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Criminal Cult Crime
CHaPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
a criminal cult is a group or movement exhibiting a higher or excessive devotion or dedication to some person, idea. Criminal cults commit crimes ranging from homicide, (Branch Davidians, 1993), arson, drug trafficking, terrorism (aum shinrikyo, 1995), burglary, suicide, (Heaven’s Gate, 1997), and child abuse (Hare Krishnas, 1990). Many individuals in society have wondered about prevalence of criminal cults in recent decades (Lottick, 2005). since 1960, mental health professionals estimate that two to five million americans have been involved with criminal cult groups the 1960’s (Langone, 2003). adults and youths can become criminal cult members. Most criminal cult members come from normal, functioning families, and are educated.
Youths overwhelmed by school and parental demands and perplexed by society may affiliate with a criminal cult (singer, 2003). a limited example of destructive cults are presented here, such as the Branch Davidians, led by David Koresh 1981 to1993, aum shirinkyo, led by shoko asahara from 1987 to 1995, (Parachini, 2005). In 1969, there has been a 13% increase in the Us of criminal cults established since 2002 (Fagan, 2004).Get help with your essay from our expert essay writers...
since the 1980s’fundamentalists movements have tripled in size (Ranstorp, 2002). Religious violence fills the pages and media each and everyday (Kent, 2004). There are thousands of unrecognized new religious movements in society (Perlmutter, 2004). at no time in history as today, have more religions existed. society now faces more threats from small and new dangerous cults (Kent, 2004). Many cults resort to violence when the group feels threatened by society and young and inexperience leaders resort to violence when threatened “from inside or outside” the group (Traverton et al, 2005, p. xiv).
Law enforcement needs to understand the complexity of religious differences and the problems new religious movements may generate (Perlmutter, 2004). Police agencies have a challenge to determine the danger many cults impose on society (szubin et al, 2002). Cult groups can turn to violence against society (Langone, 2007). Cult group vary in size, different in doctrines, and perceive the world different (szubin et al, 2002).
Many high-profile events can be linked to cults (Merton & Bromley, 2002). abusive religions are usually detached from society (Kent, 2004). according to Jinkins (2004) fringe religions and cults have often caused fear in the United states (Lewis, 2004). Criminal cases that have received the most attention include the Peoples Temple, Branch Davidians, aum shinrikyo (1995), solar Temple, and Heaven's Gate (Lewis, 2004). Groups with apocalyptic expectations are prone to violence due to their world view condemning the existing social order (Lewis, 2004). since many millennial groups regard themselves as the vanguard of the new order, there is a tendency to disregard the existing normative order.
according to Kaminer, (2002) religion can cause cruelty and bigotry. all religions have murdered in the name of God (Marty, 2002). Religious terrorism is violence committed of fulfilling a divine command (Lerner & Lerner, 2006). Killing in the name of God has escalated in today’s society (Traverton et al, 2005). Most americans can not comprehend religious violence (Marty, 2002). according to Perlmutter, (2004), religious terrorists never consider their violent acts as terrorism. Religious extremists commit savage attacks against society in the name of God (Traverton, 2005). Many religious terrorists will even risk their lives and the lives of innocent bystanders in suicide missions (Lerner & Lerner, 2006). There are similarities between terrorism and cults (Mansfield, 2003). The success of a suicide mission earns them martyrdom and an “elite place in the afterlife” (Lerner & Lerner, 2006, p. 1). Terrorists train very hard in order to succeed in their violent acts (Jackson, 2005). according to Perlmutter (2004) religious terrorism is “any act of violence or threatened use of violence by a group or individual with the intent of intimidating individuals, citizens or governments in the furtherance of religious objects” (p. 2).
according to Gesy, (2003) adolescents who exhibit hostile behaviors do not see themselves as connected to society, nor depending on society. They cut themselves off believing that they are dependent in an attempt to create something they think is new and better. Religious cults criticize society and claim to create a better society for adolescents. according to Richmund (2004) many cults are destructive and manipulative towards members and society. Law enforcement officers have found the connection between satanism and crime (Karlsberg,).
Certain cults in society target teenagers (Richmund, 2004). according to Karlsberg, satanism is a threat to the United states and teenagers. satanism is a concern to law enforcement agencies because of the “violent and bazaar incidents” (p. 1) involving satanic practices. satanism consists of many different beliefs and practices (Lowney, 2002). The Church of satan teaches that there are no standards for being a satanist (Tamara & Roloff, 2002). Teenage satanists are known to have committed physical abuse, stabbings, and mutilating other teenagers (Richmund, 2004). There are satanists that visit cemeteries and churches to perform rituals (Lowney, 2002). The cloak of secrecy allows satanists to avoid being arrested by law enforcement officers (Lewis, 2004).
The general problem in this study is a lack of general access of information for effective law enforcement criminal investigation on criminal cults. Criminal cults commit crimes ranging from homicide, arson, drug trafficking, terrorism, burglary, suicide, and child abuse. The specific problem in this study is there is that there are barriers to obtaining accurate and immediate information to assist law enforcement officers in investigation with criminal cults. Due to the lack of law enforcement having current information regarding criminal cult activities, professional law enforcement groups concerned about criminal cults have no nationalized database of information and must rely upon private independent criminal cult awareness groups. The solution to information sharing is leadership (Ratcliffe. 2007, p. 7).
Law enforcement personnel must take advantage of their information-rich environment (Ratcliffe. 2007, p. 1). Intelligence information allows leaders and decision makers to devise better policing and crime prevention, view of crime patterns, and criminal behavior ((Ratcliffe. 2007, p. 3).
The appropriate method and research design will be a qualitative research design. The general population of the proposed study will be United states federal, state, and city law enforcement investigators and trainers.
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to identify and address the barriers that prevent federal, state, and city law enforcement personnel in the United states from obtaining accurate and immediate information on criminal cults. The qualitative approach is appropriate for this study because “qualitative research aims to achieve an in-depth understanding of a situation” (Cooper & schindler, 2006, p. 36).
