Factors Which Shaped The Development Of Modern Criminology Criminology Essay

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For years, the symbol of the future has been the coming of new decade; the arrival of new century. Whether the field is medicine, space exploration or criminal justice, that turn of the calendar has held unique fascination. Now as we approach the new decade, a new reality is forming from that fascination. Still distant enough to pique our curiosity but close enough that our expectations and analysis regarding crimes and punishment can be guided by reality, life in the next decade can be the focus of productive, justifiable and practical inquiry (Guha, 1999).

Such inquiry can be useful to academics, law enforcers, public officials, planners, student and others for whom the future of crime and punishment is no abstraction but an important stage in their careers and their contributions. Past the year 2009, today's students will be tomorrow's expert and have a dedication and experience to carry them into positions of leadership. Education today not only can describe crime and punishment as they are, but also help to prepare student by prompting them to consider what their future might be like (Barry,2003).

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Modern Criminology is one of the fields of study and disciplines about criminals and criminal behavior. The development of the subject attempted to build theoretical foundations that explain why these crimes occurred and test those theoretical concepts by observing their behavior aspects. Criminological concepts help shape the response of society to crimes in terms of responding and preventing crimes after its occurrence. The concern of it was focused with the human moral relationship, values and moral status together with its non-human elements. It has become a new philosophical sub-discipline in the early 1970s; it was challenged by classical criminology. Foremost, it instigates the considered moral superiority of humanity to population of other people on the planet. Second, it examined the rational possibility of arguments for providing intrinsic value to the diversity of crimes and punishment elements (Guha, 1999)

According to Attigod (2007) over the course of the past centuries, there were visible unrelenting levels of speculation in historical and contemporary literatures about crimes and punishments at the same time that worldwide issues and conflicts. Concurrent to these developments, there has been a new wave of interest directed toward the factors contributing to the development of modern criminology coming out from different aspects of living things through communications, specifically the twist in the valuation and judgment role in society or culture.

A study conducted by Barry (2003), he presented that at the start of the new millennium, there were growing number of criteria that began to suggest crimes and punishment as a remedy to the state cauterized of society and culture. Yet, he questioned how can these criteria for works within the new cultural modalities of in the changing and reflexive dialogue and ambiguity?

Interest was focused on the importance of providing a framework for understanding the development of crime and punishment. Included in those was the need for examining the education and skills that today students requires to be effective scholars and professionals over the course of their careers. That knowledge, firmly grounded in the present and the past, has guided their efforts to look into the future. Most of these authors do not consider themselves futurists, that is, specialists, speculating about the future. Instead, their effort here are the best appreciated as attempts to extent today's knowledge base modestly forward for a decade and a half and perhaps to influence those who are willing to make daring leaps (Barry, 2003).

No matter how qualified experts may be, the rest remains that their musings about the criminology, may, at best, ignore significant issues or, at worst, be little more than fantasies. Careful selection of experts and the tension to detail to avoid such problems, but additional safeguard, also have been included. They began their efforts with general instructions in the intent and directions of the subject. The issues that were debated ranged from the extent to which the subject was best viewed as a direct extension of the present or as likely to mold by other influences to the crime and punishment, moral responsibilities for helping to shape the future (Attigod, 2007).

Only some of many crimes that occur received intense attentions from the news media, law enforcement agencies, and the public. White collar crime gets least attention that its innermost costs warrant and arson is rarely the basis of news stories, official investigation and public fear. In recent years, two relatively uncommon forms of crimes - serial homicide and the murder of children abducted by strangers, have dominated press reports on crime, television documentaries, police investigations, and popular attentions (Barry, 2003).

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During the 1980's, the issue of serial murder was established as major social problem, and the stereo typical serial killer become one of the best-known and the most widely feared social enemies.

In each case, particular attention should be directed toward the identification of claims-makers, those individuals and groups who attempt to present an issue in a particular way. The study of such claims-makers is central to the constructionists' approach to social problems in which the theoretical task is to study how members defines lodge and press claims; how they publicized their concerns, redefine the issue in question in the face of political obstacles, indifference or oppositions; how they enter in alliances which other claim makers (Agar, 2001). The development of the criminology shaped public perceptions of the serial murder problem, crimes, and the means claims and came to the establishment as authoritative. It will be suggested that such an exploration has important implications both for the framing of social problems, and for the study of mass media (James, 2003).

