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Arguments For and Against Police Body Worn Cameras

Info: 3248 words (13 pages) Essay
Published: 8th Feb 2020 in Criminology

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Should Police Worn Body Cameras Be a Unified Practice Throughout The Country?

           Many Law enforcement municipalities around the United States have increased their  use a video-based or police worn body cameras. This literature review not only examines the current evidence based utilization and efficacy of police worn body camera, but the lack of organizational procedure surrounding the logistics of use. Inclusive of when to turn on and off, how recordings are maintained, who has access to footage and editing capabilities.  Three articles were identified for this review from a search of three electronic databases. These articles were chosen based on the evidence provided. Body-worn camera were shown to improve crime reporting behaviors. Respondents where police officers and citizens. Stratified street incident crime densities were used as the units of analysis, in order to measure the effect on the number of emergency calls in target versus control street segments. A 6 month study in Denver investigated whether Body worn cameras can change crime reporting behaviors with the treatment officers, wearing police worn body cameras patrolling targeted areas. Variations in reporting are interpreted in terms of accountability, legitimacy, or perceived utility cause by the use of Body worn cameras. Situational characteristics of the street incidents explain why low level street incidents are affected body worn camera and hot spot incidents no effects in where seen. In another article is showed that the deterrence effect of police worn body cameras was dependent on the officer’s discretion to turn the camera on. Cambridge Replication Experiments, their main effects, and subgroup analyses that focused on police discretion. Based on this evidence, we then introduce the ‘deterrence spectrum’ as a possible model for explaining when BWCs work or can backfire, in terms of use of force. Paying attention to how cameras are used as a deterrent not only the actual activation and recording of evidence but also, most importantly, whether and how the footage is then used by the law enforcement establishment. Police worn body cameras causes officers to comply with the rules of engagement. The effect moves within a spectrum, from minimal deterrence, through optimal deterrence and maximum deterrence, and up to inertia. As the degree of deterrence increases, officers are less likely to use force. The third article they post news releases              with a good bit of detail. They report that social media has either had no impact on the              amount              of contacts they have with the media, or the number of contacts has actually increased. The survey was conducted              online from January 11, 2016, to February 9,              2016. An email invitation was sent by NIOA to its membership roster              of 783,              with two reminder messages. We received 181 responses, for a response rate of 23.1 percent.

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video was shown to reduce use of force incidents, crime rates for certain crime types and court costs. Public response to body-worn video was varied, as was police officer and public opinion. Due to methodological limitations evident in most studies and the general lack of peer-reviewed material, further research is required; however, there are some considerable benefits reported in the current literature.

       Police departments around the country struggle with logistics of Police worn body cameras. Body-worn cameras (BWCs) “are small, pager-sized cameras that clip on to an officer’s uniform or are worn as a headset, and record audio and video of the officer’s interactions with the public.” (ACLU, 2015, p. 1). Many perceive that there are numerous benefits to BWCs, including increased transparency and police legitimacy, however, Policies and Procedures varies throughout police facilities across the country. Many have their own operating protocol and sets of requirements of when they are worn. Policies will have to tackle matters ranging from the storage and retention of footage, to privacy concerns, to when to turn the cameras on and off, to whether or not the public is informed that their actions are being recorded (Dhillon, 2015; ACLU, 2015; COPS, 2014). As a result, the execution of police worn body cameras is subject of numerous constraints that the limit the intentional use, which invariably have a significant negative impact on police as well as the public, due to the overall projected outcome of the body cameras. Police worn body camera constraints that vary from facility to facility creates constraints and limitations as well as safety and quality concerns, which may prevent this useful tool to achieve its goal. Successful execution and control of use of Police worn body cameras relies on effective identification and management of these constraints through operational planning. A detailed plan showing working to be done within each provide facility to reflect actual field work conditions for body camera use. This operational plan needs to be consistent and the constraints and conflicts need a contriants analysis procedure which is a critical component. This research proposal will provide an overview of police worn body camera constraints and practice and propose a conceptual framework for managing police worn body cameras. With the right policies and practices, however, BWCs can be used in a way that is both productive and protecting the public

         The importance of developing a constraint-free reliable work plan has long been recognized throughout police facilities and public. However numerous police facilities have delayed the use of Police worn body camera to their full potential and has plagued the police as well as the public. There has been ineffective use of this tool and constraints put on them based on policy and procedure practices, creating conflict not only within the departments that use them, but in the public spectrum as well. This is becoming a more complex which are widely used as a basis of operational procedure.  There is a lack of understanding in the intended use and dissemination of information this tool provides. Traditional methods through research such as bar charts and other analysis and observational research which are widely used for analysis greatly limit capability in modeling and resolving constraints during operational procedures. These methods have their limitations in not only communicating the constraints but resolving any ongoing constraints. This includes inability to effectively utilize a tool to is greatest capacity. In summary, there is a need for better understanding of the constraints of use and a structured approach in identifying and modeling the use of Police worn body cameras to ensure a working plan that is acceptable to police facilities and the public. More specifically, the following research questions need to be addressed:

  1. What are the typical constraints found with the use of Police worn body cameras
  2. How to classify these constraints for easier identification and modeling”
  3. What are the current facility practices as well as research advancement in modeling and resolving constraints.
  4. How to unify the use of police worn body cameras throughout police facilities?

       The long term goal of the research is to develop a formalized Police worn body camera practice system. The objective of the current studies is to provide a comprehensive review of literatures and industry practices in relation to ineffective use of body cameras and outline a framework for the procedure. The study with look at the benefits and the impact of a unified use of police body cameras. The study has the following sub-objectives:

  1. To provide a comprehensive review of sources and characteristics of police departments typical use of police worn body camera.
  2. To develop a method for easier utilization classification method with easier identification and modeling.
  3. To review current industry practices and researches in regards to police worn body cameras.
  4. To outline a conceptual framework for utilization of police worn body cameras.