The appropriate research design is survey design. The survey design is appropriate because it allow the researcher “to question the subjects of the study and collect their responses by personal means” (Cooper & schindler, 2006, p. 136). according to Creswell (2005) a questionnaire allows the participant to complete and return to the researcher (p. 360). The specific population group of the proposed study will be federal, state and city law enforcement personnel in that deal with cult investigations and enforcement. The geographic location of the study will be the New York City. Relationships and comparisons will be made with the information obtained from the specific population of the study.
significance of the study
The significance of this qualitative phenomenological study is that it will offer intelligence information and strategies for federal, state and city law enforcement who deal with cult investigation and enforcement. The study is important because it will offer federal, state, and city law enforcement accurate and immediate information on criminal cults. according to Kotter, “In order to transform your organization you must establish a sense of urgency, identify and discuss crisis, and form a guiding coalition” (p. 50). The contribution this research may make to current and future generation is effectiveness in dealing with criminal cults through accurate and immediate information on criminal cults. The contribution will also lead to further study in area of criminal cults.
significance of study to the field of leadership
The significance to the study to the field of leadership will allow leadership in federal, state and city law enforcement to collaborate in the area of criminal cult. Cult groups have the higher risk of breaking the law. according to Gebhardt, (2004), law enforcement officers are in the front line protecting citizens (p. 1). The results of this study will add to the body of leadership knowledge literature by “getting rid of obstacles to change, and develop leaders in the organization who can implement the vision” (Kotter, 1999, p. 50). Law enforcement must work, and face leadership challenges together (Gebhardt, p. 2, 2004). Management “leads, directs, or manages the organization towards its goals” Dantzker, p. 146, 2003).
Nature of the study
a qualitative method was appropriated for this research study because qualitative research allows an “interpretive naturalistic approach to the subject matter” (Denzin 1994, p. 2). The qualitative research arena is the natural setting with an attempt at interpreting and making sense of observable facts by the meaning people give to them. Qualitative research focuses on human behavior in a “social, cultural, and political contexts in which they occur” (salkind, 2003, p. 13). The qualitative approach refutes the existence of an “external reality” (Joniak, 2002, p. 2). searle defines external reality as that which exists “outside and independent” of one’s interpretation (1995, p. 154). Qualitative research embraces internal veracity with an understanding and appreciation of the knowledge acquired. Qualitative research is much more subjective than quantitative research and uses very different methods of collecting information, mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open-ended. small numbers of people are interviewed in-depth and/or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted. Participants are asked to respond to general questions and the interviewer or group moderator probes and explores their responses to identify and define peoples' perceptions, opinions and feelings about the topic or idea being discussed and to determine the degree of agreement that exists in the group. The quality of the findings from qualitative research is directly dependent upon the skill, experience and sensitivity of the interviewer or group moderator. This type of research is often less costly than surveys and is extremely effective in acquiring information about peoples' communications needs and their responses to and views about specific communications. It is often the method of choice in instances where quantitative measurement is not required.
a phenomenological survey design gave the researcher the opportunity to gather the appropriate information to the study. according to Cooper and schindler (2003) “the research design “constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data” (p. 154). The appropriate research design for this study is in-person and telephone interviews and questionnaires distributed to law enforcement officers in the selected population. Research design serves as the “plan and structure of investigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions” (Cooper, 2003, p. 154).
The qualitative, ethnographic study provides answers to the following research questions:
1. Why should leaders care about cults or new religious movements?
2. Why are cults a leadership problem?
3. Why is lack of information a significant problem?
It is clear that the generation of the cult of personality came about as a result of personal ambition within parties characterized by certain structural features. Principal among these was the low level of institutionalization of the party at all levels: a lack of definition in leadership positions within a formally collective ethos added to a lack of certainty about tenure of office al all levels of the structure. such structural factors were reinforced by circumstances of the party's growth in economically under-developed societies. a focus upon these structural characteristics of the party's constitution and of its social and temporal location as elements of an explanation of the emergence of a personality cult is much more satisfactory than is an idealist focus upon political culture. The cult seems to spring from the concrete circumstances of the political institutions at the time, rather than from some vague set of principles inherited mysteriously from the traditional political culture. These can at best provide a cultural backdrop.
In today's turbulent world, the spotlight on individual leaders and their performance grows ever brighter. Those organizations that are sustaining their value-and the reputation of their leaders-in these challenging times have one thing in common: leaders who pay attention to what they will leave behind them after they are gone. They ask themselves what values will sustain the organization over the long haul; what people will say of them; whether the organization they led will still be there to remember them; and if so, what position they will hold in the organization's memory.
The paradox at the heart of organizational leadership is that the leader must add value to the organization but must not take it away when he or she leaves. an essential part of a leader's job is to become dispensable through creating a culture of leadership that extends throughout the organization. When an organization becomes incapable and falls apart after the leader departs, the subsequent ruin is, in a sense, a validation of that leader's talent and evidence of the value added during his or her tenure. But it is also evidence of that leader's failure to endow the organization with the qualities needed to transcend previous achievements, the failure to nurture the conditions under which leadership can flourish. These reflections point to the critical questions: Why should leaders care about cults or new religious movements? Why are cults a leadership problem? Why is lack of information a significant problem?
In developing a theoretical perspective for examining the barriers to obtaining accurate and immediate information to assist law enforcement personnel in investigating cults committing crimes, several theories and concepts apply. several concepts and theories exists that address cults in society (Lifton, 2003; Juergensmeyer, 2001).
The super Power syndrome
according to Lifton (2003), the super Power syndrome describes deviant behavior as part of “psychological and political constellation” (p. xii). Individuals and groups find a need to eliminate vulnerability (p. 129) because they fear that vulnerability. Gruenfeld (2006) contends feeling powerless does not allow the individual or group to “regulate their impulses and control behavior (as sited by Rigoglioso, 2006, p. 1). One maintains an “illusion of invulnerability” (Lifton, 2003) to feel powerful and in control. according to Gruenfeld (2006), “power disinhibit the individual or nation” (p. 1) and “stop trying to control themselves” (p. 3), (as cited by Rigoglioso, 2006).
