In order to reduce the accident rate in construction industry, many government statutory bodies and local authorities play their role on enforce the legislation on the issue of safety and health in construction industry. But the result show that the accident rates in construction industry involve death and injury is still high. On the other word mean, the rate still in anxiety level. So research on safety issue in Malaysia construction need to be conduct to identify why the accident rates still in anxiety level.
To study on the safety measure in Malaysia Construction during period of construction be carry out.
To study on the safety management in construction.
To study hazard and risk in construction site.
To study the safety act, regulation and guideline in construction site.
Construction industry has been classified as a high risk industry due to there is a high risk of accident always happen during the activity is conduct. The reasons is safety and health issues is always been looking as a second factors compare to time, cost and quality that always be considered as the main factors in the construction industry. The other reason is that many employers just concentrate on maximizing the profit instead of established on prevention accident policy. Due to the actual cost cannot be estimate until the accident is happen, so the employer do not emphasize to this safety. Accident rate still consider is high in Malaysia construction industry based on the statistics of the accidents in the construction industry reported by the Social Security Organisation (SOCSO). This high rate of accident is give bad impression that the construction industry is the most critical industry and it need a huge and fast evolution from the current safety practices method in construction activity.
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In order to prevent or reduce the accident from happen, one must identify first on the causes of that accident is happen only can take the action to overcome it. Therefore, a few acts and regulations is introduce to control the accident matter and also as a guidance not only for the employer; it also for the contractors. The few acts is Occupational Safety and Health 1994 (OSHA) and Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA). These two acts are under the Ministry of Human Resource and is enforcing by the Department of Health and Safety Malaysia. This is few functions by the Department of Health and Safety Malaysia:
To help increase the awareness to workers, employers, contractors and the general public about the occupational safety and health.
To formulate and review on safety and health policy of occupational safety and health.
To carry out research at the workplace on issue related to occupational safety and health.
To ensure workers and visitors of their safety and health and also the welfare at construction workplace.
To become the secretary regarding occupational safety and health
(Department of Health and Safety Malaysia, 2009)
Basically the workers or visitors get injure is normally at construction workplace or construction site. So in order to make sure workers or visitors is safe, it is the employer's obligation to provide safe workplace. Provide safe workplace also help to reduce or prevent the accident from happen and resulting people get injured. Occupational safety and health also list that the employers responsible to provide a safe workplace under the section 15 General duties of employers and self-employed persons to their employees. Under the section 15, the employers and self-employed should:
It should be the responsibility of every employers and every self-employed person to ensure, the safety, health and welfare at workplace of all his employees so far as it is practicable.
(Department of Health and Safety Malaysia, 2009)
Can be defined as any resources such as documents, journals that available to be select in order to fulfil the objectives which contain data and evidence that written by other students in their previous research. The data from the literature reviews is known as the secondary data due to the data is obtained from other sources.
Documentary study (statistic)
The data is collect from the Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) in form of statistic about the accident happen. In the statistic also is also show that the construction industry is the most high risk compares to other industry.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Three construction sites is be identify to allow for conduct the case study about the accident happen to help complete this project. It is important to help construction site in effort to reduce or prevent the accident from happen in construction site. It also let people know whether that construction site is follow or comply to the guide that is be introduce by Occupational Safety and Health 1994 (OSHA) and Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA).
Organization of The Dissertation
Chapter 1 Introduction
In this chapter is introducing the background of the construction industry, and some of the objectives that need to be fulfilling in order to complete the project. Besides that, this chapter also mention on how the research method that be use to collect data or information and how to finish this project.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
In this chapter, it focuses on how to fulfil the objective that already mention inside the chapter1. To complete the objective, data is be collect true the articles, journals, books that related with the project topic.
Chapter 3 Methodology
In this chapter, is state the method on how to gather the data or information such as gets it from statistic which obtained from Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH).
Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Result
In this chapter, it focuses on the research methodology by analysis the data or information is collect inside the chapter 2.
