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A criminological study of the film Joker (2019)

Info: 12005 words (48 pages) Essay
Published: 2nd Nov 2021 in Criminology

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Introduction

One of the most important cinema release of the end of the year 2019, is the film about the origin story of the Joker. Joker is a film directed by Todd Phillips, written by Todd Phillips and Scott Silver , and starring in the lead role Joaquin Phoenix. It has been released on the 4th of October 2019. In this essay I am going to present a criminological study of this film. Indeed this is also a film about the origin of crime , and how crime emerges in a person. We witness in the film, a great violence, and the film tries really to explore the reason of this sudden violence. So this film is perfectly fitted for a criminological study, to explore and analyse the causes of crime present in the film. The criminological studies of film, are part of criminology . We could derive this type of study from the concept of cultural criminology. The cultural criminology sees crime as a cultural product, and study the interactions between crime and culture.[1] The field of cultural criminology is very broad. And as we are going to see in the essay , a branch of the cultural criminology has been developed by Nicole Rafter, the popular criminology.[2] Popular criminology focuses on fictional works and their interpretation as criminological work. In order to realize a criminological study of the Film Joker, I will divide my essay in three principal parts . First, we are going to study why it can be relevant to do such a study on a film, and more precisely we are going to analyse the popular criminology theory. In a second part I will really focus on the study of the film, by trying to find the most adequate theories to interpret crime representation in the film. Then in a short third part, I will mention the controversy that emerged in USA around the release of the film.

A brief synopsis of the film

This story is a reinterpretation of the character of the Joker that has been interpreted many times in cinema, and of course in comics.

The story takes place in the 80s, in the fictional city of Gotham which is clearly a representation of New-York. The city is under a massive feeling of ressentiment, and protestation. In this environment, we are following Arthur Fleck, a failed comedian with mental illness. Through the film we are witnessing his construction into the fictional criminal character of the Joker. So we are seeing a change in his behaviour , and the reasons that drive him to commit crimes, and become the prince of crime. This origin story of Joker is breathtaking , and the realism of the film is reinforced by the extraordinary performance of the cast, and Joaquin Phoenix who stars the Joker. It is therefore interesting to asses the reality of the causes of Joker's behaviour. As the essay is going to present later, this film is a perfect choice for a criminological study.

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I. Why is fiction interesting in criminological studies? Rafter's idea of Popular criminology

The popular criminology theory

The popular culture, has found its way in criminology through the concept of Popular Criminology. Popular criminology has been developed, and reformulated by Nicole Rafter. Event if other scholars have stressed the relation between cultural work and crime before, she has really emphasized its importance and the recognition of fictional works.[3] Trough her criminological study of sex-crime, she is giving an argued observation about the importance of film studies in criminology. 4

She is arguing in her work that, criminology is not reserved to scholar people and professional criminologists.

Rafter defines criminology as the " effort to understand crime" [4]. If we refer to this definition , we can argue, and Rafter does in her work, that fictional films could be consider as criminological works. She is arguing that there is no real hierarchy between academic and popular works and that both of them can be considered equally. Indeed, a Film-maker will give an interpretation of his understanding of crime and criminal behaviour through his film and its characters. By doing so, he is producing a criminological work.

However even if in her work she is developing this concept , she does not put academic and popular criminology in opposition . On the contrary she argues that this two types of work can be complementary. [5]

She accentuates also the singularity of the popular criminology. According to her, popular criminology has the advantage to have a broader influence. Indeed a film will be seen a lot more than an academic article. This observation brings some strength to the complementarity between popular and academic criminology. Films can in that way be considered as vectors of criminological theories and works, for a large public.

According to her, classical academic criminology is not able to interpret the behaviour and really look at the mind of criminals as film does. To follow this observation of Rafter, we could argue that in this sense, films, in certain cases, could be seen as practical criminological experiments. Rafter also argues that films bring something that typical academic works are really unable to bring to criminology. The first thing is that crime films force the spectator to take the place of the character, victims or offender, which would be very difficult with traditional academic works. And she also makes the observation that crime films allow to take strong moral positions which is not really possible in academic criminology.

In her work , Rafter argues that the popular criminology constitutes an other type of criminology, which is however complementary to academic criminology. [6]

She thinks that these types of criminological studies will be useful to analyse the perception of crime of people, and the influence of popular culture on those perceptions.

By doing this work and those observations, I think that she expends the possibility of studies in criminology and bring some dynamism in this field. She transforms the fictional film that was not consider as worthy of criminological studies, in a precious tool in the hands of criminologists. This work will be follow by a number of others scholars developing this idea of popular criminology, and instating the film as an object of criminological studies.

The developments and critics of her theory

Development of the popular criminology

The popular criminology has been developed through a number of studies where scholars tried to apply this idea to the study of a particular film genre. [7]

For example Rockell applies the idea of Rafter in her work on prisons and prison films.[8] In her work she treats the film as a real source of criminological studies , in this way she follows the lead of Rafter, in the sense of considering prison films as a credible source for her study. She looks at films as a testimony of beliefs about crimes and justice system.