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Leon Festinger invented the cognitive dissonance theory in 1957 (aronsen, 2000, as cited by Kasdin, p. 141, 2000). Cognitive dissonance theory is considered important and “provocative theory” (p. 141). according to Festinger (1957) cognitive dissonance is psychological tension pertaining to the conditions that aroused the dissonance (Cohen, 1962). Festinger considered the social group as a source of cognitive dissonance (Matz and Wood, p. 22, 2005). Maintaining conflicting principles (e.g. logically incompatible beliefs) or rejecting reasonable behavior to avoid conflict can be increasingly maladaptive (non-beneficial) as the gap being bridged widens, and popular usage tends to stress the maladaptive aspect. Cognitive dissonance is often associated with the tendency for people to resist information that they don't want to think about, because if they did it would create cognitive dissonance, and perhaps require them to act in ways that depart from their comfortable habits. They usually have at least partial awareness of the information, without having moved to full acceptance of it, and are thus in a state of denial about it. This "irrational inability to incorporate rational information" is perhaps the most common perception of cognitive dissonance, and this or another example of extreme maladaption would appear to be underlying many conceptions of the term in popular usage. according to Matz and Wood (2005), Festinger studied the reactions of doomsday group members when their apocalyptic predictions failed (Matz and Wood, p. 22).
Cosmic War Theory
Juergensmeyer (2000) developed the Cosmic War Theory. The Cosmic War theory refers to the battle between the forces of evil against the forces of good (Traverton, 2005). The New King James Version Bible (Revelation 20: 8-9), describes the “armageddon” as, “satan will be loosed…and gather in Gog and Magog, to gather them together for battle and compass… the beloved city and fire came down from God out of heaven and devoured them” (p. 401). The forces of evil will be punished eternally in hell and the forces of good will be rewarded eternally by God on earth (NKJV Bible, Revelation 20:12). Most world religions teach about the Day of Judgment (Traverton et al, 2005). The Cosmic War Theory is characterized by the justification of violence, operating on a divine time line, the perception of imminent victory, and making powerful those taking up the cause (p. xii). according to Traverton et al (2005), “many terrorist groups including the al Qaeda, are dramatizing their cosmic war paradigm (p. xii). apocalyptic destruction is envisioned as ‘consuming flames’ (p. 32) that will devour evil doers (Lifton, 2003). according to the NKJV Bible, Revelation 20:10, “and the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.”
anti-social Personality Disorder
Psychology plays a central role in understanding cults or new religious movements. according to Burke (2006), antisocial personality disorder (asPD) comprise of groupings of personality traits (p. 3). Blackburn (1998) states an individual with aggressive disposition will commit patterns of verbal or physical aggressive acts (as cited by Burke, 2006, p. 3). Burke (2006) identifies dominance over others and aggression as two prominent asPD traits. Hare (1993) states that psychopathy can affect everyone and remain “under-identified in society” (as cited by Burke, 2006, p. 4). according to Hare (1993) cult leaders with psychopathic behaviors can be identified (as cited by Burke, 2006, p. 4). according to Burke (2006), “antisocial cult leaders engage in manipulation, domination, and exploitation for their own ends” (p. 5).
according to Hobbs and Higgs (2004), charisma, is the Greek word meaning “gift of grace” was introduced by Max Weber (1947). Weber defines charisma as a personal quality that sets a person apart from ordinary people (Choi, 2006). Leadership is not the same as expertise (Robinson, p. 1, 2005). according to Choi, (2006), the three components of charismatic leadership consist of “envisioning, empathy, and empowerment” (p. 24). subordinate empowerment transforms the organization (Yukl, 1989). Charismatic leadership attempts to transform the “values, beliefs, and attitudes of followers” (Conger and Kanungo, p. 7, 2000).
Bennis and Goldstein (2003) stated:
…”Good leaders make people feel they are at the very heart of things and that,
when they are, they are making contributions to the success of the organization. When that happens, they feel centered and that their work has meaning. Leadership gives the workforce a sense of its own meaning, significance, competence, community, and commitment”… (p. 5).
according to Conger and Kanungo (1992), charismatic leadership has its negative side. according to Conger and Kanungo (1992) leaders can become extremely narcisstic leading to “self-serving and grandiose aims, … exaggerated behaviors, lose touch with reality, or become vehicles for pure personal gain” (p. 211). according to Howell and avolio (p. 43, 1992):
“... charisma is value neutral it does not distinguish between good or
moral and evil or immoral charismatic leadership. This means the risks
involved in charismatic leadership are at least as large as the promises.
Charisma can lead to blind fanaticism in the service of megalomaniacs and
dangerous values, or to heroic self-sacrifice in the service of a beneficial cause."
Definition of terms
For the purpose of this qualitative study, the following terms and words are defined
Leadership: Leadership is defined as the process “organizational members are influenced to facilitate the meeting or the organizational goals and objectives” (Dantzker2003, p. 146,).
Cults: Cults are claimed to be deceitful. They are claimed to be harmful to their members. They are claimed to be undermining american values. (Lindlof 1995 , p. 124)
Criminal: Of, involving, or having the nature of crime. (Conger et. al. 1997 , p. 55)
Law Enforcement: a person employed by a local, state, tribal, or Federal justice agency including law enforcement, courts, district attorney's office. (Howell 1992 , p. 66)
Terrorism: The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. (seale 1995 , p. 81)
Religion: a religion is a set of beliefs and practices often organized around supernatural and moral claims. (Denzin 1994 , p. 42)
Religious Cult: a system of religious worship; devotion, homage to person or thing. (Denzin 1994 , p. 46)
National Database: National Data base is a powerful, fast, multi-jurisdictional search of United states criminal records database. (Howell 1992 , p. 106)
self Esteem: self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example: "I believe I am a good writer, and feel proud of that in particular") (Lindlof 1995 , p. 236)
The researcher has three basic assumptions for this qualitative research study. First, the researcher assumed the law enforcement and intelligence personnel fully understood the anonymity and confidentiality of the research study. second, participants of the study would respond providing their professional perceptions pertaining to the selected topic of the study; and third, the researcher assumed the participants would offer their perspectives and input based on their perception that their feedback to the research study will benefit law enforcement and intelligence personnel.
scope, Limitations, and Delimitations
after the september 11, 2001 Terrorist attacks, law enforcement leaders need to take within the parameters of the law, a proactive aggressive approach in dealing with religious extremists. a lack of knowledge and intelligence about new religious movements trifles and delays law enforcement tactical and strategic public safety operations. accountability is central to law enforcement leaders because law enforcement personnel are accountable to their agency, community, legal system, and delivery of services (Dantzker, 2003). Law enforcement plays a complex role in society (Walker & Katz, p. 7, 2004). Management and leadership are important to an organization Dantzker, p. 146, 2003). at a tactical level, it is necessary to train and retrain the law enforcement, security and intelligence services, and the military to better understand and respond to the terrorist threat. There is a grave lack of knowledge and understanding of the ideologies, organizations and operations of the threat groups. For instance, instead of building the capabilities to disrupt terrorist operations at the launch phase, government enforcement agencies must develop indicators for early detection. as precursors can be procured commercially from pharmacies, chemist stores and hardware stores to manufacture explosives, police must work closely with the service sector to report suspicious procurement.
