The Nyasa Community Water Project Proposal Construction Essay
World Vision Tanzania plans to implement Water Project in Wela, Miguwa and Mbogwe wards in Nyasa Division, Nzega District, Tabora Region in Tanzania.
The proposed five year project is expected to impact lives of more than 30884 people living in twelve Villages of Miguwa, Mbogwe, and Wela wards, 32% are women and 42% are children.
The project aims at increasing the supply of water for domestic use through the construction of fifty-three wells (shallow wells and tube wells). At the completion of the project the water supply will meet 60% of the domestic demand from the current percentage that is less than 30% of the demand. The project is expected to contribute to the decrease in diseases associated to water shortage such as scabies, diarrhea and typhoid. The community will form water user groups at each well that will be responsible for implementation, management and maintenances of the wells.
World Vision shall take the advisory and facilitation role to the community, government and other actors. It has the capacity and ability of rendering the above roles. It has been in the area for more than three years now. World Vision Tanzania will use the existing personnel in the ADP plus only one staff who will be the facilitator for this project.
The project lifetime budget is estimated to be US$ 310500 implemented in five years. Community contribution is estimated at 31 %( US$14500); in terms of cash labour and material. Therefore the total project cost will be $ 325000
2.0 PROJECT SCOPE AND COVERAGE
The proposed project is located in Nyasa ADP and it will cover 8 villages of ,Malilita, Mwasambo, Mwanzoli, Idudumo, Iduguta, Mbogwe and Nhobora in Nyasa division ,Nzega District, Tabora region . It lies between longitude 32" 22" E -33" 41" E and latitude 3" 23" S - 3" 42"S.The project will be implemented within the existing Nyasa ADP and it will benefit twelve villages with a population of 23,884 people, who are living in 4241 households. 46% of the population is males while 51% are female. Children constitute 41.6% of total population. Under five constitute 14.3% and under one accounts for 4% of the total population this is according to 2002 National census.
Climatic features: Attitudes 1000 - 1400 above seas level. In low land the soils are typical deep, fine to medium textured, yellowish to grayish brown or dark gray .In the hills area the soils are stony, rocky and gravely with pocket of very shallow, excessively drained and very gravelly loams.
In Tanzania only 42% of the population has access to clean water. The situation is even worse in the rural areas Nyasa community area included. The water sources available in the area are less than 30% of the need and the quality is not guaranteed. In the dry season the situation is extremely worse.
At Regional and District level water situation is almost the same. There has been persistent drought and unreliable rainfall, which lead to water scarcity in the Region as well as in the Program area. Water sources, which include ponds, Chaco dams, and temporary rivers/springs in most cases, are drying during the dry season. The ADP area to date is having only one protected and functional shallow well which is located in Miguwa Village. There are others unprotected and seasonal wells scattered in different villages. Pond is one of the main sources of water, which is used intensively with human and animals for drinking water as well as for other domestic purpose. Nyasa ADP area is having 116 ponds situated in different parts of the area.
Water scarcity has led to vegetation depletion in the project area. Crop production keeps on declining and livestock become affected. Water related diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, skin diseases and conductivities are at the increase. Little efforts and inputs have gone in to avail safe clean water through constructed protected shallow wells/tube wells, which has led to prevalence of water borne disease.
3.0 ORGANIZATION INVOLVEMENT AND EXPERIENCE
World Vision Tanzania has been carrying water projects in different parts of the country for a considerable numbers of years; projects likes Bukombe Water in Ushirombo District Shinyanga Region, SHAWASA in Arusha region and many others.
The sustainability elements in all of these projects has been clearly observed, water user groups having significant money in their bank accounts for the maintenances and repairs of the pumps, having two or more pump attendants with some technical skills for maintenance of their pumps, these are common features in those projects.
World Vision Tanzania has been operational in Nzega District since 1996 through Nzega Community Development Project, by the year 2000/2001 Nyasa ADP came into operational. Through all that time WVT has managed to establish a strong relationship with the community, community leaders, government and other NGOs.
World Vision supports have made a greater impact to the lives of the Nzega people, Wela, Mbogwe and Miguwa wards included.
