Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Impact of Domestic Abuse: Analysis of Women in Cork, Ireland

Info: 4746 words (19 pages) Essay
Published: 8th Feb 2020 in Criminology

Reference this

 Overall Research Question

Does domestic violence have any impact on homelessness among women living in Cork City, Ireland?

Sub-Questions

The following sub-questions are raised to guide the study:

a)      What is the prevalence of domestic Abuse among women living in Cork City?

b)     What prevalent forms of domestic abuse witnessed by women living in Cork City?

c)      What are the factors responsible for domestic violence among women living in Cork?

d)     What are the effects of domestic violence on women homelessness?

e)      What are control measures that can be used to address the problem of domestic violence-caused homelessness among women living in Cork City?

f)       Are there any Reasons why Women find it hard to Leave Abusive or Violence Relationship?

 

 

Rationale for the Study

Domestic violence is a violation of the fundamental human rights and often results in serious injury or death, which makes it a serious social-economic, political and health challenge. While it’s global statistics varies slightly (World Health Organization – WHO, 2018), women are the major victims across the globe, Ireland inclusive. Attesting, reports by the Women’s Aid indicated that 1 in 7 women compared to 1 in 17 men in Ireland experienced severe domestic violence (Women’s Aid Impact Report, 2017). Another shocking report from a face-to-face interview with 42,000 women by the Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) in 2014 observed that 26 per cent of Irish women (394,325) had experienced physical and/or sexual violence by a partner or non-partner since the age of 15 (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2014). In the same vein, the Women’s Aid reported 16,946 disclosures of domestic violence against women of which 11,078 disclosures were emotional abuse, 3,502 disclosures were physical abuse, 695 disclosures were sexual abuse while, 1,671 disclosures were financial abuse (Women’s Aid Impact Report, 2016).

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Essay Writing Service

However, as an inhabitant or resident of Cork city, the researcher is curious to know the prevalence of domestic violence among women living in Cork city Ireland, which is anonymously undetermined by previous research reports considering the rising rate of family homelessness in the city. This is further echoed with rising issues over low prosecution and conviction rates of perpetrators, high withdrawal rates of complaints and inadequate funding to organizations that provide support services to victims (National Women’s Council of Ireland, 2017). Of greater concern to the researcher are media (Magazines, Newspapers, Television, Radio, Internets) reports of cases like husband killings and maiming of their spouses which are not been put to the notice by victims to concerned authorities. Surprisingly, some of these victims see it as ‘family matters’, as results emanating from the FRA (2014) survey attested that about 57 per cent of Irish women said they had reasons for not contacting the police following the most serious incidence of violence and that they prefer to deal with the issue themselves or involved a friend or relative. This is what the popular African music singer Fela Ransomkuti termed “Suffering and Smiling”. Corroborating, personal observation by the researcher suggests that among women, domestic violence is often a hidden and personal issue which centers on culture, norms, traditions, and religious beliefs. This silence-culture along with victim’s stigmatization allows the abuse to continue, inflicting physical and emotional damage on the victims as well as their family members.

As a result, those who cannot bear the battering anymore may seek for divorce or seek refuge from neighbours, friends, and families or sometimes run away from home making them homeless. Similarly, observation from a recent research conducted by Focus Ireland on the pathways of families into homelessness revealed that, 11 of the 72 surveyed respondents indicated that domestic violence was the main cause of their recent experience of homelessness. Another five of the respondents stated that, domestic violence had negatively impacted on their housing stability in the past (Focus Ireland, 2017). It is worth noting that, the nature of this violence was in the form of intimate partner violence and also violence within the family home (Focus Ireland, 2017). Sadly, if this figure is combined with the hidden homelessness of victims living with friends and families and the fact that good portion of victims do not want to disclose or call the attention of statutory or support services to such issues; then there is a massive national problem. This problem is further orchestrated in the gaps in housing provisions, as homelessness policy does not adequately incorporate the housing needs of women (and children) where that need arises from violence and abuse. The question at this junction is:  how are solutions to families becoming homeless to be found when one of the root causes of women and children becoming homeless is domestic violence and it is rarely even acknowledged and divulged. These major challenges agitated the researcher towards conducting this study in order to explore the link between domestic violence and homelessness among women especially those living in Cork city, Ireland.

Background to the Study

Domestic violence which is defined as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner (Rennison, 2003) can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender, and geographic boundaries, and can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional, economic, and psychological abuse (Fareo, 2015; Omorogiuwa, 2017). Recent research findings further observed that, it is one of the major contributor to families especially those headed by women becoming homeless globally (WHO, 2018) including Ireland (National Women’s Council of Ireland, 2017). Specifically, 1,803 Irish women across all demographic groups and regions are currently experiencing homelessness nationwide which was largely attributed to structural disadvantage, poverty, housing market failure, economic factors (rising rents and a severe contraction of affordable housing supply) and the rising menace of domestic violence; with 1,363 of these women currently accessing support services in the Dublin region (Focus Ireland, 2017).