Kohm and Greenhill in their work on paedophile crime films are going even further that the simple assertion of films as sources of criminological work . [9]They consider paedophile crime films as a way to change and to think about the state of the justice and the Human behaviour . Indeed they are using the point stated by Rafter saying that films reach a bigger number of people than classical academic work. They argue that paedophile crime films are questioning viewers about the justice system, and in general about the human behaviour towards criminal activities . So one could argue that films represent a better way to have a real effect on society and criminal policies, than simple academic works. Indeed simple academic works do not have this emotional impact on the public, that is essential to trigger change of mind and policy. In this way Kohm and Green argue that paedophile crime film have an importance in the peoples conception of justice .

Some have argued an other way to use popular criminology. Indeed some scholars have emphasized the role that could be played by crime films in teaching criminology. Indeed we can easily understand that film are a good way to teach and pass on criminological discourses. Films are then used as a pedagogical tool. [10]

Rafter's work have been used in several criminological studies concerning fictional works. For example , Raymen in his criminological work on the show The Walking Dead where he studies the depiction of human behaviour in dystopian fiction.[11] He argues that depiction of human behaviour and criminal behaviour in a dystopian fiction is an exacerbation of current behaviour. An other good example is the work of Mark A Wood on the Japanese anime Psycho-Pass .[12] This fiction depicts a world where crime is predicted by algorithms. So in his work Mark A Wood questions the datafication of crime , and the role of algorithms towards crime and its prevention.

We can see through those examples , that popular criminology is used to question ourselves, about current issues and evolutions of the society.

I think that this new types of studies are interesting and more appealing to a less professional public, and criminology will gain to develop these types of studies in the future to reach a broader part of the society.

Critics against popular criminology

Of course all theories and ideas have their critics . And the idea of a popular criminology , because of its new way to conceive the criminological work, is the target of critics. 14

Some scholars argue that the way popular criminology is conducted is inconstant and lack of a more strict methodology. One of this critic is the critic made by King , in his work King criticizes not the popular criminology itself but more the methodology used to deal with this theory.[13] Indeed he sets three challenges for scholars working on a popular criminology work : the production of the story, the depiction of crime in the story , so the review and analyse of the film. And finally the audience reaction to the film. But he argues that popular criminologists are dealing mainly with the second challenge for practical reasons. Indeed we can easily understand that it would be hard to engage a study about the production of big Hollywood film. And it would be also of a great difficulty to realize a complete assessment of the public' response to the film. But he argues that this method of work is inconsistent and lack of real evidences . In his article he states that these works are based mainly on suppositions , and urges criminologists to apply greater standards of evidence , like indications of film-maker.

Even if this critic seems fair, it would be really difficult for scholars to have access to this type of evidence. And I think that it will stop the dynamism of popular criminology, which would be a loss for the discipline. This critic sets out a challenge about whether to focus on production or the pure content of the film. It is the same critic that is made by Lam16 , where he urges scholars to focus on the production rather than on the product . In others words, he agrees with King , when he says that scholars should focus on the study of production of film rather than exclusively on the deconstruction of the film.

So this lack of evidence and consistent methodology is the principal critic against popular criminology, at least against the use of the popular criminology by scholars.

We are going to see how, that despite these critics, a criminological study of the film Joker can be interesting and that this study can be included in the popular criminology area.

The relevance of the film Joker in a popular criminological work

The Joker character seems to be a particular good study for a criminological work . Indeed trough the film" Joker", we are witnessing the construction of the character , and the transition from Arthur Fleck to the criminal known as the Joker. And I think that this fiction has a great criminological potential. Indeed as stated by Rafter17, criminology is the effort to understand crime. Clearly in this film , there is a real attention and effort to understand what is the cause of the Joker's criminal behaviour. This criminological side of the film is confirmed by the director, who is also the writer of the film: "Joker is a represents of mayhem and chaos … and to sort of breakdown how he got like that … it was all about running everything through a realistic lens as possible."18 It confirms that the director, and the film try to understand Joker's behaviour, so this work can really be considered as a criminological work, which can be studied. Indeed it is a criminological work, according to Rafter's definition.

Beyond this one film, even the common nickname given to the joker is relevant in this case, the clown prince of crime. This nickname proves that peoples see the joker as a criminal figure, even maybe the most popular fictional criminal figure. So it is obviously relevant to study what people consider as the most emblematic fictional criminal character.

The relevance of considering and studying the Joker as a criminological work can also be found in its popularity. This film as we stated above, talks about the origin of the Joker as a criminal . The film has reached 1 billion dollars in worldwide box office [14] , which prove the interest of public for this origin story. The reach of this film as a fiction but also as a criminological work has to be noticed, because such work might lead to an interest of the public for criminology, or at least to some thoughts about crime. A classical criminological work could obviously not reach that amount of people.

We have seen that fiction in general , and the film Joker are worth of criminological studies, and could even be really useful for criminologists to asses public's representation of the crime. So in the next part we are going to study the film and try to understand and explain which theories can potentially be developed to explain the Joker's behaviour.