The crime, punishment and justice were the philosophical focus of 19th and 20th century, the present criminological approach surfaced as an academic field and discipline in the 1970s. The rethinking and doubt about the human and crime relationship over the last three decades showed an already common perception in the early 1960s that the twentieth century presents with a "population time bomb" and a major crisis issue (Guha, 1999

Additionally, the historical derivatives of the crime and punishment are linked to overuse and abuse of human rights and nature by maintenance of the human's equality over all other forms of nature and life on earth and by perception of all was formed and created for the justice not only human beings but all form of life in the universe (Barry, 2003).

The modern criminology is heavily influenced by ideology and politics, but those influences can be tempered by data. The collection and analysis of information about crime and criminals and about the criminal justice process will play an increasingly important rule in the future. Research, including evaluation studies, therefore becomes an essential component of providing services to the community (Agar, 2001). Such research serves as a foundation on which future policies and procedures can be evaluated and corrective measures taken to improve the delivery of services. In this way, research is more that heuristic. It is now an important ingredient in the process of completing the multiple tasks expected of criminology leaders (Attigod, 2007).

The development of modern criminology faces different challenges and issues today, crimes, degradation of natural resources and destruction of human life are some of the issues regarding the subject. There is also destruction of some individual members of human groups and overpopulated species belong to indigenous group which is important for the preservation of our integrity. There are terrorists from different countries across the globe that continually practices heinous crimes to sustain their needs and goals that degrades the quality of human life. In natural settings, there are industries and mining company that utilized open pit mining in some environmental diverse area that causes global climate change. It is often discusses to be morally wrong for every human beings to deplete, destroy and harm any parts of the nature, human life and to large area of the earth's natural resources (James, 2003).

However, there are expert have asked crimes and justice should impact the places defined in which areas are to be restored, and have questioned over exactly which must be - ecological features, terrorism, criminal features, etc. These issues are emerging in human societies, and then an issue also emerges over the laws of the nature and punishments that will show in them, and also of their combination into huge global, regional, political and economic field (Barry, 2003).

The political, ethical, and legal confluences of arguments regarding the future of criminology is focused on the emergence of philosophical issues that concern with human rights, resources depletion and the argue over whether an human ethics would be anything new rather than a changes, extension or modification of current ethical philosophies were showed in wider political, environmental and social movements. Fields and areas such as feminism, deep ecology, and social theories are considered to have significant impact on the political development of positions regarding the environment. The importance of this factors impact to the people's thinking about criminology and has been valued by many environmental scholars and philosophers (Attigod, 2007).

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Additionally, the focus on the value of justice and the importance of its conservation and preservation has viewed as another significant problem - namely that lifestyles in which efforts for crimes and punishment can be valuable demand as a standard of lifestyle that is far across the perception of most of the world's population.

Current political conflicts and geographical differences provide significant challenges to the issue of crimes and justice, the world is now in general as it threatens to widen inequalities and affect human living systems. The justice and ethics is necessary as it involve the interference with the rights of humans and non-human living elements, particularly in relation to access to life's critical to survival. It also contains questions concerned to whether human should leave considerations to other human to preserve for future generations. That is either of the main activities that are unethical and how their involvements in an activity to misinform the public about political changes in the past decades that have tarnished the environmental moral image (Abram, 1996). 

In addition, there are report uses that unethical activities by many organizations were used as justification their strategic planning that will aid the industries. These issues must not only address its criminal and moral concern, but also obtain a global reputation of social corporate responsibility and secure justice viability in the future in spite of modern and new technologies that will underpin the change, social welfare, facilitates and economic development. In contrast, there must be appropriate attention to the development of appropriate law making bodies (Aris, 2008) 

Linked between unequal human treatment, destruction of environmental, poverty and the economic situation of the world order have been argued by criminal scholars, political scientists, geographers, development theorists, and economists as well as by philosophers. Links between criminology and economics are well established particularly. I believe that the goal of modern criminology regarding the current political issues is to provide safe and complete set of environment for all living things around the world to improve quality of lives while decreasing impact of human rights depletion and supporting communities (Attigod, 2007).