The selected method of this study was a qualitative study. This qualitative study was limited to only those participants that agreed to voluntarily participate in the study. The study was also limited by the number of participants and the amount of time required to answer questionnaires and phone interviews. The study is limited to active law enforcement officers in selected federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
This qualitative study was confined to surveying law enforcement officers in various selected law enforcement agencies for this study. since no survey instrument was available, a survey instrument was developed to conduct this qualitative study.
Many individuals in society have wondered about prevalence of criminal cults in recent decades (Lottick, 2005). a criminal cult is a group or movement exhibiting a higher or excessive devotion or dedication to some person, idea. Criminal cults commit crimes ranging from homicide, (Branch Davidians, 1993), arson, drug trafficking, terrorism (aum shinrikyo, 1995), burglary, suicide, (Heaven’s Gate, 1997), and child abuse (Hare Krishnas, 1990).
according to Kaminer, (2002) religion can cause cruelty and bigotry. all religions have murdered in the name of God (Marty, 2002). Religious terrorism is violence committed of fulfilling a divine command (Lerner & Lerner, 2006). Killing in the name of God has escalated in today’s society (Traverton et al, 2005). Law enforcement needs to understand the complexity of religious differences and the problems new religious movements may generate (Perlmutter, 2004). Police agencies have a challenge to determine the danger many cults impose on society (szubin et al, 2002).
CHaPTER 2: LITERaTURE REVIEW
This chapter, the literature review, identifies and analysis contemporary research on the area of new religious movements, leadership, religious violence, intelligence gathering and analysis, and the role of law enforcement. The purpose of this qualitative, ethnographic study is to identify and address the barriers that prevent federal, state, and city law enforcement personnel in the United states from obtaining accurate and immediate information on criminal cults.
an extensive literature search was conducted through the electronic databases of EBsCO, ProQuest, and Questia. a total of 300 peer-reviewed articles, 45 books and 25 dissertations on new religious movements, leadership theories, intelligence gathering, motivation, and adolescent theories were reviewed. a gap in the literature was identified in this study. The gap is the lack of a central law enforcement database on cults for law enforcement agencies to conduct research and comparisons on criminal cases related to cults.
Intelligence Gathering and analysis
Historically, intelligence sharing with law enforcement agencies and intelligence agencies was done as little as possible (Isaacson and O’Connell, 2002). Intelligence is interested in the association among individuals (scully, 2004, p. 1). The role of intelligence is a permanent and important part of the United states government (Cheltenham, p. 227, 2002). Intelligence sharing is very important with other agencies in the war against terrorism (Isaacson and O’Connell, 2002).. Intelligence is information needed to make the United states safe (CIa, 2007). Proper analysis will protect the security of the United states of america (Isaacson and O’Connell, 2002). Intelligence is defined in many ways. Intelligence is defined as “Information that is gathered clandestinely through ease dropping or other data collection method” (steele, 2006, p. 1).
The art and Role of Intelligence
Intelligence is defined as “a product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas…” (Cole, 2005, p. 3). Criminal intelligence is the “creation of intelligence knowledge product that supports decision making in the areas of law enforcement, crime reduction, and crime prevention” (Ratcliffe. 2007, p. 8).
Intelligence provides “knowledge of the enemy…what the enemy is doing, capable of doing, and what they may do in the future” (Coles, 2005, p. 3). social intelligence is an “in depth knowledge of local culture and custom” (scully, 2004, p. 1). The role of intelligence is looking for individuals who want to murder, change the world, and perceive others as the enemy (scully, 2004, p. 3). Cultural intelligence is defined as. “an analysis of social, political, economical and other demographic information that provides understanding of a people or nations, history, institutions, psychology, belief… and behaviors” (Coles, 2005, p. 1). Cultural intelligence allows the understanding as to “why a people act as they do and how they think” (Coles, 2005, p. 1). all source analysis is the “consideration of every type of available information that helps in understanding a specific problem…” (Wolfberg, 2006, p. 40). In law enforcement, open-source information provides intelligence (Ratcliffe. 2007, p. 9). The intelligence community lacks training in thinking “effectively about the world’s current security environment (Wolfberg, 2006, p. 35). Personnel need training in observation skills of their environment, and the people around them (scully, 2004, p. 4). There is a need to reconstruct how the intelligence community thinks (Wolfberg, 2006, p. 36). In today’s world, violence has moved from great power to small states and individuals (scully, 2004, p. 1). Intelligence experts are surprised over the ruthlessness and violence of terrorists (Wolfberg, 2006, p. 35). Crime analysis and criminal intelligence must blend together. Crime analysis provides the “what is happening,” and criminal intelligence provides the “why it is happening” (Ratcliffe. 2007, p. 2).
Leaders make policy based on intelligence (CIa, 2007, p. 1). Information must be properly analyzed for relevance. The analyst needs to consider all possible vulnerabilities (Isaacson and O’Connell, 2002). Information is the “currency of intelligence” (FBI, 2004). Intelligence needs qualified retrained specialists that can integrate knowledge from multiple sources (Isaacson and O’Connell, 2002).
Intelligence analysis begins at collecting information (FBI, 2004). analysis requires search a tremendous amount of information. Priority must be given to important information (Hollywood et al, 2004). according to the CIa (2007), The Intelligence Cycle consists of planning and direction, collection, processing, analysis, and production, and dissemination (CIa, 2007). “Connecting the dots” has been a priority since events such as the 911 Terrorist attacks have occurred (Hollywood et al, 2004). analysis predicts trends and patterns (FBI, 2004). The intelligence analyst requires collaboration, sharing, and exchange of information (Isaacson and O’Connell, 2002). according to the CIa (2007), the types of intelligence consist of current, estimative, warning, research, scientific, and technical (p.2). For Isaacson and O’Connell (2002), technology is key in intelligence analysis.