II. A criminological study of the Film Joker

In this part we are going to asses multiple theories about the interpretation of the criminal behaviours in the film. In a first sub-part, I will present several theories about the relations between childhood and criminality. Then we are going to analyse some theories that explore the relations between crime and social-economic environment.

The Impact of the childhood on the Joker's behaviour

The film emphasises the importance of Joker's difficult childhood on his behaviour. In the film there are two parts relating to the joker's childhood that can be relevant here : the abuse in his childhood, and the missing of a paternal figure. First it is important to state that in the film , the childhood of the joker is clearly mentioned as a reason for his behaviour. And it was the purpose of the director . The director stated in a Q&A that " there was a lot of things that informed him but you know ultimately there's childhood trauma which is not necessarily a new idea, there's a lack of love which is not a new idea, there's Gotham which represents this sort of loss of empathy" [15]. So this idea of childhood being one of the reasons for the Joker's behaviour, is not only my interpretation of the film, it is the purpose of the film.

So in this part we are going to see how theses childhood's traumas can explain the Joker's behaviour in the film, and criminality or antisocial behaviour in general.

Theories about Biological factors

Some theories have indeed linked childhood with future antisocial behaviour by using biological factors .

The first theory is based on the study of the MAO (monamine oxidase).[16] It is an enzyme that allows the metabolization of the neurotransmitters in the brain. Neurotransmitters are what allows the brain to process, and informations to circulate in the brain. The level of activity of the MAO can influence the behaviour.

Some researchers have work on the link between the influence of the MAO and childhood maltreatment, and the consequence on future behaviours.

Their first finding was that "early maltreatment strongly predicted antisocial behaviour"[17]. But they also found that when maltreatments are combined with low activity of MAO , childes are more likely to develop antisocial behaviour in the future.

Of course, the MAO influence on antisocial behaviour is impossible to connect directly with the film. But it shows the implication of the field to connect biology and criminology, which is interesting. However in the case of the finding that maltreatment can lead to antisocial behaviour, it is really relevant for the study of the film. Indeed in the Film we learn about some awful maltreatments conducted by the mother and her companion during the childhood of Arthur (the joker) . The film states a long description of mistreatments that Arthur endured during childhood : abuse, malnutrition, beating. We can so suppose that these traumas have had consequences on his behaviour as an adult, and that it can be a way to explain his criminal behaviour.

Some studies have also found a link between head injuries and antisocial behaviour . Raine follow these studies and imagined some scenarios where head injuries would be connected with criminal Behaviour.[18] "For example , in abusive homes, children are more likely to incur head injuries"[19]. However the link between criminal behaviour and head injuries can not be consider as hundred percent causal.

Still if one take into account this theory that head injuries could be a causal factor in criminal behaviour, it will perfectly fit to the film Joker. Indeed in the film head injuries are clearly mentioned when talking about he maltreatment on the joker as a child : " your son was found … with severe traumas to his head ".[20]So one could suppose that according to this theory, those head injuries have been a factor for the development of antisocial behaviour.

To sum up, in this sub-part about biological factors , we have seen that maltreatments endured in the childhood of the character could be a factor for his deviant behaviour .

Psychoanalytic Theory

The Psychoanalytic theory is a theory of the personality. This theory has been developed by the founder of psychoanalysis,[21] Sigmund Freud. The theory of Freud is extremely complex , and the interpretations and the works that have been made following his theory are enormous and extremely diverse. I will give a brief summary of his idea, and try to connect that with our subject. This theory explains that life experiences, especially childhood experiences, and unconscious desires influence behaviour. [22] Freud describes the mind in three parts : the id , the ego and the superego . In brief the id is an unconscious part of the mind that wants immediate gratification . Ego is the part of the mind that seeks sociability, and allows the mind to adapt to the external environment. Superego is a conscious part of the mind, that allows a sense of morality by assessing what is right or wrong. [23]Childhood experiences can have an effect on that balance between superego and id . A child with a perfectly normal childhood will be able to make the balance between the superego and the id. But childhood experiences can affect this balance in a bad way. In this hypotheses the person would not be capable of doing this balance, and the id will be dominant over the superego, which would affect behaviour by a weaker moral judgement. In deed childhood experiences could potentially block the development of a certain sense of morality. [24]

This theory is not especially about criminal behaviour , but some have argued that this theory could be used in criminology to explain criminal, or delinquent behaviours. Aichhorn for example applied this theory to juvenile delinquency .[25]

The psychoanalytic theory could perfectly be used to understand joker's behaviour in the film . Indeed his childhood has been really disturbed. As stated above he has been maltreated in his childhood. But there is also a lack of paternal figure.

In a big part of the film Arthur (the joker ) tries to find a paternal figure , in Thomas Wayne or in Murray Franklin the TV host. Which emphasises this lack of paternal figure, and the need for it. According to Freud and Aichhorn theories , these kind of disturbs can affect the behaviour. The childhood experiences of the joker would have disturbed his sense of morality, which would have led to deviant behaviours.