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion
In this chapter, the overall of the project is been summarise.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Construction industry is the most risky and hazardous compare with other industry. Due to its risky and hazardous, construction is seeing as accident-prone industry. Therefore, accident will just happen from time to time during construction project. Accidents will just happen at construction site and at every where especially in high rise construction project. Reasons is time, cost and quality always become the main factors to be considered ahead of safety. A safety issue is always being considered as secondary in the construction. Many employers do not established comprehensive to the accident prevention policies but instead their more focus on maximizing the profit. They do not emphasize on safety because they cannot estimate the actual cost of an accident until it occurs. The statistics of accidents occurred in the construction industry indicate that the accident rate in Malaysian construction industry is still high and it give a picture that construction industry is one of the critical sectors that need a huge and fast overhaul from the current site safety practices. Once the construction accidents happen, it will produce many problems; such as workers become demotivation, delay of project activity, and also will affect the cost of the project, productivity and the construction industry reputation also been affected (Mohamed, 1999).
The first reason for this research is to understand appropriate management for safety improvements to minimize the accident rate in construction industry. Concerning the safety aspects within construction industry, it is apparent that the implementation of safety best practices is still far from good. An accident is an unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of events, which occurs through a combination of causes; it results in physical harm (injury or disease) to an individual, damage to property or environment, a loss or any combination of these effects. Thus, if no safety and health management for the project, that project may totally failure and the cost for that project will become over budget.
Second, this research is to discuss about the hazards that may occur on construction site. Accident don't just happen, they are caused. According to Ridley 99 per cent of the accident are caused by either unsafe acts or unsafe conditions or both (Ridley, 1986). Hazards will also much contributed to the accidents. Hazard should be properly understood by safety players as well as construction players and workers. Many people were not much pay attention on hazard at construction site. Again, the stigma of the people was thought that the construction industry cannot be run away from the three 3-D syndromes namely dirty, dangerous and difficult. This mindset should be turning over to more realistic and harmonisation in construction towards sustainable construction and make the construction is rather creating wealth.
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Lastly, this research is to discuss about the enforcement of Act and Regulation in Malaysian to the construction industry. There are few act and regulation related to this health and safety in Malaysia and this act and regulation are enforcing by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). Although, extensive efforts have been taken in order to reduce the accident rate by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), yet the statistic data shows it still not seen any improvement in the number of accident on construction activity. Mostly in Malaysia, the construction industry is just follow the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994 and Factories and Machinery Act (FMA 1967).
2.2 Construction safety management
Construction industry is the most risky and it contribute high accident rate that had cause fatality. Therefore, it very important for the industry to follow / apply safety and health management to reduce the accident rate issue. Accidents can be happen at any time, at anywhere, on any construction activity to any people in the construction site or else to outside people. Safety management involving few functions that include of planning, identifying the problem areas, coordinating, controlling and directing the safety activities on workplace, all aimed at the prevention of accidents (figure 1).
Figure 1: Safety organization and management must cover all aspects of the employer's or the contractor's operations
According to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson a successful health and safety management system consist of the following element which is policy, organisation, planning, measurement, and auditing and reviewing. According to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson (2009), they were mentioned that how to ensure the safety and health management become successful. "... successful health and safety management systems require the following components:
The organisation of all employees for management of safety and health
The establishment of a clear policy for safety and health
The safety and health performance be measure
The planning for safety and health by setting objectives and targets, identifying hazards, assessing risk and establishing standards against which the organisation can measure performance
The auditing and reviewing of safety performance and practice, in order to inform improvement." (Howarth and Watson, 2009)
According to Tey (1999), among the importance of safety is to minimise the probability of accident and disease from happen to the workers. Thus, the workers can perform their works more conductively and be able to complete the project as scheduled. It is also to ensure the progress of work is flow smoothly on site. If any accidents happen on site, thus the work progress will be stop temporary due to make way for the investigation to be carried out by the responsible authorities to find out the accident reason. Consequently this will affected the completion of the whole project progress.
In order to prevent accident happened, they must identify the causes of accident first then only solve that problem. There is a many of causes that will contribute accident to happen within construction industry. For example, struck by objects, fallings from height, electrical hazard and death cause by plant is the most accidents happen in the construction industry (MOM, 2009; US Bureau of Labour, 2009a). Also, various reviews of safety management in construction industry have revealed that insufficient safety measures and poor safety awareness is the major reasons for the high incidence of occupational accidents in this industry (Sawacha et al., 1999; Tam et al., 2004; Angela and Ines, 2005; Aksorn and Hadikusumo, 2008).
2.2.1 Health and Safety Policy
Safety and Health Rules, Regulations, Policies According to CSAO (1993), a health and safety policy is a written statement of principles and goals embodying the company's commitment to workplace health and safety (CSAO, 1993). It demonstrates top management's commitment to ensure safe working methods and environment at the construction sites. Provide a safe workplace become a responsibility of the employer. In Malaysia, a legal requirement is set by Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and other government agencies to ensure the safety and health of all workers at the workplace. On the construction, there is different level of people work there; various type of activities to carry out and different types of plant and machineries to be operate. Therefore, health and safety policy is very important for the projects. Health and safety policy can be the guidance or manual of the construction site to make sure the people, activities and plant follow on construction site during the period of construction.
According to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson (2009), they stated that there is nine (9) commitments that should be archive while carry out the health and safety policy statement by organisation. The nine (9) commitments of the organisation are:
Recognise that health and safety is an integral part of business performance
Achieve high level of health and safety performance, with a minimum standard being legal compliance and cost-effective health and safety performance improvement
Provide adequate and appropriate resources to implement the policy
Set and publish health and safety objective, even if only by internal notification
Place the management of health and safety as a prime responsibility of line management, from the most senior executive to first line supervisory level
Ensure that the policy statement is understood, implemented and maintained at all level in the organisation
Ensure employee involvement and consultation to gain commitment to the policy and its implementation
Periodically review the policy, the management system and audit of compliance to policy
Ensure that employees of all level receive a proper training and is competent to carry out their duties and responsibilities
(Howarth and Watson, Construction Safety Management, 2009)
2.2.2 Planning and Implementation
Planning, to identify the possible hazards and risks to all workers and other people that also may be affect by the construction activity, setting out the standards performance as a target should be achieve by management and ensure all documentation is perform follow the standards (Holt, 2001).
Based on Tim Howarth and Paul Watson (2009), they mentioned that few important elements for planning and control the health and safety at construction site. They have summaries the important key elements for the construction site planning and control item of safety as following:
The organisation's health and safety manual
The 'pre-construction information' provided by the client and designer
The project health and safety plan
Communication of health and safety information and guidance to site personnel
Sub-contractor co-ordination, communication and co-operation, and competency management
(Howarth and Watson, Construction Safety Management, 2009)
2.3 Hazards and Risks
According to OHSAS 18001, hazard can be defined as "anything that could cause harm to people and damage to property, the environment and the combination of these". Source or situation with potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to workplace environment or combination of these. According to OHSAS 18001, risk can be defined as "the chance, greater or small that someone will be harm by hazard". Combination of the likelihood and consequence of a hazardous event occurring.
According to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson (2009), they mentioned that a hazard is the things that presented harm. In addition, by referring to Frederick Gould and Nancy Joyce (2009), they stated that a hazard is something presented can cause of injuries. Besides that, according to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson (2009), they mentioned that risk is the chance or likelihood that somebody will harm or injury by hazard.
Commonly, a hazard is a specific situation connected with a production process or a work process and is characterised by such a configuration or state of factors of this process, which may result in an accident at work or an occupational disease (Carter and Smith 2006; HoÅ‚a 2008).