Intelligence agencies need to be trained to cooperate with one another (Wolfberg, 2006, p. 38). according to steele (2006), the national intelligence system must be reinvented (p. 1). an obstacle in intelligence is the lack of interagency cooperation (Wolfberg, 2006, p. 37). a major weakness of intelligence is the unwillingness to share information (FBI, 2004). Intelligence is about knowing enough information to make the most accurate decisions at all levels and subject matters (steele, 2006). according to the FBI (2004), information must be gathered about the victim, offender and the location. steel (2006) recommends that a state-wide citizen intelligence network be established, and that collective intelligence relies on a large group of people (p. 2). Information and evidence gathering helps the intelligence effort (steele, 2006).
There is disagreement among professionals about the definition of leadership (Kreitner and Kreitnes, 2004). Various leadership themes explain leadership dynamics (Kreitner and Kreitnes, 2004). The Trait Theory of Leadership proposes that leaders are born and not made. These individuals possess “inborn traits” as successful leaders (p. 5). stogdill’s and Mann’s findings illustrate that five traits possessed by leaders different from the average person were intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, level of energy and activity, and task-relevant knowledge” (p. 5). according to Kreitner and Kreitnes, 2004, leadership is defined as “a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals.” Leaders create “a vision and strategic plan” (p.3).
according to Radcliffe, (2007), p. 8, intelligence is the “creation of an intelligence knowledge product that supports decision making in the areas of law enforcement, crime reduction, and crime prevention.” Crime analysis is the “systematic study of crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues… to assist the police in criminal apprehension, crime and disorder reduction, crime prevention, and evaluation” (Boba, 2005, p. 6). shulsky and schmitte define intelligence as “information relevant to a government’s formulation and implementation of policy to further its national security interests and to deal with threats from actual or potential adversaries” (p. 1).
The Cult Phenomena in Today’s society
Cult have exited for a long time in history (Mckibben et al, p. 2, 2002). according to Rosedale (2003), after the 911 tragedy, there is a focus on cult leaders, followers, and the process of alienation from society (p. 10). Leadership involves the leader, followers and the situation (Kreitner and Kreitnes, 2004). according to schwartz and Kaslow (2001), many cults are careful to recruit adult individuals (over 18 years old) (p. 14). Experts such as singer and Ofshe (1990), assert that some cults are psychologically harmful to members (McGibben et al, p. 2, 2002).
Law enforcement officers and intelligence agencies are challenged in determining how dangerous a cult or new religious movements may be (Jenkins and Gregg, p.1, 2000). Many dangerous cults and new religious movements pose a threat to society and/or their members (Jenkins and Gregg, p.1, 2000). Law enforcement officers must exercise caution in dealing with a suspected dangerous cult (Jenkins and Gregg, p. 2, 2000). Many cults demonstrate paranoia and perceive the government and other groups as a threat (Jenkins and Gregg, p. 1, 2000). The failures of a cult or new religious movement are lessons for law enforcement agencies and intelligence agencies (Jackson et al, p. 18, 2005). Dangerous cults do not have regard for the “human rights of society and cult members” (Rosedale, p. 12, 2003).
The aum shinrikyo Cult
according to Murakami (2001) as cited by Kaplan (2001), the subway attack by aum shinrikyo (aum supreme Truth) “forever changed the way the world looks at terrorism” (p. 1). shoko asahara (born Chizuo Matsumoto) created the aum shinrikyo cult (Hudson, p. 192, 2000). asahara was born in 1955 on the island of Kyushu (Hall, p.82, 2000). In 1995, aum shinrikyo created and used sarin gas in Tokyo’s subway (Jackson et al, p. 11, 2005). Initially, aum shinrikyo was viewed as a cult and than later designated as a terrorist group (Jackson et al, p. 11, 2005). according to Reader, (2000) as cited by stulker (2002), aum must be viewed as a “valid religious organization” (p. 1).aum shinrikyo’s theology consisted of “Buddhism, Hinduism, Nostradamus, and millennialism” (Jackson et al, p. 11, 2005). according to Reader (2000) as cited by Moriya (p. 1, 2002), aum's doctrine was greatly influenced by Buddhism. asahara invoked Nostradamus as a “prophet of the approaching end of the world” (Hall, p. 85, 2000). aum wanted to achieve armageddon by any means necessary (Jackson et al, p. 11, 2005). armageddon was imminent in the mind of asahara and he expected aum shinrikyo was going to be the “most evoked religion in the world” (Hall, p. 85, 2000).
aum shinrikyo members were very committed to their goals (Daly et al, p. v11, 2005). aum two classes of members consisted of normal members and the “renunciates” (Jackson et al, p. 1 2005). asahara taught armageddon will occur between Japan and the United states (simmons, p. 39, 2006). The “renunciates” were a small group of members who were extremely dedicated to shoko asahara (Jackson et al, p. 17, 2005). as Brown (1996, p. 111) states, “the most majority of members of aum shinrikyo joined willingly and stayed willingly (as cited by Hall, p. 100, 2000). The “renunciates” would killed if ordered by asahara (Jackson et al, p. 17, 2005). according to Reader (2000) as cited by stalker (2002), aum followers were not hapless victims; they provided and reinforced asahara's authority through their obedience and devotion” (p. 2).
In the 1990s’ aum shinrikyo recruited “scientists and engineers” to their organization (Daly et al, p. vii, 2005). aum shinrikyo’s members had the capability to manufacture unconventional weapons (Jackson et al, p. 12, 2005). The Tokyo sarin attack demonstrated that a religious group with finance and knowledge can create and use weapons of mass destruction against unexpecting targets (Jackson et al, p. 12, 2005).
aum shinrikyo’s organizational structure influenced the operations of the group (Jackson et al, p. 16, 2005). Understanding groups such as aum shinrikyo, will assist law enforcement personnel and intelligence agencies assess the potential threat by groups and cults (Jackson et al, p. 12, 2005). according to Reader (2000) as cited by stalker (2002), aum's violence was due to internal religious factors, including the “personality and absolute authority of its leader, asahara shoko, and a polarized worldview that pitted aum against an evil external world and doctrine and practices that facilitated the use of violence” (p. 304).