So we have seen in this part some of many theories that could explain Joker's behaviour through the lens of his childhood. Of course it is impossible to say that one theory is more applicable than an other in this case. But I think that this part has brought a good insight on the relation between childhood and criminal behaviour, and how these relations could be applied in the context of the film.

In the next part of the essay, we are going to see that the film emphasises another factor for the behaviour of the Joker, that is more linked to the context of the society, and the socio economic environment.

The influence of the Joker's social condition

The film emphasizes another reason for the behaviour of the joker , his social situation , and the social and economic reject whose he is being subject to. This reject is really shown in the scene of the interview at the end, where the Joker expresses this social and economic reject that has driven people, and him into criminality. So we are going to see which criminological theories could be applied in this situation to explain the link between social and economic rejection, and criminality.

Marxist theories of crime

The Marxist theories of crime are theories that try to understand crime through the spectrum of the Marxist vision of the society . In this part I am going to argue that the Joker film is a representation of the 1970s Marxist criminologists theories.

In a first time we must present what is Marx's Theory. Marxism has been developed in the 19th century by the philosopher and sociologist Karl Marx. He presents a new vision of the society and its mutation. Marx argues that the society is divided into two main groups : A group who owns most of the property and the means of production , the bourgeoisie. And an other group who constitutes the group employed to produce (the proletariat) , according to his vision, this group is being oppressed by the other group, the bourgeoisie.[26] Marx also emphasises what he calls "the contradiction" , the fact that the group owning the means of production is becoming richer, and the proletariat is becoming poorer. [27]

Marx himself did not look particularly at the crime in his work, but some have developed theories of crime through the lens of his vision of the society. The Marxist theories of crime are based on this vision of the society. However all theses theories are different and don't see crime equally, there is complete difference between early Marxist criminologists and the latest.

The first Marxist criminologist was Willem Bonger who proposed a vision of the crime linked with economic conditions, in his book Criminality and Economic conditions.[28] He argues that capitalist society "encouraged all people to be greedy and selfish and to pursue their own benefits without regard for the welfare of their fellows".[29] And that crime is the consequence of this will of the higher class to prevent the lower class to move between class.

Later criminologists have developed another way of conceiving crime through the Marxist vision of society. Indeed in the 1970s, some criminologists have conceived crime as a form of rebellion against the capitalist system. Crime would be a way for the proletariat to break down the bourgeoisie domination. It is the conception argued by Taylor, Walton and Young in 1973 that mention deviant behaviour as a form of authentic human action, instead of considering it in a pathological form. [30]

However later Marxist criminologists, have described crime as the "pathological consequences of the social structure of advanced capitalism" [31]. Crime and deviant behaviours are not seen anymore as a conscious way of rebellion, but more as a direct consequence of the inequality of the capitalist system.

In this sense , we can clearly argue that the Joker film is a representation of the second wave of Marxist criminologists, who saw the crime as a form of rebellion against the capitalist system. Indeed not only from the Joker's behaviour point of view, but also from the people behaviour lens, we can note a real will to show these crime as a form of rebellion against the capitalist elite of Gotham. We notice this with two elements, the reaction of the people to the Joker's crimes, and also the statement made by the Joker during the scene of the interview.

In the film , the Joker killed three young business men , who we could consider as members of the financial and intellectual elite of Gotham.

This conception is endorsed by the statement made by Joker during the TV show , when the Joker says : "Do you think some one like Thomas Wayne thinks to what it is like to be someone like me?"[32]. According to me , here Thomas Wayne represents this greedy and careless elite. The joker emphasises here the separation, the division of the society between the poor and the rich. He also praises this sort of rebellion against the system : " They think that we will just sit there and that we won't … go wild"[33]. But more than the joker himself, it is the people who saw Joker's crimes as a form of rebellion against the system.

We notice a support, even a praise of a big part of the people of Gotham towards the acts of the Joker. People defend his acts, people dress up like him, they erect the Joker's as a symbol of revolution against the elite. The people of Gotham see Joker's crimes as legitimate means to overthrow the elite. This is completely in accordance with the theory of 1970s criminologists who saw crime as an act of rebellion against the bourgeoisie, and the capitalist system.

According to me the division of Gotham society , this lack of empathy of one class for another[34] ,is a representation of what Marx has described in his work. The crimes of the Joker and of the people of Gotham, are clearly represented as a form of rebellion against the capitalist system in place in Gotham, and its elite.

Control Theories

Contrary to previous theories used here, control theories take the problem of crime in the other way.[35] According to control theories , all people are naturally supposed to commit crime, and these theories focus on explaining what restrain people to commit crime, what controls the people. And they try also to explain what happen when those control forces are defective. Many criminologists have developed these theories . The two main representatives of this movement are Travis Hirschi and David Matza. In this essay , we are going to focus on the theory of Hirschi stated in his book Causes of Delinquency.[36] This theory is according to me, the most representative of the context and situation of the film.

