Site material management is a scientific technique. Materials Management is the process of planning, implementation and control of field and office activities in construction.
The materials management goal is to ensure that building materials in their perspective when you need to.Materials management system attempts to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of material is appropriate, purchase, delivery and on-site processing in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost.Materials management system attempts to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of material is appropriate select , purchase, delivery and on-site processing in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost.So Materials management is an important element of project management. The material shows a major cost in the construction, thus reducing procurement costs to improve the opportunity to reduce the cost of the entire project.
Construction projects, building materials fees accounted for 60 to 70% of the project cost. A reasonably organized planning, supply and use of building materials, construction materials from the production companies enter a construction according to the variety, quantity, quality, duration, reducing the transfer of part ofprevent the backlog of waste, shorten the construction period, accelerate the construction speed, reduce the cost of the project is important.
2.1 Scope of Materials Management
It was referring to the various functions of materials management of the materials management coordination of various departments of manufacturing enterprises. Once the material procurement and brought by the organization, its value continues to increase other costs of materials required for the sorting, carrying materials in inventory, maintenance and management costs must be allocated to the cost of materials before entering into a product or converted to other form. In order to save the cost of all the materials management company has taken a clear method to determine the amount of material is ordered, the number is stored as inventory and in-process inventory. In order to reduce the cost of materials and other costs, there must be effective and efficient management of materials technology, it must be dynamically adjusted with changes in demand and production.
Materials management efforts to ensure that the material cost component of the total product cost is the least. To achieve this goal, the control is in the exercise of the following fields.
1. Materials Planning.
3. Store Keeping.
4. Inventory Control.
5. Receiving, Inspection and Despatching.
6. Value Analysis, Standardization and Variety Reduction.
7. Materials Handling & Traffic.
8. Disposal of Scrap and Surplus, Material Preservation.
The function of the planning department of the material for future plans to purchase the required materials according to the production plan. In materials planning, budget allocation will also be critical to the materials research progress, for better control.
Materials planning, procurement must be done. Purchasing department to purchase materials based on purchase requisitions from user departments and store departments and production plan for the year. There are four basic procurement activities.
a) Selecting suppliers, negotiating, and the issue of the purchase order.
b) to hasten the delivery of the goods from the supplier.
c) as a liaison between the suppliers and other companies.
d) looking for new products, materials, and suppliers can help company objectivity.
At the time of purchase, the right quantity and quality of the materials must be purchased on time, the lowest price and choose effective procurement system, and draw maximum benefits. The procurement is based on the "make or buy decision, and also using PERT / CPM effectively.
When the project is the purchase of goods, must provide adequate storage facilities, so the waste is minimized. Sometimes, to be doubly careful in order to protect the quality during storage.
Of these tariffs inventory control department to decide on the type of sorting system, to solve the safety stock limit fixing up the reorder levels and maximum / minimum inventory levels.
Responsible for receiving, inspection and shipping department receives material suppliers delivered. In receipt of it, the quantity and quality must be checked. Production of parts and materials specification blueprints and inspection. Non-production items were reviewed. Once it is given according to the specification, the goods will be accepted.
Value analysis and standardized to provide maximum range, reducing the cost of materials. It also reduces the range of varieties, but also to help find alternatives to lower-cost materials.
Material handling part responsible for the transport of materials in different departments. There are four basic transport activities.
Choose the ordinary or chartered carriers and routings to send / shipment requirements
Tracing in-bound shipments of material in short supply as requested by production control or purchasing, To assist customers in tracking outbound shipments when asked.
audit invoices refund excess charges from operators and application needed for damaged shipments.
Development of technology to reduce transportation costs. This may include negotiating with competition the shipper, special study, the position of the dominant plants of the latest products, analysis of the tariff, and negotiations of any number of special arrangements to deal with specific traffic.
activities including trading of finished packaging, labeling, and loading the final product.
Finally, the processing of waste and surplus must be done to release the capital locked in those projects on a regular basis.
2.2 Objectives and Functions of Materials Management
Primary objectives Which can be classified as:
(i) Efficient materials planning
(ii) Buying or Purchasing
(iii) Procuring and receiving
(iv) Storing and inventory control
(v) Supply and distribution of materials
(vi) Quality assurance
Secondary objectives there can be several secondary objectives of materials management. Some of them are given below:
(i) Efficient production scheduling
(ii) To take make or buy decisions
(iii) Prepare specifications and standization of materials
(iv) To assist in product design and development
(v) Forecasting demand and quantity of materials requirements
(vi) Quality control of materials purchased
(vii) Material handling
(viii) Use of value analysis and value engineering
(ix) Developing skills of workers in materials management
(x) Smooth flow of materials in and out of the organization
Achieve all these goals, it is necessary to establish harmony and good coordination between all employees of the materials management department.
