The purpose of this essay is to understand what is globalisation which have widely being used for arguments over it positive and negative impact, whether globalisation is linked (if any) in generating or providing opportunities for crime. It will explain the effects of globalisation outlining those crimes because of issues such as political and economic motives. The essay will further discuss the links between globalisation and crime; and how it can pose potential challenges for nation-state. As the technology progress and movement of people, information, communication and establishment of global single market and movement of capital have made the world much smaller and creating crime. This means that nation-state must come up with different strategy, policies and international cooperation to deal with such threats and crime generated from globalisation.
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Jonsson and Kinnvall (2002) Suggest that the globalisation at the present have a broad context and difficult to have exact meaning due to enveloping catchword of our time. There are numbers of books and articles keen on the subject and number of issues that it covers along with its discipline. They state that globalisation is a crucial subject of present time, which covers everything from economic (movement of capital, finance, and multination corporation) and political issue such as migration and refugee flow is linked to the consequence of globalisation, so is the wide-spread of Western culture. Whether its status is debated as some see it as a lead to a development which involves global market however other views it as a risk to national identity, culture and reduction in democratic politics and makes the state redundant. However, Steger (2013) refers to globalisation as a “shrinkage of time and space” as the world is now compressed into one place; for instance, the movement of goods, ideas, technology, people and wider media access which have become easier.
The process of global capitalist development was set with its own ideas and policies in late 1980s, which is referred to as neo- liberalism. Often seen as an enhanced economic interconnect and led further growth of capitalist economic relations. It sets the core policies that underlines free market and trade, reduction in state role, reduced public expenditure and taxations (Williamson, 1990). Aas (2013) notes that it is often used when discussing globalisation and its consequences as it involves privatisation of state assets and welfare system. Using Marxist perspective, it is argued that proving access to the free market has caused inequality and promotes crime, Corporations can switch production to counties with low wage to gain higher profits lead to job insecurity and unemployment even poverty (Thompson, 2016).
New Crime Opportunities
Findlay (1999) states that there has being a globalisation of crime which has interconnected the crime across national borders and is linked to spread of transnational organised crime. Even the notion of organised crime isn’t new however criminals have taken the advantages of fast-moving technology such as internet and freedom of flow and free market. Soros (1998) argues that due to current state of globalisation where it is corporate-driven which results in inequality between rich and poor. Those marginalised by economic burden and dept creates their own way to survive whether it is in legal or illegal economy.
UNODC (2012) suggests that the criminal economy estimated to be over $870 billion annually matching multinational businesses, equal to 1.5 percent of global GDP but it does put a question whether the figures are reliable. NCA (2018) latest assessment highlight number key threats to the UK that links to international organise crime, among them are organised immigration crime (OIC), money-laundering and cyber-crime.
Organised Immigration crime
Due to an ongoing crisis in Syria and Iraq, OIC have become a major source of organised crime syndicates, where people rely on such groups to escape political instability or economic pressures to travel to Europe in search for a better life (NCA, 2016). Aas (2013) notes that just like move of capital and information, movement of people is also a crucial part of globalisation. However, it is argued that some people (mainly in western culture) consider the world to be smaller and connected without borders but for majority, they see the world with fences and dangerous obstacles. However, people can fall victim of other criminality such as sex trade or cheap labour.
According to Jojarth (2009) money laundry is described as a financial success generated from the crime, those involved in criminal activates finds it hard to use their illegal profit without attracting the suspicion of law enforcement agencies risking their assists to be frozen or confiscated. Buchanan (2004) notes that it has become a global phenomenon and a challenge. As globalisation improves with new and improved financial and trade opportunities, it has made money laundry system easer with options to set up and shut down anytime and anywhere. It allows dirty money to be moved from national control to countries with less control or weak law enforcement. Globalisation improved the ability to launder money using internet with complex financial transactions across number of states creating global scattered networks, this increases the number of observations that maybe put-up to hinder any investigation. Small and growing number of criminals are laundering money using cryptocurrencies (NCA. 2018). It is estimated that the money laundered ranged from US$590 billion to US$1.5 trillion (FATF. 2018)
According the Choo and Graboky (2014) progression of technology and vest expansion of system in global economy, it has increased production and capacity of faster communication, it has become part of the crucial national infrastructure around the world. Development of network system such as internet has allowed individual to access information and communicate with people around the world with less or friction of the cost. Bequai (2002) argues that it also created the risk of criminality associated with technology, and internet have become a source of several crimes such as theft of date, financial details, scams etc. It is stated that due to lack of employment and economic opportunities have caused several highly educated people with computer and programming skills are involved in organised cyber-crime groups. Instead of traditional organised groups, some like-minded individuals can form a structed group for similar interest and financial goals, they know each other only through online platform to communicate and carry of activities (Choo and Grabosky, 2014).
Challenges on Nation-state
Nation-state is described as a principle where citizens are members of the nation living within the defined territorial border with a jurisdiction of a unified administration responsible for the collection of taxation, upheld order and apply laws made by a national government acting on behalf of their citizen (Fulcher, 2000). Aas (2013) states that due to increase in interconnected global economy and growth of illegal economy and opportunities have caused the challenge to state sovereignty. Globalisation have created a new insecurity or risk consciousness. Risk is now seen a global than local, for example migrants and refugees fleeing their county for a better life or fleeing persecution have caused rise to anxieties among wester community about risk of crime and needs for tighten border security (Denney, 2005). Shelley (1995) notes that global crime have become a major problem after being seen as threat since the end of the cold war as it was seen to threaten the economic and political stability of nations. due to the neglect of such threat caused criminal syndicates to be powerful that undermine law and order, international security and economy.
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Cockayne (2007) stated that crime control is often state-based which are ineffective and limited as crime have gone global therefore in order tackle this problem, there is a need of transnational enforcement network. However, it is also argued that international crime control so far is driven by the interest of powerful states and issues which ranges from maritime piracy to plan hijacking to terrorism.
International Crime Control Organisation (Interpol) was founded in 1923 and have become one of the international mechanism for law enforcement agencies to connect and coordinate which provides secure communication globally. It proved access to databases regaining from suspects, travel documents to fingerprint. it has further started to understand and analyse global crime trend (Anderson, 2004). European police officer (Europol) was formed to promote cooperation an intelligence sharing as it allows law enforcements in Europe to have closer, more informal better access to each other criminal intelligence systems which is usually through liaison officer network, unlike Interpol, Europol do not have power to investigate or make arrest (Deflem, 2006).
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