According to his theory , people are controlled by social bond to several groups . Hirschi proposed 4 elements that constitute this social bond : attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.

Attachment is the more important and the more distinct element. It is described as "the affection for and the sensitivity for others"[37]. Commitment is the investment in a conventional lifestyle[38]. Involvement is the participation to social activities. And finally belief is according to Hirschi , the belief in the rules of the society , and their utility. According to the social control theory of Hirschi , the deterioration of one of those elements could lead to deviant behaviours . [39]

However for this application we are going to focus only on one of those elements. Indeed many scholars tried to experiment and to assess this theory, and have found the most support for the attachment element.[40][41] An it is described definitively as the most important and the most impacting. Attachment is described in the studies as the "emotional bond"[42] of someone, to the opinions and expectations of people close to him.

In the film , we can clearly notice this lack of attachment of the Joker. He has no real friends , no paternal figure, and he is rejected by everyone. He is rejected by his neighbour. And he is not really concerned of what people would think of his acts. The only bond of the Joker, that is present in the film is his mother. But even this only bond is shattered when he discovers the truth about his mother. We can clearly asses that the lack of attachment to others, and of others has a role in the Joker's behaviour. But not only it has a role on the Joker's behaviour, but also on the behaviour of people of Gotham. Indeed there is a movement of protestation and terrible violences in Gotham. The director of the film has stated that Gotham in the film suffers of a huge lack of empathy.[43] This can be seen as a breakdown of the social bond and attachment inside the city, that has caused this eruption of massive violences.

Later, in 1990, Hirschi with GottFredson have developed another control theory , this time based on one concept , contrary to the social control theory . It is the Self-Control theory.[44] This theory is interesting in the case of the film, because as we are going to see , it can also be related to the first part which talks about childhood. According to this theory, people with a low self-control are more likely to engage in deviant behaviour. People with low self- control are described as impulsive.[45] But the most interesting thing in our case about this theory, it is its link with childhood. Indeed Hirschi and Gottfredson argue that "ineffective child rearing is the most contributor to low self-control"[46]. So bad education in the childhood could have an effect on "socialization"[47], which could lead to deviant behaviour .

The education and the rearing of the Joker as a child , could not have been more ineffective. As we described earlier in the essay, his childhood has been catastrophic. Which according to this theory could have had an impact on his self-control, which could have led to his criminal behaviour. This theory is really interesting, because in the film, the crimes of the Joker are really impulsive, they are made under the pressure, which could testify of a low self-control.

III. Joker's controversy in USA

The Joker film has been the subject of a big controversy in USA at its release. The film has been accused by several media and people to romanticise crime and the incel subculture.[48] The incel subculture , is an anti-feminist subculture born on internet.53

There had been a real ambience of fear that had been installed. Some have claimed that this film could inspire acts en violence, the military had been warned of possible violence, some strict security requirements had been issued. This film has been released also during a time of great tension around guns control in USA , which could also be a factor of such a panic. However there is nothing new, some others films had also generated such fear.[49]

A case of moral panic?

I think that it could be interesting to look at this controversy through the lens of the moral panic theory. Indeed, some media have qualified the controversy of Joker as a panic , and even in certain case as "moral panic"[50]. So can we link this controversy to the theory of Moral Panic ? Moral panic is a theory principally developed by Stanley Cohen in 1972[51]. According to him , moral panic would occur when a group or an incident "constitute a threat to the moral fabric of society"[52]. According to Cohen the moral panic is constructed against a "folk devil".[53] Media are also playing a role in moral panic, indeed they facilitate the raise of this panic by alarmist media reporting[54]. Cohen emphasized the role of the media in the construction of moral panic.

Other criminologists developed this theory of moral panic. Goode and Ben-Yehuda developed criteria to define moral panic. According to them moral panic is present when: the media coverage must be volatile and disproportionate , a widespread consensus about the reality of the threat , and a hostility towards an established folk devil.[55]

According to these criteria, Joker's controversy would be difficult to define as a moral panic. Indeed , even if there has been a large coverage by the media , it could be difficult to define this coverage as disproportionate. Indeed most of the articles try on the contrary to de-escalate this fear , by recalling that such fear of violence after a film already happened , but without real effects.[56] The two others criteria are not met either. There is not a great consensus, and the designation of a particular folk devil is difficult in this case. However these criteria have been criticized for being too strict. [57]

But even without considering such criteria , it would be hard to define this controversy as a moral panic. The extent of the controversy was, according to me, not that big to constitute a moral panic , there is not a media-construct panic.[58]

It is according to me exactly the example of what a number of criminologists have denounced.

Indeed many criminologists have denounced the reckless use of the term moral panic by media.