Due to the highly liquid nature of the securities and short maturities, international expansion and globalization of criminal concepts is perceived as a safe place to lock in justice. It serves as instruments characterised by high degree of safety of the principal. The successful implementation of these strategies by international organizations like UN provided more securities and opportunities; there are hundreds of required detailed decisions to accomplish the goal, such as police strategies, planning, judicial and police activities such as law making and amendments (Barry,2003)

It is well known that the criminology system has a disproportionate effect on the poor and on minorities in the United States in that those in whom the coercive power of the state is vested are disproportionately white middle class. The integrity of this system of social control depends on its being fair and equitable. Where disparity exists, we must be certain that it is not the result of either deliberate or unintentional differences in the treatment of citizens. While the modern criminology cannot be expected to address inequities that may exist in the larger society, leaders should contribute to them. Leaders of the field must take responsibility for safeguarding the integrity of punishment system and for working toward the system whose employees are sensitive to the cultures of those caught up in it and served by it (Abram, 1996). 

There are also effect directly address the national strategies of certain countries. For instance, very new law and public trust strategies adapt existing management have to controls the new technology and able to manipulate ideas to effectively undertake every present opportunities. Crimes and punishment agencies information has their own commercial organization with the automation of routine functions, specifically judicial and police functions. As technology and globalization become more influential and more effective, judicial and criminal justice strategy gain support in almost all countries and organizational processing. Organizations also emerging in the international treaty in this period, and have been constantly used to back up national strategies and communications (Aris, 2008).

National communications have connected criminology and justice more closely to the host nation and law making bodies. The national efforts of different countries worldwide have their own continuity planning aligned with human rights. There is also a determination of national objectives, operations, logistics and development of these strategies, control and evaluation process in measuring the effectiveness of modern criminology's performance. The criminal aspects have been the direct responsibility of national government and peace keeping body, whereas top management is responsible for the implementation of strategic plans. The advantage of this idea includes the tendency to be detail line by line criminal punishment actions and legal considerations items with tactical approaches that concerned with the rationale used in national plan

Moreover, the rate of crimes in different countries has dramatically increased which added some modern features to the development of criminology, international strategy have come to produce to gain influence over the nature and form of the modern organizations. Abreast with the increasing rate on technology and globalization is the increasing complexity and scale of national strategy. These figures added to motivate national strategy and technological strategic planning, as a means to produce the best feature for the country that realizes the best benefit from these laws and punishment accompanied by the concepts and theories in trade as well as the process to create large scale efforts to enter the international system (Barry, 2003).

Much of what the modern criminology does can be seen as settling conflicts among citizens. Basic values justice and fairness are central to such system of social control. Anyone working in the punishment system has the obligation to explore such basic values to understand their importance in criminal justice and to understand their meaning and value to them as individuals. Those who work in the modern criminology system must be responsible for their part in that system. Lawyers must not tolerate in justice, the police must not accept brutality, and prison officials must be responsible for prison conditions. For that to be true, we cannot rely on citizen's video cameras to exposed and correct the system. Everyone must appreciate the importance of values that make the modern criminology system credible (Aris, 2008).

For the successful development of modern criminology and the rate of globalization increased into international scene for more opportunities. There are also hundreds of required detailed decisions to accomplish the goal. In these recent days, the world is experiencing through an epic proportions technological discontinuity, and most of the people us are not even totally prepared. The system paradigm of mass media and mass production is being interchanged by a one-to-one law system which is a new paradigm totally (Abram, 1996). 

In developing new criminology strategy, it involves fact finding, analysis, generation of technical and management plan goals, and development of projects to realize these goals. The planning process makes use of tools of international law consulting agencies. From the point of view of sustainable international growth, the construction of national strategies against crimes has been notable international success. While on the criminology continues to mature, global and local law enforces and law making bodies are seeking for opportunities to advance the national interests in a highly competitive environment. This issue has been a subject of many studies and researches on crimes and punishment in these recent years.

The idea of the future may seem like an abstraction, looking into it could seem little more than an intellectual exercise. But there are also more practical applications. In personal terms, we can talk about our individual features or, more specifically, our careers in the field of criminal justice. From that perspective, development of criminology involves identifying the types of knowledge and skills that will be needed in 15 or 20 years. That is, preparing for the future means acknowledging that the jobs available today maybe very different tomorrow and that you must prepare not only for your first job in the field that also for leadership positions in the future (Abram, 1996). 

In addition, the political abilities of leaders in the criminology field are strengthened by analytical abilities. Never before have these skills been as necessary as they are today and will continue to be, and never before has the capacity to develop these skills been so close at hand. The technological revolution of the 1980's and early 1990's has put computers in nearly every work city.

