Current studies on violence and crime concentrate on the force directed to citizens. Citizen’s resistance to and assaults on police officers increased over the past decade and many people including Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine developed researches to examine the increase in the number of police victims (2). In Central America, one of the most severe problems tackled by the state includes increased crime rates. According to Pérez, gang violence evolved from localized into a multinational problem (4). Despite essential efforts enforced by national governments to apply anti-crime policies, the number of crime rates performed in Orlando poses a challenge to the government because it causes death, injuries and damage of properties.
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According to Perez, the “highest rates of crime and violence in the world are recorded in Central America” (1). Criminal activities in Orlando have developed due to reasons such as the use of technology, “establishments of international links and increased level of organization within gangs” (Polczynski Olson et al. 4) . Utilization of technologies in criminal activities includes the use of sophisticated weapons and other equipment such as explosives. Establishments of international links in illegal activities facilitate the use of unique methods in carrying out criminal activities.
Polczynski Olson et al., acknowledge that “ immigration co-relates with criminal activities” (5). As a metropolitan area, Orlando includes significant numbers of naturalized citizens, citizens born out of the state as well as native-born citizens. Polczynski Olson et al., claim that “research previously conducted on immigration and crime relied on biological and psychological explanations of criminal offending” (2). Social disintegration theory claims that massive immigration affects the societal structure. Orlando has a heterogeneous population which includes an estimated total of 1,043, 500 people. The community comprises 73% native citizens, 7.6% U.S citizens, 8.2% of naturalized U.S citizens and 11.2% of non-US Citizens. According to Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine “scholars investigated the relationship between crime and immigration and claimed that immigration had a positive effect on crime” (5).
Consequently, Pérez, “the rate of sexual assaults in Orlando is highest among immigrants while naturalized citizens and foreign-born citizens commit other criminal activities such as murder and homicides” (6). Therefore, in Orlando, “most of the illegal activities stem from the foreign-born citizens and naturalized citizens in that region” (Polczynski Olson et al. 6).
According to Perez, “citizens in Central America face challenges in a while living in their respective towns” (3). Criminal activities make Orlando and other towns unsafe for people because the number of illegal activities and violence have increased in those regions. People living in the various areas in Central America claim that they fear being victims of crime in their neighbourhood. Close to 40% percent of people living in Central America fear residing in those regions because the regions are not secure. Indicators of criminal activities in that region include “the number of deaths, rape cases, and increased homicides” Pérez (4). Illegal activities in Central America include gang-related activities which constitute the highest number of deaths. Formation of gangs in different parts in America leads to increased illicit activities. Social factors take part in the creation of groups because a variety of social conditions that people experience leads to becoming part of criminal groups.
Social dynamics that causes the formation of gangs include cultural violence, migration, and urban growth. When people migrate to other regions and return to their original country, they learn new cultures. “A new culture includes a different perception of the issue of crime” Pérez (4). Urban population increase also influences the formation of gangs in Orlando because a lot of people lack recreational facilities. Further, deported criminals also engage in criminal activities previously done in other countries. Therefore, “social factors play a vital role in the formation of gangs in different regions in the world” (Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine 2) . Therefore, to deal with crime, the development of community services that evaluates social systems comes in handy with the establishment of support systems and policies that help in reversing the effects of crime.
According to Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine, “law enforcement agencies in Orlando face challenges while implementing laws” (8). One of the significant challenges includes violence conducted by gangs against the police. In that region, Michele claims that police feel insecure while performing their duties because people in that region resist police activities. A report generated by FBI in 2009 and 2011 indicates that more than 24 police officers were killed while 506 others severely injured by the public (Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine 8). According to the FBI report, offenders who commit assaults and batters the police are in good health, and they have a criminal record as well. According to Pérez, “many criminals of them use alcohol, other drugs or both” (5). Due to abuse of drugs and alcohol, such offenders get over inhibition which might result to change of plans.Use of drugs among offenders facilitates the rate of performing a crime.