Many of aum’s members learned to make unconventional weapons (Jackson, p. 12, 2005). aum shinrikyo invested 30 million dollars to create chemical weapons (simmons, p. 39). Many aum members had scientific knowledge to reach their goals (Jackson et al, p. 12, 2005). For example, on June 27, 1994, aum members attached Matsumoto, Japan with sarin in an attempt to murder three judges (simmons, p. 40, 2006). as a weapon of mass destruction, sarin is very powerful, “colorless. Early signs of sarin exposure include “runny nose, difficulty breathing, pinpoint pupils, eye irritation, and blurred vision” (simmons, p. 40, 2006). Death can occur within one to ten minutes of inhalation (simmons, p. 40, 2006).
David Koresh and the Branch Davidians
Victor Houteff founded the sect known as the Davidian seventh Day adventists (DOJ,p. 3, 2005). In 1979, David Koresh (whose birth name was Vernon Howell) was twenty years old when he joined the Branch Davidians (Bromley and Gorden, p. 150, 2002). Houteff died in 1955 and his wife Florence became the leader of the sect, predicting that the second Coming would occur on april 22, 1959 (DOJ p. 3, 2005). When this failed to occur, a majority of the sect, under the leadership of Ben Roden, formed the Branch Davidians (p. 3).
On February 28, 1993, agents of the Bureau of alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (aTF) attempted to serve an arrest warrant for Vernon Howell, a/k/a David Koresh (DOJ, p. 1, 2005). The arrest warrant for Koresh consisted of unlawful possession of a destructive device, in violation of 26 United states Code, section 5845(f) (DOJ, p. 1, 2005). The goal of the FBI was to get “everyone in the compound, especially the children, to come out without any further injuries or loss of life to either side” (DOJ, p.2, 2005).
For the Branch Davidians, the “end of the world” is taken as a central belief. structurally, the Branch Davidians to become involved in conflicts with society (Bromley and Gorden, p. 151, 2002). Koresh was willing to resort to violence (Bromley and Gorden, p. 153, 2002). The Branch Davidians believed strongly in the “imminence of both the second Coming of Christ, and the battle of armageddon” (DOJ, p. 4, 2005). They separated themselves from non-believers (DOJ, p. 4, 2005). The Branch Davidians always searched for a "prophet" to lead them and teach them (DOJ, p. 4, 2005). David Koresh was very well-versed in the Bible (DOJ, p. 4, 2005).
The 51 day standoff at the Branch Davidian compound was unprecedented in the in “american law enforcement” (DOJ, p. 2, 2005). according to DOJ (2005), “never before have so many heavily armed and totally committed individuals barricaded themselves in a fortified compound in a direct challenge to lawful federal warrants, and to duly authorized law enforcement officials” (p. 3). David Koresh and almost 100 other men, women, and children perished in the fire at the compound (Wright, p. 3, 1995).
International terrorism, intelligence gathering and covert operations are all phenomenon, which intrigue the minds of many people both young and old. This paper is a historical recount and study on the various elements that comprise an international operation. It is also a vehicle for discussing the effects of intelligence agencies around the world, with particular interest in the CIa, Mossad, and KGB. This paper will show the various results of failed missions on the international community, examining whether the end justified the mean. Furthermore, it will also provide a deeper understanding to the way in which an operation works as developed through the mind of the agent, as well as the underlying reason for a particular action. In order to comprehend the following paragraphs one must have knowledge of the terms which may be used when discussing espionage, international terrorism and intelligence agencies throughout the world. First is the spy, agent or combatant. This is the person who carries out a mission. He/she does not necessarily work alone. Depending on the mission one or many spies may contribute in various ways. The entire team of spies, combatants or agents is called a pod. These pods can act in a plethora of ways. One such way is a clandestine operation, where the actions are taken on foreign soil, specifically in the state, or Country where the result will occur. (Martha, 1989)
Generally there are two different types of combatants: those who work in the in the field actually performing operations and those who infiltrate another government, posing as a citizen of that country, in order to provide his/her home country with secret information. The latter is called a mole, or a double agent. He is one who pretends to be from the Country in which he is spying, in order to gain the confidence of that government before he enters it, usually as a spy. Now that the reader has a basic knowledge of the vocabulary necessary to understand the information to be read, this person must first comprehend the history of espionage and terrorism. (Orr, Klaic, 1990)
although espionage dates as far back as biblical times when Moses sent spies into the land of Israel, this paper is only concerned with more contemporary organized espionage operations. The first of such operations were done in Germany, accomplished during the dawn of the Cold-War-Era. It was then and there that the american Central Intelligence agency, known as the CIa, and the Russian KGB, had secret campaigns being waged daily in the attempt to reveal various information concerning the making of nuclear weapons. The CIa, established in 1947, and the KGB, established in 1954, used Berlin as the battlefield for espionage. It was not a very intricate system; although, the results were of great importance. The CIa operated from its Berlin Operations Base, BOB, which was an experimental entity. It had approximately 250 agents spying on Russian troop movement, fortification, ammunition dumps, and training grounds.
From there information was gathered concerning the making of a Russian nuclear weapon. Despite the fact that both intelligence agencies existed in Germany at the same time, their respective goals were not the same. The CIa concerned itself with the aforementioned goal of uncovering details about foreign nuclear weapons. They were a true counter-intelligence organization. However, the KGB focused their attention on bringing German scientists back to Russia in order to build a weapon of mass destruction. The KGB worked endlessly to try to thwart the CIa s intelligence actions. However, they underestimated the CIa s determination and in doing so failed many times. Finally, the CIa discovered that it could tap the telephone line used by the KGB s headquarters by digging a tunnel under the border between East and West Berlin. This yielded over 50,000 reels of tape with over 440,000 conversations recorded to the americans containing information concerning the development of a Russian bomb. (Celmer, 1987)
an interesting insight to this operation, which gives a revelation of the operating of all intelligence agencies, is that the Russians already were aware of this tunnel. However, they allowed the mission to continue because if they had attempted to stop it, the CIa would have realized that information had leaked through a mole. This would then have started a search for the mole, and if found, the punishment could be capital. This would compromise the life of their agent, any secret information he has knowledge of, and the chance of further intelligence being gathered from him. The Russians weighed this given knowledge against the probable deterioration of the CIa s immediate operations due to international backlash.