In the simplest cases hazards can be identified by observation, comparing the circumstances with the relevant information. A combination of the following methods may be the most effective way to identify hazards. Methods of identifying workplace hazard are including:
Previewing legislation and supporting codes of practice and guidance
NIOSH/ DOSH published information
Reviewing relevant Malaysian and international standards
Reviewing industry or trade association guidance
Reviewing other published information
Hazard checklist be developed
Conduct walk-through surveys (audits) and inspections
Reviewing information from designers or manufacturers
Assessing the adequacy of training or knowledge required to work safely
Analysing unsafe incident, accident and injury data
Analysing work processes
Job safety analysis
Consulting with employees
Seeking advice from specialists
Materials safety been testing and produce the product labels
2.3.1 Hazard cause by Materials
According (Howarth and Watson, 2009), accident may be occur by the materials when construction activity is carry out on site such as materials deliver or remove from the site. There is some potentials hazard cause by the materials on the construction site:
Use of hazardous materials
Storage of hazardous materials
Handling of materials
Removal of existing materials
Dust from materials
Spillages of materials
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) which is incorporated into the Occupational Safety and Health Act and serve as a comprehensive and legislated programme that ensures workers to understand about the hazardous materials around workplaces. Moreover, according to the WHMIS system groups the hazard material into six categories based on the material type and hazard which is shown in Table 2.2. Each category has its own hazard symbol and it is important that the worker be able to recognize those symbols (WHMIS, 2011).
Table 2.2: The Six Classes of Hazardous Materials and Symbols
ï‚§ A compressed gas is a material which at normal temperature and pressure, packaged under pressure in a cylinder or other container.
ï‚§ The hazard from these materials is generally arises from their chemical nature and sudden loss of integrity of the container.
ï‚§ A compressed gas cylinder is usually quite heavy and when ruptured can become a projectile with the potential to cause significant damage.
ï‚§ For example: Acetylene and oxygen
Flammable and Combustible Materials
ï‚§ Classifying material that will ignite and continue to burn in air if exposed to a source of ignition.
ï‚§ This class classified as a flammable gases, flammable aerosols, combustible liquids and flammable solids. Many laboratory solvents and cleaning materials used on this class.
ï‚§ For example: Methane, acetone, aniline, and lithium hydride.
ï‚§ An oxidizing material may or may not burn itself, but will release oxygen or another oxidizing substance, and thereby causes or contributes to the combustion of another material.
ï‚§ This type of substance gives of a large amount of heat when in contact with other substances. Also, able to support a fire and considered high reactive of these chemicals.
ï‚§ For example: Ozone, chlorine, and nitrogen dioxide.
Poisonous and Infectious Material
These symbols represent the class of materials that pose the greatest potential hazard to our life and health.
Division 1: Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects
ï‚§ These materials can severely damage our health in a single overexposure. Fortunately, few of our work areas contain this type of material.
ï‚§ For examples: Cyanide compounds, styrene are very toxic substances.
Division 2: Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects
ï‚§ This unique symbol identifies material that poses a threat to our health through long term exposure. Further, this material may be a suspected carcinogen or have other health damaging properties.
ï‚§ Our labs, work areas and shops contain materials marked with symbol.
ï‚§ For examples: Asbestos cause cancer, ammonia is an irritant.
Division 3: Bio hazardous Infectious Material
ï‚§ This classification includes any organisms and the toxins produced by these organisms that have been shown to cause disease or are believed to cause disease in either humans or animals.
ï‚§ For example: a blood sample containing the Hepatitis B virus is a bio hazardous infectious material. It may cause hepatitis in persons exposed to it.
ï‚§ Corrosive materials can attack (corrode) metals or cause permanent damage to human tissues such as the skin and eyes on contact.
ï‚§ Burning, scarring, and blindness may result from skin or eye contact.
ï‚§ Corrosive materials may also cause metal containers or structural materials to become weak and eventually to leak or collapse.
ï‚§ For example: Ammonia, fluorine, and hydrochloric acid.
Dangerously Reactive Material
ï‚§ This symbol identifies dangerously reactive materials. These materials may react violently under certain conditions of shock or an increase in pressure or temperature or react violently with water.
ï‚§ They may also react vigorously with water to release a toxic gas.
ï‚§ For example: Ozone, hydrazine, and benzoyl peroxide.
(Sources: WHMIS, 2011)
2.3.2 Hazard cause by Movements Plant and Machinery
Most of the hazards in construction is more or less has related with movements plant and machinery, it is identified to be more significant at site involve in infrastructure works and industry building. In construction site, there is a lot type of plant and machinery be used during conduct the construction activities. The number of plant and machinery using in site is depending on how big the scale of that project. Therefore, the management team also need to consider of movement plant and machinery as one of the potential hazards while planning the safety and health.