4.0 PROJECT RATIONALES AND JUSTIFICATION
Despite considerable efforts made during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade of the 1980's, the rate of improved access to safe water supply and sanitation facilities is still very low. Tanzania population is estimated to be over 34 million people, 80% of the population lives in villages and only 50% of the population lives in villages have access to clean and safe water. 30% of the existing water supply in the country is not functioning.
Water situation in Nzega District is also not promising. No any permanent river passing through in the district, only 33% of the people in the district are accessing clean water (Nzega District land use framework plan, Feb 1999). The government in the past years has been trying to dig big water ponds to harvest rains water but if the rain didn't rain properly in the said year the challenge is still there. There is a goldmine that has supported a pipeline scheme in Nzega town taping water from those ponds; this is very expensive scheme because of the water treatment. It is only in Mwakalundi Division where World Vision through Nzega Community Development Project addressed the water issue very significantly.
99% of the water sources within Nyasa ADP are unprotected ponds, spring and hand dug wells these are seasonal and drying up as from the month of July to October. They are far located such that walking distance from home stead to water sources is 4-8 km during dry season and 2-3 km in rain season (Nyasa ADP Baseline survey Report 2001), this is mainly affecting women and girl child since they are the one who are fetching the water in the family; sometimes fore gore even a meal to make sure they bring water home. There is no single operating piped water supply system while there is only one protected shallow well functioning in the whole of the ADP area. The concentration of animal excretes at water point is common.
We expect that the project will increase accessibility of water for domestic use, which in turn will reduce walking distance for water fetching that meant more time for other developmental activities.
Most of the people carry no water treatment. Poor hygiene and lack of potable water have accelerated diarrhea-associated diseases that stand the second in the list of top ten killer diseases in the area. The project is anticipated to help increase cleanliness of people due to water availability and decrease of the diseases associated to water shortage e.g. Scabies. The ADP has been in the area for consecutive three years now but it has been hard to address the water sector seriously due to its magnitude; also the ADP fund for the first three years was small and was meant for sensitization of the community even though water sector ranked to be the first felt need by the community during the baseline survey.
3.2 POLICIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY
World Vision Tanzania is a community-based organization whose mission is to work with the poor and marginalized in order to attain transformational and sustainable development. As an advocacy and child focused organization WVT seeks to provide clean and safe water to the community within a walking distance of 400 metres and reduce water-borne diseases through digging wells, drilling boreholes, rehabilitation of dams, laying water pipes, rain water harvesting and even conserving the existing sources.. The construction of 50 shallow wells and drilling of 3 boreholes planned by this project is expected to relieve especially women of walking long distances for search of water and lead to improved school attendance of girl children.
Not only that but also, the project aims for agricultural activities and irrigation purposes hence increases the economic growth of the country. The above idea is linked with the Dimensions of Rural Development Strategy which describes the realization of rural development in the context of the country's development vision largely depends on the pace of growth in the agricultural sector, the adoption of a positive
mindset by the rural society, and a re-focusing of the institutional framework on the rural areas. In this context, attention should be towards attaining the following:
High Quality Livelihood
For rural dwellers, high quality livelihood will mean having access to affordable basic needs.
This includes having access to sufficient and adequate food, preventive and curative health care; shelter and clothing; education and training; and safe water. They also need access to irrigation, energy, information, transportation and communication.
An Enabling and Peoples Empowering Environment
Any initiative towards realizing human development and reducing poverty in a more consistent and sustainable manner should involve the people concerned. This implies that the stakeholders: communities; individuals; households; firms; organization and associations, are best positioned to know their social, political and economic problems and needs, as well as their environmental, cultural and spiritual aspirations. The Rural Development Strategy provides an enabling environment and effective institutional framework that puts people at the center of their development. People should be empowered to guide the development process and influence it towards the direction and speed they perceive it to be in tandem with their future development aspirations.
Self-Reliance and Self-Sustainance
The role of community and individual initiatives is of vital importance and is given due recognition in the strategy. This goes beyond providing and supporting enabling and facilitating institutional structures and processes necessary to facilitate implementation.