Criminology is a public enterprise. In its most basic form, it involves exercise of coercive powers on behalf of the people. Leaders of the criminology organizations will have to commit themselves to the principles of democracy that is, the openness and to debate over public policy. When police make arrests or when a state executes an offender, it is done on behalf of the citizenry. It is incumbent on those would lead the field to be certain that the citizenry is informed thoughtful in its understanding and expectations of criminal justice policy. This means educating the public about criminal justice in being tolerant of those who would hide the business of justice from their community (Agar, 2001).

Along with the need for increased awareness and appreciation of analytical capabilities, there was also a need for those in modern criminology system to have a thorough understanding of the philosophical foundation of the criminal justice system. That includes an understanding of the philosophical positions regarding the roots of crime as well as typical positions regarding justice and fairness in the behavior of individuals and in the process of crimes and punishment (Abram, 1996). 

Contemporary views of criminality now stress the integration of both classically oriented assumptions about freewill with more positivistic notions on the etiology of crime. This more modern view requires the acceptance of a new set of assumptions about the nature of crime, the role of the state in the definition of crime, and different implication for crime control. Now, more than ever in the past, research has forced the modern criminology to examine importance of both individual choice and deterministic influences on the cause of crime. Being aware of the importance of pour assumptions about crime allows as to construct policies that are not only more effective, but also more equitable (Aiklo, 2004).

Additionally, there are studies focused on patterns of the strategic criminal investigations among its criminals and its importance for the effectiveness of its management plan utilized by the corporation. To have a stronger potential to impact the organizational structure, management, strategies and modern criminology effectiveness compared to its members (Abram, 1996).  Diversity among every people and local situation has become an increasingly more important issue to every organization, people, and organizational productivity. Effective patterns will most likely attract more effective justice; criminal system will also be increased (Aiklo, 2004).

In order to minimize the negative effects, if present, the system must ensure that the criminal strategy applied provides the maximum strategic benefit to the citizenry and requires further evolution. These strategies must also be assigned with value in supporting organizational goals; the efficient management of this value can provide greater benefit to the organization (Agar, 2001).

The standing/ situation of modern criminology strategies affected by the globalization are studied; the perceptions in the application of these factors affecting the development are also evaluated. After the examination of institutional setting in which these problem occurred, data are collected and found out that changes in the responsibilities inherent in a specific criminal plan of actions, changes in the management strategies and plans required for the proper promotion and as well as the changes in plan prerogatives and effective communication are strongly enhanced by the expansion to international market (Agar, 2001).

The impact of their the new system of modern criminology are currently examined and therefore determined that there are significant changes had occurred in the number of factors in the characteristics of judicial planning, in the number and size of the population and in the nature of the crime committed (Aiklo, 2004). These factors discussed are usually implicit in the development of modern criminology, as many organizations and national institutions constructs already exists with the ongoing activities. These factors command and control loop that is present in most existing mechanisms in the world of criminology. These features are effective tools that may be used by any organizations to aid in more effective crime and punishment development in any social settings (Attigod, 2007).

Conclusions:

Development of Modern criminology is required to facilitate the necessary integration of these judicial and punishment activities so that law enforcer efforts for peace and order are effectively directed and controlled. In these current economic situations the nations and the world's strategy may be involved planning at several levels of criminology structure. Factors affecting the strategic decision making process of a nation and law making bodies may be the proper developing and maintaining of strategic fit between the punishment and its opportunities.

To facilitate growth, the effective integration of methods and philosophies must involve the selection of a tactics to implement punishment and to reach defined goals. Judicial planning differs from other legislative planning in several ways. The plan must involved efficient strategic punishment systems that focus on long term directions and goals. The criminal aspects must have been the direct responsibility of national government and peace keeping body, whereas top management is responsible for the implementation of strategic plans. The advantage of this idea includes the tendency to be detail line by line criminal punishment actions and legal considerations items with tactical approaches that concerned with the rationale used in national plan. One disadvantage of this idea is that the citizens need to adopt a perspective that integrates the proper orientation of laws with tactical benefits of having peace environment. These factors affecting the development of modern criminology set central commitments for morally responsive concerns, peaceful environment and defined how it can contribute to sustainable growth of the society.

The development of the modern criminology builds theoretical foundations that explain why these crimes occurred and test those theoretical concepts by observing their behavior aspects. Criminological concepts help shape the response of society to crimes in terms of responding and preventing crimes after its occurrence