In order to address this issue, legal instruments at the international level were enacted; which Ireland is a signatory to it. Notably is the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1979 which the Republic of Ireland acceded to in 1985 and to its Optional Protocol (the acceptance of the right to be monitored and to have enforcement actions instigated) in 2000; the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) which Ireland signed in 1968, but only ratified the Convention in 2000; the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) which was signed by the Irish State in 2007 but the state has not yet consented the convention; and the Istanbul Convention of the Council of Europe on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence which was signed by Ireland in 2015. More so at the national level, Ireland has also designed and enacted policies like the: Second National Strategy on Domestic, Sexual and Gender-based Violence 2016 – 2021; National Strategy for Women and Girls (NSWG) 2017-2020; Garda Síochána Domestic Abuse Intervention Policy (2017); and Health Services Executive (HSE) Policy on Domestic, Sexual and Gender based Violence (2010) for implementation in order to reduce the menace of domestic violence.

In further addressing this issue, some Irish non-governmental organizations and Agency like the Sexual Violence Centre Cork (SVCC), Women’s Aid and Focus Ireland have contributed their quota by providing support services to these victims. Highlighting some of their recent achievement, the SVCC in 2016 provided services to 310 victims of sexual violence of whom 91% were women (SVCC, 2016). In the same year (2016), Women’s Aid provided One to One Support Services to 2,512 victims (i.e. 1,764 additional telephone calls and 748 one to one support visits) and court accompaniments to 240 victims (Women’s Aid Impact Report, 2016). Theoretically, different theories have also been propounded by scholars in explaining domestic violence, this includes: social learning theory, ecological theory, feminist theory, family system theory, structural theory, subculture model, and patriarchy theory (Bogard, 1999; Loseke, Gelles & Cavanaugh 2005). However, this study would be premised on the feminism theory which stresses the need for the recognition of culture, traditions and other societal factors in the discourse of domestic violence. Despite this, the incidence of domestic violence as well as homelessness in Ireland is on the rise. This therefore calls for immediate action at both the national and international level.

The Study Area (Cork City)

Cork in Ireland is one of the oldest cities in the country and dates back to 915 when it was inhabited by the Vikings. It is located in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster. The total population of Cork City which currently stood at 417,211, with 206,953 males and 210,258 females (World Population Review, 2018), makes it the third largest city on the island of Ireland, after Dublin and Belfast, and the second largest in the Republic of Ireland (Central Statistics Office, 2016). However, from the population, 215,813 are single, 167,195 are married, 8,933 are separated, 9,006 are divorced, and 16,264 are widowed. In terms of housing, the total number of homes in Cork totals 146,442 structures. However, in recent time, reports by the Irish Times revealed that out of the 6,052 adults and 3,755 children including 1,739 families currently homelessness in Ireland (Holland, 2018), a total of 91 families are living in homeless services in the South West region (Cork and Kerry), representing 128 adults and 222 children. The majority of these people are living in Cork (www.goodshepherdcork.ie/latest-homeless-statistics-show-children-and-families-are-most-at-risk-of-homelessness).

Method(s)

The research design to be adopted for this study is a descriptive research of a cross-sectional survey involving both quantitative (self-designed questionnaire) and qualitative (focus group discussions – FGD schedule and observations) methods of data collection.  The choice of this design was because of its usefulness in gathering data relating to peoples’ opinion, and behaviour over a short period of time. Also, the design guarantees breadth of observation and will provide accurate analysis of the study population which can be used to make inferences about the research endeavour.  These research methods would be utilized in order to access as wide a range of opinions and experiences as possible from the participants.

Sample (no; breakdown; strategy)

A sample size which would adequately and appropriately represent the population would be drawn. The Cochran formula for descriptive studies in population greater than 10,000 (Araoye, 2008) would be used to determine the sample size for this study:

Where:

n= the desired sample size (when population is >10000)

z = Standard normal deviate at 95 percent confidence interval which is set at 1.96.

p= sample proportion from a previous study= 25.0% (Union Nations Fundamental Rights Agency, 2014).

q = 1 – p = 0.750

d = Degree of accuracy desired = 0.05

Therefore,

 n = 1.962 x 0.250 (1.0 – 0.250)

                                    (0.05)2

                  = 3.842 x 0.250 x 0.750

                                     0.0025

      n = 288.15 or 288

To compensate for non response, 10% of the original size will be added.

10% of 288 =28.8

n = 288+28.8

    = 316.8

Sample (N) = 317

Furthermore, the total sample size of 317 would be used as participant for the study since it is manageable for the researcher. This is in line with the assertion made by Afolabi (1999) that a researcher can adopt the entire population in a study if it is manageable, accessible to subjects of the study and will not create problem in terms of cost. In this regard, 317 women living in Cork city will be selected randomly until the total sampled is reached.