3.3 PROJECT APPROACH
To improve the quality of life in Nyasa community.
To contribute towards increased accessibility of safe and adequate water supply in Nyasa community.
To have water for irrigation system to sustain Agricultural activities.
To reduce time consuming and long distance of fetching water.
To have water for livestock keeping activities
- Percentage of people accessing clean and safe water from the new established water
-Number of people having water for irrigation and livestock keeping activities.
Out put 1
Conducting hydro geological survey
Number of shallow well and deep well sites located/identified.
Shallow wells and deep wells constructed
Number of shallow & deep wells constructed.
Number of shallow & deep wells with suitable water for human consumption.
Established and trained water committees/ Water user group
Number of water committees/Water User Groups established and trained.
3.3.3 Main activities
Conduct sensitization meeting to set water goals
Form/Train water user group on water sanitation.
Conduct hydro geological surveys to locate potential sites.
Support the Construction of the wells.
Facilitate training of technical staffs on pump mechanics, well repair and maintenance
Salary to Project facilitator.
3.4 APPRAISAL ISSUES
As far as the concept of project appraisal is concerned is the process of analyzing the technical feasibility and economic viability of a project proposal with a view to their costs. Also there are different types of the project appraisal these are social, technical, institutional, environmental, and economic. This project deals with social, economic and financial, and environmental appraisal.
3.4.1 Social appraisal
Through the project that will be implemented at Nyasa community. The community will benefit from the services as per clean and safe water policies in Tanzania. Also, the project will provide service to about 30884 people. The project aims to supply clean and safe water to the community in order to reduce lack of sufficient water, eruption of diseases caused by unsafe water currently used.
3.4.2 Economic and financial appraisal
The community suffers from water and spends a lot of time by fetching water far from their residence instead of working and earning income. When this project will be implemented many of the people will attend their works throughout the day as a result they increase their income and those business men will pay tax to the government. Moreover, they will use the water for irrigation system and hence increase the agricultural production that will make the community to engage in business and increase their financial status as family as well as nation income.
3.4.3 Environmental appraisal
There will be some effects on environment if the implementation of the project will be considering the policy for agriculture and livestock because we expect that after implementation of the project people will engage themselves in Agricultural activities as well as livestock keeping that will probably affect the environment. The environment will be improved with improved water supplies. Around each site the trees will be planted for both reduction of degree of evaporation and protection of environment. So the project is not expected to have any negative effect to the environment.
3.5 Project Stakeholders and their roles and responsibilities
Are the one who make decisions during the initiation, planning and execution stages of the project.
In the context of this project the project stake holders are;
Provides agreement for funding the project and executive interventions to overcome organizational barrier.
Responsible for ensuring that the project is delivered on time, on scope and on budget.
Responsible for using the clean and safe water for domestic purposes as well as agricultural activities and also the community will contribute on the maintenance of shallow wells.
Coordinates the organization's project resource, high level reporting, project management coaching and facilitation services.
3.6 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The project is intended to benefit the community and will focus on the overall objective of making sure water supply is sustained even after exit of World Vision. Mobilizing and sensitizing the community to form water user groups who will be responsible for the day-to-day management of the project will achieve this objective. Women will be highly encouraged to participate in the project planning, implementation and management. The shallow wells will be located in the sites, which will be shown by the water survey team.
We expect that at least each between two Sub villages will have one shallow well. The communities will form water user group at each shallow wells site.
The water user group will include both women and men. The WUG-will be responsible for the implementation of the project plus the on going management and maintenance of the wells. To this end a water user fee has been agreed to for the on going maintenance since the region is extremely poor the user fee will not be high. The Village Health Workers will be trained in operation and maintenance of the pump and water hygiene.
3.7 GENDER ANALYSIS.
Successful water project has special significance for women. The women and children will benefit more directly as some of the women and children currently have to walk to about 10 km for fetching a maximum of 20 liters bucket of water each. With the reduction of walking distance the workload will also be reduced.
