statement needs to correspondingly be relevant in the new facet of cyberspace. It discusses the dangers and risks of the internet which includes the description of the e-crime problem, the effect on safety in different situations, and the different problems it poses; classifies and discusses the new response problems that may be run into during e-crime prevention, exposure and investigation; and delineates broadly initiatives of Australasian policing meant to prevent and minimize the occurrence of e-crime and improve the community's safety and security. It concludes by asserting that a response capacity will only be successful and all-inclusive by wholly adopting prevention and partnership programs, including, with regards to online youth abuse, putting prominence on community education that requires the growth of protective behaviours in children, educated and involved adults, and good guidance by parents, teachers and schools.

Ciardhuáin, S. (2004). "An extended model of cybercrime investigations." International

Journal of Digital Evidence, 3(1), pp. 1-22.

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An effective model of cybercrime investigations is vital due to the fact that it specifies a theoretical reference framework, independent of any specific organisational setting or technology, for the analysis of methods and technology for strengthening investigators' work. Ciardhuáin in this article presents a model of investigations which brings together existing models, simplifies them and expands them by clearly focusing on specific activities that they do not have. Instead of only processing evidence like previous models, this model clearly outlines the information that flow during an investigation and depicts the deep extent of an investigation. This paper also presents the results of an assessment of the model by cybercrime investigators in practice. It concludes by testing the feasibility and applicability of this model by comparing it to various important existing models.

Brenner, S. W. (2006). "At light speed: Attribution and response to cybercrime/terrorism/

warfare," Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 97(2), pp. 379-419.

The alacrity and obscurity of cyber-attacks renders differentiating among the activities of terrorists, offenders, and nation states challenging. This article elucidates why and by what means computer technology obfuscates the correlated practices of classifying internal (which include crime and terrorism) and external (war) dangers to society of countering such threats. It begins by structuring a classification of cyber threats (that is, crime, terrorism, and war) and describes why these changing threat classes can make "who- and what-attribution" difficult. It also gives details of how these problems with attribution influence the handling cyber threats and continues to investigate this issue by considering methods that can be used to improve the response capacity without compromising principles dear to the heart. The article concludes by agreeing that while the methods analysed in the article may not be the key to solving this obscurity, or the solution to the problem, the paper may be used in discussing these issues, a discussion that lead to developing of strategies that enhance the ability to manage the threats that occur from cyberspace.

Brenner, S., & Koops, B. J. (2004). "Approaches to cybercrime jurisdiction." Journal of

High Technology Law, 4(1), 189-202.

Jurisdiction in cybercrimes is a thorny subject. Activities on the internet that are lawful in the areas where they are started may be illegal in other areas, even if the activity is not principally directed at that single area. This article focuses on jurisdiction in basic criminal law by scrutinizing the cybercrime statutes of several countries and states. The analysis is however limited predominantly to statutory law because, hitherto, the case law existing on cross-border cybercrime jurisdiction is scarce. After comprehensively giving a description to jurisdiction, the article reviews jurisdiction clauses in cybercrime statues that determine jurisdiction, centred on either territorial claims, on personality claims, or on other claims, for example the protection rule and universality. It concludes by recapping the different tactics in cybercrime jurisdiction, the difficulties that this disparity presents, and specifying stemming issues that call for further analysis.

Australian Government. (2009). "Cybersecurity Strategy." Commonwealth of Australia.

Retrieved from

http://www.ag.gov.au/Documents/AG%20Cyber%20Security%20Strategy%20-%20for%20website.pdf

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Among the top national security priorities in Australia at the moment is cyber security. The national security, economic wealth and social security in Australia are vitally subject to the accessibility, reliability and privacy of a variety of ICTs (Information and Communication Technology). This article is an Australian Government Policy Strategy that describes how the government is using every resource to help safeguard government, business and individual Australians. It also describes the means in which new capacities have been started to ensure that Australians, as well as the businesses they do business with, are better protected. It concludes by suggesting that, given the fast growth in the intensity and complexity of cybercrime and other cyber security perils, it is critical that government, business and the society are cognizant of the seriousness of cyber security risks and devote to work as one to protect this critical part of the community and economy.

Wall, D. (2008). "Cybercrime, media and insecurity: The shaping of public perceptions of

cybercrime. International Review of Law," Computers and Technology, 22(1-2), pp. 45-63

There is a significant disparity in our perception of cybercrime that solicits several critical questions about the condition of the production of criminological knowledge on it. This article critically examines the manner in which public perceptions of cybercrime are modelled and uncertainties about it are spawned. It looks at the differing abstracts of cybercrime before pinpointing conflicts in the production of criminological knowledge that are the cause of the confusion between rhetoric and reality. Next, it juxtaposes the myths of cybercrime with what is really happening with the intention of appreciating the reassurance disproportion that has unfolded between community needs for internet security and its provision. The article concludes by calling for the necessity to be clear about where the equilibrium between the need to maintain lawfulness online and the need to enforce law is set because, until this equilibrium has been realized, the cybercrime 'reassurance gap' will not be closed.

Choo, K. R. (2008). Organised crime groups in cyberspace: A typology. Trends in

Organized Crime, 11(3), pp. 270-295. doi: 10.1007/s12117-008-9038-9.

While questions have been raised as to the existence of organised criminal activities in cyberspace, a number of studies have of late highlighted the interaction between cyberspace and organized crime. The cyberspace gives organised crime groups an asylum for the development of their organisational and effective abilities. This article describes three classes of organised groups that take advantage of developments in ICT to contravene legal and regulatory jurisdictions, which comprise (1) old-style organised criminal groups that exploit ICT to boost their global criminal activities; (2) organised cybercriminal groups that operate entirely online; and (3) organised groups of ideologically and doctrinally inspired parties who exploit ICT to ease their criminal behaviour. The article concludes by noting that with the enhanced probability of digital content being a basis of debates or forming part of basic proof to back or rebut an argument in judicial proceedings, the need for law application to have broad understanding of computer forensic techniques, tools, principles, procedures and guidelines, in addition to anti-forensic tools and techniques will become more pronounced. Moreover, it also sees the need for fresh strategies of response and more research on investigating organised criminal activities in cyberspace.

Holt, T. J., & Bossler, A. M. (2012). Predictors of Patrol Officer Interest in Cybercrime

Training and Investigation in Selected United States Police Departments. Cyberpsychology, Behaviour, and Social Networking, 15(9), 464-472.

For the past thirty years, there has been an increase in the use of technology to aid crimes in both the cyber and physical worlds. This problem has resulted in the creation of significant challenges for the enforcement of law, especially at the state and local levels. It is because of this that this article examines the dynamics that projected patrol officers interest in cybercrime investigations and training in two south-eastern cities in the U.S. The analysis particularly observed the connection between demographics, cybercrime exposure, computer training, computer expertise, Internet and cybercrime perceptions, and perceptions on policing cybercrime with officer appeal to cybercrime investigation training and handling cybercrime investigations in the future. At the end, from the findings, the article substantiates the argument that more knowledge and departmental consultations relating to the value of investigating these types of crime need to be held so as to boost officer interest.

Bossler, A. M., & Holt, T. J. (2012). "Patrol officers' perceived role in responding to

cybercrime." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), pp. 165-181

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Minor empirical research is available concerning how local law enforcement has dealt with cybercrime. The main aim of this article is to know: the law enforcement agencies that line officers consider to be largely in charge of investigating cybercrime instances; their views about their agency's current capacity to handle these offenses; and their attitudes as regards the effective ways of improving the social response to cybercrime. To do so, the authors surveyed patrol officers in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg and Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan police departments. The authors found that officers do not think that local law enforcement should be largely in charge of dealing with cybercrime incidents and they have scarce information on the manner in which upper management is handling cybercrime. Officers showed that the most effective approaches to handle cybercrime were more care taken by people online and amendments to the legal system. The article concludes by noting the significant need for more statistical recording of cybercrime so as to better appreciate the problem in addition to how local law enforcement and first responders are tackling these issues

Jiggins, S. (2000). "E-crime: a global challenge for law enforcement." Platypus Magazine,

Australian Federal Police. Retrieved from:

http://www.afp.gov.au/media-centre/publications/platypus/previous-editions/2000/december-2000/ecrime

Among the biggest challenges related with modern technology is the fact that crimes can be perpetrated on a large-scale basis with such rapidity and obscurity, which if not dealt with, endangers the sustainability of the economic security of businesses and the existence of smaller nation states. Because of this invasive nature of modern technologies, the report recognizes the need for law enforcement to work together with other sectors in the industry and the community to breed an across-the-board state and local approach to the issue. The report tackles issues such as the global nature of e-crime, securing, developing and holding on to expert staff and getting around technology gap, gathering and retaining electronic evidence, establishing the identity of criminals, developing tools to counter crime, reacting to crime instantaneously, and advancing reporting of electronic crime. The report concludes by setting the stage for further analysis, which will identify first priority matters, gaps and weaknesses that must be tackled by any strategy if law enforcement is to meet the challenges of the 'virtual horizon'.