According to Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine, “police assaults in Orlando feature the use of weapons and pepper spray” (6). To curb the use of firearms and pepper spray, the government incorporated the use of conducted energy devices (CED). CEDs help police officers contain situations that pose a challenge to their lives by reducing the impacts of assaults. CEDs help police officers defend themselves from suspects and thus, the number of police assaults has decreased over the years. Research conducted by Pérez, “ polices have used other means in containing assaults by using unique strategies” (4).
In Orlando, the population has increased over the last 100 years and thus, people from different regions live in that area. According to Polczynski Olson et al., “the increase in population in that region has brought massive social problems such as lack of resources and a reduction in capital formation” (7). Population increase in Orlando led to increasing social issues which prompted people to engage in criminal activities. Polczynski Olson et al., claim that “social problems in Orlando have increased due to urbanization in that town” (9). Over the years, Orlando has been on the limelight for social problems caused by massive immigration. As a result of many social issues in Orlando, the government has implemented policies to control the amount of migrations in that region as well as curbing social problems that act as risks in crime development.
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Consequently, technological developments in the world have influenced transitions in criminal activities. Before technological advancements, “less sophisticated weapons have been used by criminals” (Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine 6). With the introduction of new technologies, crime in Orlando has taken a different diversion. According to Perez, “many weapons used in the 21st Century have developed due to numerous technological advances” (8). Therefore, sophisticated weapons used by criminals in Orlando has increased over the years, and that is among the reasons why many people fear living in Orlando. Additionally, new weapons translate to unique methods of criminal activities.
In Orlando, criminal activities relate to ethnic groups. As mentioned earlier, massive migrations witnessed in that town has led to cultural transformations. In the early 20th century, research conducted by various scholars indicates that immigration did not correlate with criminal activities. In the 21st century, many illegal activities were associated with ethnic groups. Criminal actions are measured by examining the number of homicides, robbery, sexual assaults, and aggravated assaults. In Orlando, “ homicides recorded in 2006 include 34.3 for native-born citizens, 14.1 for non-citizens, 15.8 for naturalized citizens and 12.6 for foreign-born citizens “ (Polczynski Olson et al. 5). In the analysis above, native-born citizens in Orlando committed a high number of homicides as compared to other races. Therefore, a “study of ethnic groups facilitated in understanding the relationship between criminal activities and ethnic groups” Pérez (4).
Economic trends in Orlando sparked differences among various categories of people in that town. “Economic trends in Orlando features factors such as unemployment and poverty” (Pérez 4). Poverty among a section of people living in Central America led to the development of criminal activities. Similarly, “poverty experienced in Orlando triggered a section of young people to engage in illegal activities so that they can make ends meet “(Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine 5). Therefore, changes in economic trends in Orlando influenced the level of crime.
For criminal activities to be mitigated in the different regions in the United States, Polczynski Olson et al., claim that “further investigations need to be conducted so that appropriate links between immigration and criminal activities are unravelled” (8). Further, causes of violence, as well as other factors that trigger illegal activities, need to be compiled so that criminal activities are mitigated since they cause death, severe injuries, and destruction of property in the world. In Orlando, “the effects of violence against the police can be reduced by the formulation of technological advances that allow police officers to defend themselves from criminal acts” (Covington, Huff-Corzine and Corzine 5). Use of drugs and alcohol in Orlando needs to be contained so that police officers will continue carrying out their duties in that regions.
- Covington, Michele W., Lin Huff-Corzine, and Jay Corzine. “Battered Police: Risk Factors For Violence Against Law Enforcement Officers.” Violence and Victims 29.1 (2014): 34-52. Web.
- Polczynski Olson, Christa et al. “Immigration And Violent Crime.” Homicide Studies 13.3 (2009): 227-241. Web.
- PÉREZ, ORLANDO J. “Gang Violence And Insecurity In Contemporary Central America.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 32.s1 (2013): 217-234. Web.
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