The women group will be encouraged to establish vegetable gardening around the wells. Vegetable production and the proper usage of the same will improve nutritional health of women and children and will increase current investment in education and economic interpose. The water user group to be established will have at least 50% women among their members. This will increase their participation in decision making in the matters relating to water issues.
3.8 PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS
The project team will be adhered committed to the project work.
The upper management and stakeholder support and commit to the project efforts.
The project will be delivered according to the project plan.
The project plan will be utilized effectively.
5.0 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
4.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Following the intensive dialogue with the community, the ADP committee will be responsible to over see the project implementation under the facilitation of the ADP coordinator. The WUG to be established in each of the construction sites will be responsible for the day-to-day activities. However, the Zonal manager will be the over all in charge of the project that will ensure that financial contracts, agreements and payments are done properly. At National level the project will receive a similar facilitation like WVT project programs.
WV Australia as project contractor to the Australian Government will provide project management support to WVT and will be responsible for the following; reviewing quarterly reports and financial acquittals, where possible perform monitoring visits to the project for sharing of various issues regarding project improvement and participation in project evaluation.
4.2 PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Monitoring activities will be continuous concurrent and integral featuring in all project components. Monitoring and Evaluation will be done in a participatory way. Monitoring indicators provided in the log frame used for the purpose and they can be reviewed, as it may be necessary.
As part of monitoring the project will prepare monthly, quarterly and annual progress reports both narrative and financial. However, the frequency of reporting to the donor will depend on the requirements. WVT auditors will audit the project annual. The donor can conduct independent audit, as it may deem necessary upon consultation with the WVT National Directors.
6.0 RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT
Purpose: To identify Risk, analyse the effect of uncertainties and plan for control.
5.1 Risk Identification: During this process the sources of risk, potential risk events, and symptoms of risk are identified.
Risk is uncertain event which should it occur, it will have an effect on the project meeting it objectives. In this project, risk is identified by undertaking initial risk assessment as part of starting up the project by having the following questions;
What could possibly happen to affect the project?
What is the likelihood of this happening?
Therefore the project manager has to get the team together to review the sources of risk for the project and brainstorm the specific risks.
5.2 Risk identification techniques
The project will use the following techniques in identifying risks
Checklist project managers must find ways to identify project risks rapidly so that project schedules become increasingly shorter.
Helps the project team members to have a great understanding on the causes and effects of risks.
This is done by interviews with various stakeholders may help identify risk not identified during normal planning activities.
The risk trigger is the event that would need to happen in order for the potential outcome to occur. Risk triggers are usually expressed with some sort of dependency, or qualifier. For example, a risk trigger might be that a resource on the project leaves. This might easily be accounted for by utilizing other resources. But if a resource with key skills or knowledge leaves, then the project may be significantly impacted. This approach is suggested in order to clarify the thought process of identifying risks. When the risk trigger occurs, the risk is no longer a risk, but has materialized into a problem/issue that needs resolution.
5.3 Risk analysis
In this project risk will be analyzed by defining and analyzing the threat to individuals, businesses and government agencies posed by potential natural and human-caused adverse events. A risk analysis report can be either quantitative or qualitative.
In quantitative risk analysis an attempt is made to numerically determine the probabilities of various adverse events and the likely extent of the losses if a particular event takes place.
Qualitative risk analysis which is used more often, does not involve numerical probabilities or predictions of loss. Instead, the qualitative method involves defining the various threats, determining the extent of vulnerabilities and devising countermeasures should an attack occur. Risk need to be quantified in two dimensions. The impact of the risk needs to be assessed. The probability of the risk occurring needs to be assessed. For simplicity, rate each on a 1 to 4 scale. The larger the number, the larger the impact or probability. By using a matrix, a priority can be established.
According to Juden, S (2010) below is the diagram that shows the risk probability/impact chart
The corners of the chart have these characteristics:
Low impact/Low probability - Risks in the bottom left corner are low level, and you can often ignore them.
Low impact/High probability - Risks in the top left corner are of moderate importance - if these things happen, you can cope with them and move on. However, you should try to reduce the likelihood that they'll occur.