Conclusion

We studied in the first part the interest and the purpose of studying fictional film as criminological work. Then I tried to do a criminological study of the film the Joker . I have chosen the theories that was according to me the best fitted theories for a pure criminological study of the film. I did not talk about all the approach that could explain the Joker's behaviour. However I had to do some choices in order to be able to develop correctly the different theories presented here. And the theories chosen here are for me the most interesting concerning a criminological study of this film. I gave a good study of the principals and most recognizable criminological theories in the film, and therefore a good overview of the representation of crime that is presented to the public. In the film two great axes are developed as the cause of the Joker behaviour: his childhood and his social condition. According to me , the most important theory among the ones I presented is the Marxist theory. Indeed the class division and opposition are striking in the film, and have been reported by several media.[59]

Then I thought it was important to give an overview of the controversy that occurred with the release of the film, and its possible criminological importance.

However, I did not talk about all the problematic raised by this film, one in particular is missing in this essay, which is mental illness. I excluded to talk about mental ill problem, and its representation in the film. Which is according to me not well suited for a pure criminological study, but maybe more for a sociological, or purely scientific approach.

Finally, I want to state the importance of the popular criminology according me. The subject of those studies are according to me, the more direct and more efficient way to asses public's representation of crime. So these fictions have a formidable influence of the representation, and beliefs about crime of the public. It would be interesting to extend this field of research, and to allocate more means to this kind of study for improving the quality and the relevance of those works.

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Wood, Mark A. "Algorithmic Tyranny: Psycho-Pass, Science Fiction and the Criminological Imagination." (2019) CRIME MEDIA CULTURE 15, no. 2: 323–39. < https://journals-sagepubcom.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1741659018774609> accessed 08 November 2019

Neal King " Calling Dirty Harry a liar: a critique of displacement theories of popular criminology", ( 2013 ) New Review of Film and Television Studies < https://doi.org/10.1080/17400309.2012.723964> accessed 08 November 2019

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Rebeccas Rubin "Box Office: 'Joker' Becomes First R-Rated Movie to Hit $1 Billion ",(Variety 15 November 2019) < https://variety.com/2019/film/box-office/box-office-joker-billion-dollarmilestone-1203391166/ > accessed 25 November

Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010)

Fullerton, Angelica F., Raine, Baker , Tuvblad "Early Childhood Head Injury Attenuates Declines in Impulsivity and Aggression across Adolescent Development in Twins." (2019) Neuropsychology, 2019, vol. 33, no. 8,, pp. 1035–1044.< http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000570> accessed 23 November 2019

Todd Phillips Joker ( 2019 DC Entertainment )

Williams, Russell, MSW.Psychoanalysis. ( 2018 ) Magill's Medical Guide (Online Edition) . < http://search.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=87690612> Accessed 26 November 2019

Hedgespeth, Joanne. " Ego, Superego, and Id." (2019) Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health, < http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fbefce3f-0d63-488e-8d1415296e0a8fef%40pdc-v-sessmgr04&bdata=#AN=93871902&db=ers> Accessed 29 November 2019

Florian Houssier , François Marty "Drawing on psychoanalytic pedagogy: the influence of August

Aichhorn on the psychotherapy of adolescents." (2009 Oct ) The Psychoanalytic Quarterly [Psychoanal Q] Vol. 78 (4), pp. 1091-108. < http://search.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/login.aspx? direct=true&db=edswss&AN=00027183970000> accessed 01 December 2019

Duffy, Francis. "Marx, Social Change and Revolution." (2019) Salem Press Encyclopedia, < http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fe9fe23f-a309-4d72-a36d-554282c7d126%40pdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=#AN=89185577&db=ers> Accessed 29 November 2019

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Taylor, Walton, Young , The New Criminology (Routledge and Kegan Paul , 1973) Travis Hirschi, Causes of Delinquency ( University of California Press, 1969)

Jeffrey A. Bouffard & Melissa A. Petkovsek " Testing Hirschi's integration of social control and rational choice: are bonds considered in offender decisions?",(2014) Journal of Crime and Justice, 37:3, 285-308, < http://search.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/login.aspx? direct=true&db=ssf&AN=98202027> accessed 26 November 2019

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Donald Clark "The Joker film controversy is exhausting. It does not make a hero of its lead character " , The Irish Times ( 1 October 2019 ) < https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/film/the-joker-filmcontroversy-is-exhausting-it-does-not-make-a-hero-of-its-lead-character-1.4036102> accessed 2 December 2019

Debbie Ging , " Alphas, Betas, and Incels: Theorizing the Masculinities of the Manosphere" (2019) Men and Masculinities 2019, Vol. 22(4) 638-657 < https://journals-sagepubcom.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1097184x17706401> accessed 2 December 2019

Dani di Placido " The Strange Story Of 'Joker,' A Modern Moral Panic" Forbes (7 October 2019) <https://www.forbes.com/sites/danidiplacido/2019/10/07/the-strange-story-of-joker-a-modernmoral-panic/#1ad8f0507342> accessed 2 December 2019

Sarah E.H. Moore Crime and the Media (First Published 2014 by Palgrave McMillan)

Stanley Cohen Folk devils and moral panics : the creation of the Mods and Rockers (first published 1972 by McGibbon and Kee)