 Scope of the Study Using preliminary data from

The results of this study will be valuable to police departments throughout the country as well as the general public, as the development of a better practice and utilization of a tool for the benefit of both general public and police facilities.

       The literature review shows past studies are primarily focused on understanding and modeling of police cameras in varies police settings. Limited progress has been made on classifying and use of body cameras and utilizing to the fullest capacity. In terms of modeling and resolving constraints various approaches have been recommended. For example, many facilities

What is missing from past studies is a comprehensive and structured approach in managing constraints and identifying a uniformed practice.

The primary research method for this study is literature review and modeling. Identification of use and outcome through structured approach is the very first step toward unified utilization of police worn body cameras. This study will first review various types of constraints with the use of police worn body cameras. Based on this understanding, a classification method will be developed a unified procedure and modeling. In the second stage this study, existing protocols methods will be identified based on current practice and utilization research. Finally, one the classification and modeling areas are identified, a conceptual framework for total unification of practice management will be outlined.

The overall plan to obtaining and answer to the the research question with overview of study design:

Quantitative:

Descriptive:

●       Correlational studies-much of the literature has been based on randomized controlled trial evaluations of Police worn body cameras. More is needed on the relationship of the benefits of worn body cameras and the procedures surrounding the practice.

●       Case reports

●       Cross sectional survey

Analytic

●       Cohort- two cohorts of officers in a large state police organization need to be done to identify using an orientation questionnaire that measures practice of police worn body camera. Cohort 1 would measured during the recruit academy and after one year on the job. Cohort 2 would be measured at first year on the job and second year on the job. This research would examine the practice of officers of these two cohorts at orientation and differences between the two cohorts and practice associated with police worn body cameras.

Qualitative

●       Observation-field experiments of observation of not only the police officers behavior and perception of police worn body cameras, but also of the leadership.

●       Narrative research-Narrative accounts allow not only “individual identity and its systems of meaning but also the compliance with the practice of police worn body cameras.

More research is needed to help law enforcement executives decide whether and how to implement the use of body-worn cameras in their departments

Survey Method

The sampling would be done in a large city with a projected sample size of 200 officers with an anticipated response rate of 80 percent with a maximum sample error of 5 percent. The responses are entire population of utilizers of police worn body cameras

Questionnaire

There will be 10 questions that focus on the current practice of police worn body cameras. Questions will be open ended questions that capture verbatim responses. Question development will include collaboration with law enforcement officers in order to customize particulars surrounding police worn body camera.

Data Collection Approach

Will be online surveys that invite respondents via email and social media to respond to a web-based survey.  Only follow-up emails  will be sent to non-respondents. Emails will be coded to allow one response per person. Email respondents will have an opportunity to opt out..

Analysis

Analysis of the survey data will be conducted and reporting options will be summarized with in-depth analysis and easy to read graph presentations.

Literature Chart

ID

Year Published

Name

Author’s Gender

Country where study was conducted

Theory

Respondents

Types of Methods

Aim

Findings

1

2016

B. Ariel

male

United States

Body Worn Cameras (BWCs) can change crime-reporting behavior,

Police officers and citizens

Stratified street segments crime densities were used as the units of analysis, in order to measure the effect on the number of emergency calls in target versus control street segments.

A 6-month study in Denver investigated whether Body Worn Cameras (BWCs) can change crime-reporting behavior, with treatment-officers wearing BWCs patrolling targeted street segments,

Variations in reporting are interpreted in terms of accountability, legitimacy, or perceived utility caused by the use of BWCs. Situational characteristics of the street segments explain why low-level street segments are affected by BWCs, while in hotspots no effect was detected.

2

B. Ariel

2017

male

United States

 the deterrence effect of BWCs ranges from ‘minimal deterrence’ to ‘maximum deterrence’ depending on the officer’s discretion.

Cambridge Replication Experiments, their main effects, and subgroup analyses that focused on police discretion. Based on this evidence, we then introduce the ‘deterrence spectrum’ as a possible model for explaining when BWCs work or can backfire, in terms of use of force

Paying attention to how cameras are used as a deterrent not only the actual activation and recording of evidence but also, most importantly, whether and how the footage is then used by the law enforcement establishment

BWCs causes officers to comply with the rules of engagement. The effect moves within a spectrum, from minimal deterrence, through optimal deterrence and maximum deterrence, and up to inertia. As the degree of deterrence increases, officers are less likely to use force.

3

C.Carlson

P. Kashani

2016

Female

USA

 they post news  releases with a good bit of detail. Even so, they              report              that              social              media              has              either              had              no               impact              on              the              amount              of              contacts              they              have              with              the              media,              or              the              number              of              contacts              has               actually              increased.

95.6 percent work full-4me for a law enforcement agency as a PIO.               The              rest              worked              as              a              PIO              as              only              part              of              their              du4es

This research included survey for all over the country both from the public and police officers. It included both quantitative and qualitative data on the perception of police worn body cameras on the handling of footage from police worn body cameras.

The survey was conducted online from January 11, 2016, to February 9, 2016.              An              email               invita4on              was              sent              by              NIOA              to              its              membership              roster              of              783,              with              two              reminder              messages.              We               received              181              responses,              for              a              response              rate              of              23.1              percent.

Body cameras are employed by about one-third of the PIOs’ agencies and so              far              those               PIOs              are              only              geRng              a              few              requests              for              footage,              mostly              from              the              media.              Most              commonly              the               media              were              asking              for              footage              where              a              member              of              the              public              was              killed              or              an              officer              used              force. 

 

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