High impact/Low probability - Risks in the bottom right corner are of high importance if they do occur, but they're very unlikely to happen. For these, however, you should do what you can to reduce the impact they'll have if they do occur, and you should have contingency plans in place just in case they do.
High impact/High probability - Risks towards the top right corner are of critical importance. These are your top priorities, and are risks that you must pay close attention to.
5.4 Risk documentation and reporting
Risk status: Project enables you to adjust the status of a risk. The risk status shows what has happened to a risk. This could be due to the tasks of the project team, but also changes in the risk conditions. Monitoring the status of risks helps you to assess what you should do with regard to individual risk and the project.
This document is a means of recording the identified risks, their severity, and the actions steps to be taken. The risk logic can be a simple document, spreadsheet, or a database system. The most effective format for this document is a table, because it will allow a great deal of information to be conveyed in a few pages. If the information is presented in a paragraph form, you run the risk of people not reading it, although all of the relevant information is there.
5.5 Risk assumptions and control measures
Lack of enough skilled and self committed people to participate in the project this may result the project not to be completed on time..
Delay of fund from donors may result on the project not to be accomplished at the specified time. There are four stages of risk management plan
Risk monitoring and control
Objective in project
The project team has to identify and name the risks that are found in the project.
The project manager needs to understand the probability/impact of the risk occurring that needs to be assessed.
The actions should include what needs to be done, who is doing it, and when it should be completed
It is best to hold regular risk reviews to identify actions outstanding, risk probability and impact, remove risks that have passed, and identify new risks.
5.6 Conclusion of risk analysis and management
As far as the risk management and analysis is concerned, The project manager have to ensure that there is a proper risk management plan for a project so as to meet its expected objectives and goals because without a plan, the success of the project, and reputation as a Project Manager, are on the line and following the above steps there will be increase in chances of project success success.
EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT
7.0 PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY
The project focus on cost sharing, skills, training capacity building and participatory management will ensure its sustainability. Both District and Regional Government are supportive to this proposal. The project will link in the district budget planning whereby government contributions for project support will be identified and incorporated into the District budget and annual plan. A technician from District council water department will be a focal personal in carrying out of this project from its inception to the end to ensure that after the phase out of the project the sustainability of a project is clear.
1.0 PROJECT BUDGET
THE CURRENCY IS IN USD
Amount is in USD
Distribution in each year
procurement officers salary
Salary project facilitator
hydro geological survey
support the construction
cost for shallow well
sand I trip
cost for tube wells
purchasing a pump
Total construction cost
Total Overall cost
Hydrological surveys to locate potential sites.
Constructions of shallow wells/tube wells
Training WUGs on water sanitation and hygiene
Conduct community sensitization on resources
Train pump attendants on minor repair/maintenance
1.2 PROJECT LOGICAL FRAMEWORK
To contribute towards improved life standard of the community
Incidence of (cholera, diarrhea, typhoid) water borne diseases decreased
Project records, Dispensary records
CO, Project Coordinator, Facilitator
Safe and adequate water accessed by the community
% of household within 400m from water source
Project Coordinator, facilitator
Improved water source
Number of deep/tube wells constructed
Number of shallow well constructed
District Water Engineer, PC, Facilitator
Facilitate hydro geological surveys to locate potential site
1.2Facilitate the construction of shallow wells/ tube wells
Number of surveys Conducted
Number of identified potential sites
Number of shallow well, tube wells constructed
Project coordinator, project facilitator
Community knowledge/ skills on water sources mgt enhanced
Number of water user group formed and trained
Number of water committees trained
Number of pump attendants trained
Number of village with water fund accounts
DWE/ Community reports
2.1 Train WUGs on water and sanitation and hygiene
2.2 Train pump attendants on minor repair/ maintenance of hand pumps
2.3 Conduct community sensitization on resources mobilization
Number of training session
Number of pump attendants trained.
# and type of resource contributed by community
1.3 PROJECTED CASH FLOW
Project accountant salary
Procurement officers salary
Salary project facilitator
hydro geological survey
Cost for shallow well
Sand I trip
Cost for tube wells
Purchasing a pump
Total cash out
1.4 ORGANIZATION CHART/STRUCTURE
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