2.3 Components of material management
2.3.1 Material supply and management
Through market research, and look for the qualified materials
The scope of inspections, investigations should first production and management vendors. One is the audit inspection material production and operation of the main body of all kinds of production and operation procedure is a complete range; The second is on-the-spot investigation enterprise production scale, management concept, sales and after-sales service, etc; The third is mainly studies the enterprise of quality control system, whether it has national and industry product quality authentication, material quality in the similar products is to belong to the general, intermediate or high-grade, etc.
Another study visits range is building industry. Through the understanding of the building industry, information obtained a more accurate, more careful, more comprehensive. Generally speaking, really good quality materials will get architectural recognition, inferior quality of materials will be people spit on. By understanding building industry, can be more accurately master the material manufacturer enterprise reputation, product quality, price condition, the post-sale service, etc.
The material the approach test
Acceptance warehousing must ask the supplier of building materials "security record to prove". The material inspection units must have the appropriate testing facilities and capabilities.
Materials management in the construction process
The central task is to check the use of the materials management process to ensure the quality of the material entering the construction safekeeping of materials approach, strict, reasonable use of a variety of materials, reduce consumption, to ensure the realization of the management objectives.
2.3.2The price of materials management
1. Control of the market, reduce the price of materials
Control of the market, the market price is the extensive collection of materials. Material price information-gathering process, price information collection is in the building materials market, the material origin, the course of the investigation. The acquisition price information must be appropriate to the actual situation of the market to reflect the general level of prices of materials. Investigation and collection of price information for engineering materials, covers a wide range, heavy workload, is a complex information system.
2.Make full use of the market, reasonable arrangements for transportation
Freight expenditures are important factors that constitute material procurement costs, save on shipping costs, reduce material procurement costs. Therefore, to consider the following aspects should consider the problems of the transport distance transportation cost savings: material when ordering. In the case of material quality, performance can meet the material procurement program, and almost equal to the price of materials, it should go to the nearest location away from the construction site procurement; material as a transport in place, to reduce secondary unlucky and handling costs.
Take reasonable mode of procurement
Doing so supply, storage, integration, reducing both parties arguing back and forth; owner can reduce material prices, reduce the project cost; course reasonable supply mode according to specific circumstances.
2.3.3 Material storage issue management
Specifically the Treasury, proper storage. Identified clearly, classified storage
In addition to the release of the material, whether by the Ministry branch or the issuance of project department warehouse supplies, should implement the principle of "first-in, first-out" project materials consumed should be read in conjunction with the segment and sub-project accounting, strict implementation of quota / fixed picking system must be opened by the project construction personnel before construction sign limits pick lists limit pick lists must fill part requirements essential items. Valuables and a larger amount of items, multiple payment based on usage, with picking small ticket points. Easily damaged goods, the material need for more detailed experience exchange members issued by the recipients of the two sides to sign off on the certificate.
Material need generated from site
Material ordered in the store
Indents is generated
Check availability in the store
Check for the balance items
Vendor selection from the approved list of vendors from the client
Material inspection from the received stock
Rejection of the unacceptable stock
Issue of material to the concerned department
Fig.1 process of material management
Sources: National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology
2.4 Benefit of Materials Management
Materials management to create a niche in many organizations, which have achieved a comprehensive materials management. These organizations often enjoy the following advantages:
The better accountability part of the material, as well as other departments and no one can blame others.
As materials management by a single authority, which can lead to better coordination, because it became the central point of any substance-related problems.
Materials management departments to ensure a better quality materials provide a request in a timely fashion department. This can lead to a better performance of the organization.
A materials management system is usually controlled through a system, therefore, can help decision-making related to the material in the organization.
An indirect use of materials management is the development of good quality material, ethical and moral standards in an organization.
Comment and evaluate the existing site layout relation to the positioning of the material on the construction site and identify possibles
Construction site materials should be placed according to the requirements of safe and civilized construction program to be trimmed and decorated. Temporary construction water, electricity, roads, completed construction requirements of the standard. For field use reasonable construction plane layout should be structured to minimize occupied by construction land, the layout is compact and reasonable, and at the same time do field capacity neat and clean, the roads are wider, in line with the requirements of fire safety and civilized construction. The construction process to avoid multiple trades in the same venue, the same area for construction and mutual restraint, mutual interference.