When an operation fails, or is revealed before it has an opportunity to be accomplished, there is a potential for a crisis in the international community. The Russians compared the outcome of both and decided not to compromise the life of their spy, even though he is being caught was not a definite fate. The international backlash will be discussed at greater lengths later in this paper. In light of the recent terrorist activities, the CIa has been busy trying to stop the antics of terrorists in the Middle East and other Islamic countries. Hosts of actions were taken by the CIa recently in order to accomplish the goal of stopping international terrorism. One very public operation was the missile strikes on various plants in sudan and bases in afghanistan. The preparation going into this attack was immense. (Merari, 1985)
The paths of each missile was charted and checked to ensure none collided in air. Further intelligence was gathered via satellite in the form of digital photographs. also, the CIa had uncovered that a large meeting of known terrorists were going to meet at a base in afghanistan. Therefore, it was decided that special missiles that would disperse shrapnel over a large area were to be used. This was in an attempt to kill as many terrorists as possible. The orchestration of these attacks took a surprisingly short amount of time.
Osama bin Laden is the terrorist accused of organizing the original terrorist bombings of the two american Embassies. The CIa, through intercepted communication has gathered substantial information on him, almost enough to bring him to trial. But, in between the developing information for his capture and indictment, the CIa has toyed with a few ideas that would bring bin Laden to a halt. The most prominent idea was that of freezing his financial accounts. Through the aid of a saudi arabian agent, the CIa has discussed the action but still needs further evidence before proceeding. Notwithstanding, this should soon arrive at the feet of the CIa through the Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI. They had a Us informant in the Kenya cell of Osama bin Laden's terrorist network when the Embassy blew up with him inside. The mole, identified as Cs-1 (confidential source) for security reasons, has given the FBI substantial evidence to the inner workings of bin Laden.
another prominent member of the world s counter-terrorism organizations is Israel s Mossad. The Mossad has been attempting to curb terrorist actions since its statehood was declared in 1948. It is almost a doppelganger of the CIa. However, Israel s reliance on Mossad is substantially greater because of their hostile neighbors. The Mossad, together with the CIa, have combined in reducing terrorist activity by innumerable quantities. Unfortunately, Mossad has had many opportunities to thwart a terrorist attack. Many attacks actually are discovered and are stopped by G-d in the form of blundered operations. Nevertheless, the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad has had a manifold of successful peacetime and war operations which hampered arab nations in damaging and killing Israelis.
Mossad has been widely regarded as one of the most active and secret Intelligence agencies in the world. They have succeeded time and time again by gaining positions which enable their agents to have a simple route and a million resources in order to carry out the necessary task. By gaining business positions in enemy countries Israeli spies have easier access to passports in and out of that country. This is a vital component to their clandestine actions, especially among the rather vicious arab neighbors they have. (Miller, 1980)
This is most exemplified during a mission in 1973 in Lebanon. an Israeli combatant had to get himself into Lebanon, which is a bitter nemesis of Israel. Mossad had decided to assassinate three major terrorist leaders in Fatah, a Lebanese based international terrorism organization. Through intelligence gathered earlier Mossad had decided these three men: abou Yousef, Kamal adwan, and Kamal Nasser, because of their undeniable leadership in earlier terrorist attacks on Israeli Citizens. Furthermore, a PLO mine factory, the headquarters of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), an RPG projectile factory, and a petrol reservoir and garage were also targets. Mossad utilized various businesses as cover for their agents. These agents then entered Lebanon under the cover of these businesses, many banks, and from apartments near the targets gathered intelligence for Mossad. after a few weeks the agents left citing business overseas as their reason to depart so soon. They all went to Europe and then finally to Israel. None knew who the others were and all were focused on their specific operation. Finally, on april 19, 1973, all three of the terrorists were assassinated and the buildings leveled by bombs from within, all because of a few businessmen who came to invest in Lebanon. The Mossad has accomplished a plethora of missions similar to the one briefly described above. Further, Mossad has nearly perfected the art of clandestine assassinations. (Hoffman, 1998)
Regardless of the prestige which they have amassed over the decades, the Mossad has failed before, as has the CIa innumerable of times. The result of a failed operation an have different consequences. If it is merely a spy that has been captured the punishment could be one of a few. The spy could be jailed for life, as the double agent from Israel is here in america, Jonathan Pollard. However, the result could reach a more severe level, death. This would be accompanied by torture in order to extract any information the spy has. The consequence for operations that are detected has a parallel severity. The country may be held in contempt by the international community, also, diplomatic ties may be broken. Furthermore, the agency will suffer domestic backlash, probable loss of funding, and the leadership of the agency could be dismantled. Evidence of this exists in reports on the failed Bay of Pigs operation in 1961.