Deirdre Healy, Claire Hamilton, Yvonne Daly and Michelle Butler , The Routledge handbook of Irish criminology (2016 Routledge)

Alison Willmore Class Warfare is All the Rage at the Movies ( 26 November 2019 Vulture ) < https://www.vulture.com/2019/11/class-rage-hits-the-multiplex-knives-out-parasite-joker.html> Accessed 5 December 2019

Goodwin J, Tajjudin I. "What Do You Think I Am? Crazy?: The Joker and Stigmatizing Representations of Mental Ill-Health." (2016) Journal of Popular Culture. 2016;49(2):385-402. < http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsmzh&AN=2016393950> Accessed 23 October 2019

Susan L. Miller "Review of : Criminology Goes to the Movies: Crime Theory and Popular Culture by Nicole Rafter and Michelle Brown" (2013) Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 601-602 < https://www.jstor.org/stable/23525455> Accessed 02 November 2019


[1] Jock Young, David C. Brotherton. "Cultural Criminology and Its Practices: A Dialog between the Theorist and the Street Researcher." (2014) Dialectical Anthropology, vol. 38, no. 2, p. 117. < https://www-jstor-org.elib.tcd.ie/stable/43895092> accessed 27 November 2019

[2] Rafter, Nicole. "Crime, Film and Criminology: Recent Sex-Crime Movies." (2007) Theoretical Criminology, vol. 11, no. 3,, pp. 403–420. < https://journalssagepub-com.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1362480607079584> accessed 03 November 2019

[3] Kohm, Steven A. "Popular Criminology." (2018) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture. : Oxford University Press, Oxford Reference. < https://www-oxfordreference-com.elib.tcd.ie/view/10.1093/acref/9780190494674.001.0001/acref-9780190494674-e-158> Accessed 2 November 2019 4 Rafter, Nicole. "Crime, Film and Criminology: Recent Sex-Crime Movies."

[4] Rafter, Nicole. "Crime, Film and Criminology: Recent Sex-Crime Movies."

[5] Rafter, Nicole. "Crime, Film and Criminology: Recent Sex-Crime Movies."

[6] Kohm, Steven A. "Popular Criminology." (2018) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture.

[7] Kohm, Steven A. "Popular Criminology." (2018) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture.

[8] Rockell, B. A.. "Theoretical and cultural dimensions of the warehouse philosophy of punishment". (2009) Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 16(1), 40–62. < https://www.albany.edu/scj/jcjpc/jcjpc_vol16.html> accessed 04 November 2019

[9] Kohm, Steven A., and Pauline Greenhill. "Pedophile Crime Films as Popular Criminology: A Problem of Justice?" (2011) Theoretical criminology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 195–215.< https://journals-sagepub-com.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1362480610388974> accessed 04 November 2019.

[10] Kohm, Steven A. "Popular Criminology." (2018) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

[11] Raymen, T. 'Living in the end times through popular culture: An ultra-realist analysis of The Walking Dead as popular criminology'(2018) , CRIME MEDIA CULTURE, 14(3), pp. 429–447 < https://journals-sagepub-com.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1741659017721277> accessed 05 November 2019

[12] Wood, Mark A. "Algorithmic Tyranny: Psycho-Pass, Science Fiction and the Criminological Imagination." (2019) CRIME MEDIA CULTURE 15, no. 2: 323–39. < https://journals-sagepub-com.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1741659018774609> accessed 08 November 2019 14 Kohm, Steven A. "Popular Criminology." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture.

[13] Neal King " Calling Dirty Harry a liar: a critique of displacement theories of popular criminology" , ( 2013 ) New Review of Film and Television Studies <

[14] Rebeccas Rubin "Box Office: 'Joker' Becomes First R-Rated Movie to Hit $1 Billion ",(Variety 15 November 2019) < https://variety.com/2019/film/box-office/boxoffice-joker-billion-dollar-milestone-1203391166/> accessed 25 November

[15] Todd Phillips , " Joaquin Phoenix, Todd Phillips & Crew on Joker, Realism, and Reimagining Gotham City | NYFF57 " , min 12

[16] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 47 48

[17] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 48

[18] Fullerton, Angelica F., Raine, Baker , Tuvblad "Early Childhood Head Injury Attenuates Declines in Impulsivity and Aggression across Adolescent Development in Twins." (2019) Neuropsychology, 2019, vol. 33, no. 8,, pp. 1035–1044.< http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000570> accessed 23 November 2019

[19] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 54

[20] Todd Phillips Joker ( 2019 DC Entertainment )

[21] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010)

[22] Williams, Russell, MSW. Psychoanalysis. ( 2018 ) Magill's Medical Guide (Online Edition) . < http://search.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/login.aspx? direct=true&db=ers&AN=87690612> Accessed 26 November 2019

[23] Hedgespeth, Joanne. " Ego, Superego, and Id." (2019) Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health, < http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fbefce3f-0d63-488e-8d14-15296e0a8fef%40pdc-v-sessmgr04&bdata=#AN=93871902&db=ers> Accessed 29 November 2019

[24] Hedgespeth, Joanne. " Ego, Superego, and Id." (2019) Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health,

[25] Florian Houssier , François Marty "Drawing on psychoanalytic pedagogy: the influence of August Aichhorn on the psychotherapy of adolescents." (2009 Oct ) The Psychoanalytic Quarterly [Psychoanal Q] Vol. 78 (4), pp. 1091-108. < http://search.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/login.aspx?