â-ª Keep work areas free from rubbish and obstructions
â-ª Maintain all floor surfaces safe, suitable and free from slip or trip hazards
â-ª Ensure floor openings covered or otherwise fenced off
â-ªMaterials are properly stacked and stored safely
Keep all passageways in good conditions
â-ª Unobstructed and clearly defined
â-ª Provide adequate lighting
â-ª Ensure clear sightline at breaks and corners
Stacking of all materials:
â-ª Ensure the proper heights and correct stacking
â-ª Allow sufficient space for moving stock
â-ª Store materials in racks/bins
â-ª Keep shelves free of rubbish
â-ª Keep floors around stacks and racks clear
â-ª Check drums and ensure pallets in good repair
â-ª Heavier items stored low and without danger of falling objects
â-ª Avoid sharp edges and provide safe means of accessing high shelves
Site manager may face the following problems:
Construction site temporary building (office) located in work area and near the waste materials faced with many unsafe factors and noise pollution.
The area of construction waste, stored waste can not be transported out of the site.such as all solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids,Scrap wood or chips, saw dust waste, and paper bags or cartons. If you accidentally cause a fire, then there will be heavy casualties.
Most construction workers are exposed to excessive construction noise. One can get
tinnitus, a ringing sound in the ears, or a temporary loss of hearing. Exposure to
longer period can cause tiredness and nervousness.
Concrete batching plant away from the material stores. It should be set in a near vertical transport machinery, as much as possible to reduce the concrete, mortar horizontal transport distance. Reduce transportation costs and save time.
Concrete store should choose the higher ground, drainage, close to the batching plant.
Inflammable and explosive materials shall not be mixed with other material.
Inflammable and explosive materials warehouse layout should comply with the fire and explosion safety distance requirements.
Proposed new site layout to improve the existing site layout
Double storey terrace
Concrete batching plant
Suggestion/recommendation that will give strong impact on the material management process in the future based on the case study
Provide guidance, interpretation and direction to Major Project's staff regarding the Major Projects Procurement material standards and procedures.
Assist in Procurement orientations and on-boarding of Major Projects staff.
Review and provide improvement recommendations for Project Procurement Strategies and Plans.
Lead the development, implementation and management of policies, procedures and templates supporting the continuous improvement of material management within Major Projects.
Collaborate with Business Unit Procurement, Project Controls, Accounting, Construction, Engineering and Project Execution personnel to accurately understand capabilities in terms of systems and processes.
Outline material management procedures through the development of process flow maps.
Prepare draft and final assessment reports of material management findings.
First, the general requirements
1. Stacking of construction material should be based on the amount of size, duration, supply and transportation determine dosage, use a long time, supply transportation is convenient, it should be phased in. approach to reduce the yard and warehouse space;
2. Construction site of a variety of tools, components, materials piling must be placed in accordance with the provisions of the position of the planar four Figure;
3. Position should select appropriate, easy to transport and handling, minimize secondary transportation;
4. Higher ground, solid, flat, backfill compaction in layers, have drainage measures to comply with the requirements of safety, fire;
5. Should be stacked according to the varieties, specifications, and set up the obvious signs to indicate the name, specification and origin;
6. Various material items must be stacked neatly.
Â Second, the main material semi stacked
1. Large tools, should one side alignment put;
2. Reinforced should be neatly stacked, square wooden paving should not be placed in a wet and exposed to rain shower;
3. Brick should be small code into the stack, are not allowed to ultra-high from trench not less than 0.5m, to prevent collapse;
4. The sand piled cube, stones should be different diameter sizes are stacked into a cube;
5. Various templates should be stacked neatly classified according to specifications, the ground should be flat solid, stack height generally should not be the ultra-high 1.6m; the large template stored specifically designed to save shelf should be placed two large template should be used for face-to-face storage when stored floor construction, shall meet the homeostatic angle and reliable anti-dumping measures;
6. Concrete component stacking space should be solid, smooth, specifications, models stacked skids position to be correct, to be up and down to align the the multilayer components of skids, the pile position are not allowed to ultra-high; the concrete blocking plate should be established insertion of frame interpolation put frame to be welded or lashing firmly to prevent collapse.
Construction site materials management is one of the important link. To strengthen the management of the site layout, according to the different construction stages, materials and supplies changes, design changes, and adjust the position of the stockyard site in a timely manner, and keep the roads open, reducing the second out of luck. Strict accordance with the arrangement of stacked material with a flat-screen piles into the line, always clean up debris and garbage, and maintain the site, roads, tools and containers clean. The construction site must be carried out by the allied materials on-site materials management, material must pass the examination certificates; member of the staff of the material running configuration to enable the production and management of working prevail.
Materials management for the enterprise has an extremely important significance.In a certain period of time, material resources and funds are always wired, good materials science management can promote cost reduction.Which time the minimum material consumption, to the maximum economic benefits.