Kennedy was held responsible for the failure of 1,400 CIa trained troops to overtake Fidel Castro s reign in Cuba. Many historians have labeled this as the Perfect Failure . This debacle could have possibly been avoided if top level CIa officials warned President Kennedy that this could no longer be a viable covert operation . It had expanded beyond the realm of possible secrecy. The operation, although well thought out, had reached the apex for number of people in the operation. The flak was given to Kennedy and to Richard M. Bissell Jr., who was the Deputy Director. Bissell was asked to resign from his post in the CIa following the mission. He contends that the operation still could have succeeded even at its size. Just before the invasion Kennedy called off a number of air strikes which would have grounded the Cuban air force. This he says would have allowed the CIa trained Guerrillas to stand a much higher chance of defeating the Castro army. Even though he maintains that it could have succeeded there is still a high chance that the attack would have failed despite the called off air strikes. Whatever the reason, this operation scared the CIa and was just the first in a series of ill-conceived, counterproductive, and tragic acts of Us aggression. The next doomed assignment by Kennedy was the Operation Mongoose, which was another attempt to overthrow Castro. This prompted the Cuban dictator to accept Russia’s offer of nuclear weapons for protection. Further results were the trade embargo that america established, the two planes which Cuba shot down when flying into its airspace, and finally the Cuban Missile Crisis, which Kennedy is heralded for stopping early and peacefully. (Livingston, 1994) However, that ordeal could have been avoided much earlier had the CIa not botched the covert Bay of Pigs operation. Israel s Mossad has also had it share of missions that were found out too early. a bungled assassination attempt in Jordan against Khaled Meshal, an officer of the well-known terrorist organization Hammas, led to a multitude of counter actions by various nations on the globe. The attempt was made in retaliation to the murder of two Israeli guards at their embassy in amman, Jordan. an unidentified gunman who escaped without much information being gathered on him killed them. The Mossad then tried to retaliate by poisoning Meshal. The Jordanian government then caught the two agents that failed in their mission. an international uproar ensued, and a series of diplomatic ties were strained as new evidence came forth. since the agents were carrying false Canadian passports, Canada recalled its envoy in the diplomatic tumult. President Clinton also criticized Israel and interceded further by obtaining the antidote to the poison. another consequences to this was that in order to retrieve the two spies Israel had o give the arab world back 19 Palestinian prisoners and freed Hamas founder and spiritual leader sheik ahmed Yassin. Notwithstanding, the most hurtful result of this assassination which went awry is that it nearly severed diplomatic ties with Jordan, which is Israel s most amiable and friendly neighbor, which isn’t much, but better than syria. Jordan s King Hussein was so angered that he demanded the resignation of Mossad chief Danny Yatom. Until this was done, he would cut off all security cooperation with Israel. This would allow for terrorists to enter Israel with half the security the border usually had. a few days later he got his wish after five more Mossad agents were found in Bern, switzerland trying to eavesdrop on conversations between Islamic militants. after that fiasco, Yatom was ousted during negotiations between the swiss and Israel. That would seem to be enough consequences to deter any future assassination attempt by Mossad. If it was not then most likely the retaliation of the Hamas organization was another good reason, a myriad of revenge bomb attacks have torn the country apart.
The Deadly suicide Bomber
In terrorism, the frightening suicide bomber is an international phenomenon (serluco, 2007, p. 13). The tactic of suicide bombing is used by the al Qaeda, and other terrorist groups. The al Qaeda is directly responsible in making suicide bombing a dangerous and destructive tool (serluco, 2007, p. 13). suicide bombings are committed by both men and women. “Between 1985 and 2006, there have been more than 220 women suicide bombers representing nearly 15 percent of the overall number of actual suicide bombers around the world and those intercepted in the final stages before the attack (serluco, 2007, p. 13).
serluco (2007) defines a suicide attack as “a violent, politically motivated action intended consciously and with prior intent – even if thwarted in its final stages – by one or more individuals who kill him/herself in the course of the operation together with his/her chosen target” (p. 13). In suicide attacks, the suicide bomber must die for the “operation’s success” (p. 13).
Female suicide bombers play a “marginal role” (p. 13) in their terrorist groups. Many female suicide bombers do not plan the attacks, or are not the leaders of the group (p. 13). Female suicide bombers perform in a “male-dominated domain of suicide bombing” (p. 14). The success of female suicide bombers is their ability to clear check point security, not undergoing special training, or possessing military skills (p. 14).
The FBI defines terrorism as “… the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” The U.s. Department of state defines terrorism as “… an activity, directed against persons involving violent acts or acts dangerous to human life which would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the U.s.; and is intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or to affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping…” The Department of Defense defines terrorism as “… the calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”
In the world of terrorism and cults, terrorist groups and cults use conditioning techniques to indoctrinate members (stahelski, 2005, p1). a charismatic leader, who for many members represent a father figure lead members on their missions (p. 2). The leader demands total obedience from his or her group members (p. 3). In time, group members view reality the same manner as the leader (p. 3). In most cases, members emotionally, physically, and intellectually accept the charismatic leader (p. 3).
Many suicide bombers are indoctrinated to believe they will be rewarded in heaven and told, “they will be in the presence of allah, and will meet the Prophet Mohammed” (Bond, 2004, p. 5). The majority of suicide bombers do not back out of their missions in order not to lost peer respect (Bond, 2004, p. 5). In the psychology of terrorism, psychologists agree that “sense of community” (p. 5), is the most important reason “rational people are persuaded to become suicide bombers” (Bond, 2004, p. 5). Usually, the suicide bomber’s mindset is very fragile, narrow, and has only experienced “one side of life” (Bond, 2004, p. 5).
There is no universal terrorist profile (stahelski, 2005, p. 1). The majority of terrorists are not psychopaths or mentally ill (stahelski, p. 1). With the proper conditioning, terrorists and cult members will murder with no remorse (stahelski, 2005, p. 4). Researchers believe that in the majority of cases, “individual psychology is not the determining factor” (Bond, 2004, p. 5).
according to Bond (2005), the London bombers had no criminal records, not emotionally disturbed, were financially well off, and well-educated (p.1). according to Merari, most suicide bombers are normal, and rarely pathologically suicidal (Bond, 2005, p. 1).
The crucial factor is the psychology of the group. “It is not difficult to persuade normal, rational people to do evil things if you apply the right conditioning” (Bond, 2005, p. 2). Militant groups play a central role in the conception and management of suicide attacks (Bond, 2005, p. 2). according to Bond (2005), militant groups find the recruits, exploit them to fight for the group’s cause (p. 2). Many members make pacts with the suicide bomber cell (p. 2).
suicide bombings are very cruel, lethal, and evil (alexander, 2003, p. 1). Many such attacks occur where there is a large number of children (alexander, 2003, p. 1). The majority of suicide bombers are “young, single, and have some religious education” (Fareed, 2003, p. 1). Most suicide bombers are products of politics (Fareed, 2003, p. 1).
shermer, (2006), defines suicide bombings are “murdercide” as the killing of a person or persons “with malice aforethought by means of self-murder” (p. 1). Killing yourself while killing others is not a new phenomenon, as history recorded the Islamic order of assassins, and Japanese kamikaze pilots, according to Bond, (2004), p. 1. The modern era of suicide bombings began in april, 1983, with the attack of the United states embassy in Beirut by Hizball