[26] Duffy, Francis. "Marx, Social Change and Revolution." (2019) Salem Press Encyclopedia, < http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fe9fe23f-a309-4d72-a36d-554282c7d126%40pdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=#AN=89185577&db=ers> Accessed 29 November 2019

[27] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010)

[28] Willem Bonger , Criminality and economic conditions , abridged version (Indiana University Press , 1969)

[29] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 271

[30] Taylor, Walton, Young , The New Criminology (Routledge and Kegan Paul , 1973)

[31] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 273

[32] Todd Phillips Joker ( 2019 DC Entertainment )

[33] Todd Phillips Joker ( 2019 DC Entertainment )

[34] Todd Phillips , "Joaquin Phoenix, Todd Phillips & Crew on Joker, Realism, and Reimagining Gotham City | NYFF57"

[35] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010)

[36] Travis Hirschi , Causes of Delinquency ( University of California Press, 1969)

[37] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 208

[38] Jeffrey A. Bouffard & Melissa A. Petkovsek " Testing Hirschi's integration of social control and rational choice: are bonds considered in offender decisions?",(2014) Journal of Crime and Justice, 37:3, 285-308, < http://search.ebscohost.com.elib.tcd.ie/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ssf&AN=98202027> accessed 26 November 2019

[39] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010)

[40] Barbara J Costello, Paul R Vowell "Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Reanalysis of the Richmond Youth Project Data" (1999) 37 Criminology

[41] / Criminology, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 815-842 < https://search-proquest-com.elib.tcd.ie/docview/220691307?accountid=14404> Accessed 1 December 2019

[42] Jeffrey A. Bouffard & Melissa A. Petkovsek (2014) "Testing Hirschi's integration of social control and rational choice: are bonds considered in offender decisions?"

[43] Todd Phillips , "Joaquin Phoenix, Todd Phillips & Crew on Joker, Realism, and Reimagining Gotham City | NYFF57"

[44] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010)

[45] Kevin M Beaver and John Paul Wright and Matt Delisi, "Self-Control as an Executive Function: Reformulating Gottfredson and Hirschi's Parental Socialization Thesis" (2007) 34 Crim Just & Behavior 1345 < http://heinonline.org.elib.tcd.ie/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/crmjusbhv34&div=98>

[46] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 213

[47] Bernard Snipes Gerould , Vold's Theoretical Criminology (Oxford University Press , 2010) p 214

[48] Donald Clark "The Joker film controversy is exhausting. It does not make a hero of its lead character " , The Irish Times ( 1 October 2019 ) < https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/film/the-joker-film-controversy-is-exhausting-it-does-not-make-a-hero-of-its-lead-character-1.4036102> accessed 2 December 2019 53 Debbie Ging , " Alphas, Betas, and Incels: Theorizing the Masculinities of the Manosphere" (2019) Men and Masculinities 2019, Vol. 22(4) 638-657 < https://journals-sagepub-com.elib.tcd.ie/doi/pdf/10.1177/1097184x17706401> accessed 2 December 2019

[49] Donald Clark "The Joker film controversy is exhausting. It does not make a hero of its lead character "

[50] Dani di Placido " The Strange Story Of 'Joker,' A Modern Moral Panic" Forbes (7 October 2019) <https://www.forbes.com/sites/danidiplacido/2019/10/07/thestrange-story-of-joker-a-modern-moral-panic/#1ad8f0507342> accessed 2 December 2019

[51] Stanley Cohen Folk devils and moral panics : the creation of the Mods and Rockers (first published 1972 by McGibbon and Kee)

[52] Sarah E.H. Moore Crime and the Media (First Published 2014 by Palgrave McMillan) 105

[53] Sarah E.H. Moore Crime and the Media (First Published 2014 by Palgrave McMillan) 105

[54] Deirdre Healy, Claire Hamilton, Yvonne Daly and Michelle Butler , The Routledge handbook of Irish criminology (2016 Routledge) 401

[55] Sarah E.H. Moore Crime and the Media (First Published 2014 by Palgrave McMillan) 112

[56] Donald Clark "The Joker film controversy is exhausting. It does not make a hero of its lead character"

[57] Sarah E.H. Moore Crime and the Media (First Published 2014 by Palgrave McMillan )

[58] Sarah E.H. Moore Crime and the Media (First Published 2014 by Palgrave McMillan )

[59] Alison Willmore Class Warfare is All the Rage at the Movies ( 26 November 2019 Vulture ) < https://www.vulture.com/2019/11/class-rage-hits-the-multiplexknives-out-parasite-joker.html> Accessed 5 December 2019

 

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