According to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson (2009), there is some potentials hazard cause by the movement plant and machinery on the construction site:
Lack maintenance for plant and machinery
No proper separation for plant and machinery and pedestrian route on site
Failure to secure materials during hauling / lifting
Operating plant and machinery without authority
Operating plant and machinery by non-qualify person
Mechanical failure of plant and machinery
Lack of warning system
Lack of signboard / signage
Plant and machinery reversing, provide adequate stop blocks
2.4 Construction Acts and Regulation in Malaysia
Under the department of Ministry of Human Resources, there still has another department known as Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). Normally, there is still has two Acts that need to be implement to the construction industry which is Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) and the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA). This Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 are under Law of Malaysia Act 514 and Factories and Machinery Act 1967 is under Law of Malaysia Act 139.
2.4.1 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994
Generally, OSHA 1994 policy is to provide a safe and healthy work environment for all its employees and protect others who may be affected by its activities. The management and staff will work together to achieve the aims and objectives of this policy through discussion / negotiation (conference) and cooperation. Specifically, the department policy comprises the following objectives:
To prepare a safe and healthy workplace;
To secure the safety and health of persons at work;
To protect persons at workplace other than employees
To ensure that all staff is provided with the relevant information, training and supervision regarding the methods to carry out their duties in a safe manner and without causing any risk to health;
To investigate all accidents, diseases, poisonous and/or dangerous occurrences, and to have action to ensure that these occurrences will not be repeated;
To comply with all requirements of legislations related to safety and health as stated in the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, as well as regulations and codes of practice which have been approved;
To provide basic welfare facilities to all workers; and
To revise and improve on this policy whenever necessary.
The formation of OSHA came was upon three principles. The first is the need for employers to develop a good management system that starts with a safety and healthÂ policy. Secondly, employers, employees and theÂ authorities must negotiate to settle issues and problems relating to occupational safety and health at the workplace. The first principle is self-regulation. To handle issues relating toÂ occupational safety and health, employers must develop a good and orderly management system. Starting with formation of a safety and health policy and consequently employers have to make the proper arrangements to be carried out. The third and last principle is co-operation, where the success of the occupational safety and health programs will succeed with the co-operation between employers and employees. With the resulting co-operation, there willÂ be an increase of quality of occupational safety and health at the workplace (Laws ofÂ Malaysia 2000).
The department is without any doubt certain that safety and health must be an integral part of our daily activities, and that the proper practice of safe and healthy working procedures would be the main factor in achieving the success of our mission.
Basically, the Act assembles by fifteen parts and consists of 67 sections.
PART I PRELIMINARY
PART II APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS
PART III NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
PART IV GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS AND SELF-EMPLOYED PERSONS
PART V GENERAL DUTIES OF DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS
PART VI GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES
PART VII SAFETY AND HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS
PART VIII NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS, DANGEROUS OCCURRENCE, OCCUPATIONAL POISONING AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES, AND INQUIRY
PART IX PROHIBITION AGAINST USE OF PLANT OR SUBSTANCE
PART X INDUSTRY CODES OF PRACTICE
PART XI ENFORCEMENT AND INVESTIGATION
PART XII LIABILITY FOR OFFENCES
PART XIII APPEALS
PART XIV REGULATIONS
PART XV MISCELLANEOUS
2.4.2 Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA 1967)
Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA 1967) is "to control the matters that related to the safety, health and welfare of the workers, the registration and conduct inspection to the plant and machinery and for any matters connected therewith" (Law of Malaysia, 2005). Under this Act, it consists of 6 Part and subdivides to 59 sections:
PART I PRELIMINARY
PART II SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE
PART III PERSON IN CHARGE AND CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY
PART IV NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENT, DANGEROUS OCCURENCE AND DANGEROUS DISEASES
PART V NOTICE OF OCCUPATIONAL OF FACTORY, AND REGISTRATION AND USE OF MACHINERY
PART VI GENERAL