Ethics

Ethics is related to moral principles, and the guiding conduct which is held by a group or even a profession (National Open University of Nigeria – NOUN, 2013). In this study, ethical issues would be addressed by getting research clearance/introductory letter to carry out this study from the school (department, and name of institution). The clearance would help the researcher to gain access to the respondents Furthermore, the informed consent of the individual participants who were the respondents would be sought and respondents would be assured for both confidentiality and careful use of the information provided for the purpose of this study and not otherwise. Also, all the information and other identities of the subjects would be treated confidential and no information would be exposed to any other source without the consent of the respondents.

 

Timeframe (Work plan)

A work plan is crucial to time management, especially when a study is to take place within a limited period. The following is a schedule of activities indicating when each respective activity is due to occur:

 

Months

 

Activities

September

 

 

October

 

 

 

November

 

 

December

 

 

December to January

 

 

February

 

Jan. to March

 

April

 

Allocation of Supervisor and Review of Literature

Meeting project supervisor and Correction

Proposal writing and approval and Meeting project supervisor

Research Methodology and Design of Instrument

Start to give out the questionnaires and Meeting project supervisor

Primary method and Collection of the questionnaires

Collection of Data and Meeting project supervisor

Data Gathering and Analysing the data

Write up, finalising, tiding up work, reading and reviewing the work.

Submission of the work

 

Timeframe (Work plan)

A work plan is crucial to time management, especially when a study is to take place within a limited period. The following is a schedule of activities indicating when each respective activity is due to occur:

EventDate

 

September

October

November

December

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Allocation of Supervisor

Topic Selection

Proposal writing and approval

Concept Paper Development

Review of Literature

Research Methodology and Design of Instrument

Meeting project supervisor and Correction

Presentation and Approval

Data Gathering

Results and Discussions

Meeting project supervisor and Correction

Conclusion and Recommendations

Acknowledge, Appendices etc

Meeting project supervisor and Correction

Presentation and Approval

Ethics

Ethics is related to moral principles, and the guiding conduct which is held by a group or even a profession (National Open University of Nigeria – NOUN, 2013). In this study, ethical issues would be addressed by getting research clearance/introductory letter to carry out this study from the school (department, and name of institution). The clearance would help the researcher to gain access to the respondents Furthermore, the informed consent of the individual participants who were the respondents would be sought and respondents would be assured for both confidentiality and careful use of the information provided for the purpose of this study and not otherwise. Also, all the information and other identities of the subjects would be treated confidential and no information would be exposed to any other source without the consent of the respondents.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Textbook

  • Araoye, M.O. (2008). Research methodology with statistics for health and social sciences (2nd Ed.). Ilorin: Nathadex Publications, p 115- 122.
  • Afolabi, M. (1999). Research methodology. In Alkaleri, A.U (ed). Fundamentals of Librarianship. Kaduna: Academic Press, 29-40.
  • Loseke, D. R., Gelles R. J. & Cavanaugh M.M. (2005). Current controversies on family violence (2nd ed). New York. Sage Publications.
  • NOUN (2013). Course material on basic research methods in education (EDU723). Abuja: National Open University of Nigeria. ISBN: 978-058-982-1

Journals

  • Bogard, M. (1999). Strengthening domestic violence theories: Intersections of race, class, sexual orientation, and gender. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 275-289.
  • Fareo D.O. (2015). Domestic violence against women in Nigeria. European Journal of Psychological Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 24 -33.
  • Omorogiuwa, T.B. E (2017). The public perception of the impacts of domestic violence against women. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 293- 298.

Reports

  • Central Statistics Office (2016). Population and Actual and Percentage Change 2011 TO 2016 BY SEX, Province County or City, Census Year and Statistic”. Census 2016.
  • Focus Ireland (2017). National Women’s Strategy. Focus Ireland Submission
  • Fundamental Rights Agency (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide s – main results. Vienna, Austria: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 
  • National Women’s Council of Ireland (2017).  Ending sexual harassment and violence in third level education – Eshte Project:  A review of data on the prevalence of sexual violence and harassment of women students in higher education. National Report-Ireland. 
  • Rennison, C. M. (2003). Intimate partner violence, 1993–2001 (p. 1). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, February.
  • Sexual Violence Centre Cork – SVCC Annual Report 2016
  • Women’s Aid Impact Report 2017. Against the odds. Wilton Place, Dublin: Women’s Aid.
  • Women’s Aid Impact Report 2016. Wilton Place, Dublin: Women’s Aid.

Online Materials

  • Holland, K. (2018, March 28). Almost 10,000 people now homeless, new figures show. The Irish Times, p. 1. Retrieved from https://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/almost-10-000-people-now-homeless-new-figures-show-1.3443383
  • WHO (2018). Violence against women. http://www.who.int/gho/women_and_health/violence/ en/ (accessed 22/09/2018).
  • World Population Review. Cork Population 2018. http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/cork-population/(accessed 05/10/2018).
  • www.goodshepherdcork.ie/latest-homeless-statistics-show-children-and-families-are-most-at-risk-of-homelessness (accessed 08/10/2018).

 

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: