In this chapter, data collection will be carrying out to meet its aim and objectives. Data collection is a way to describe a process of preparing and collection data. Furthermore data collection can defined as an important aspect of any type of research study. Any inaccurate data collection may lead to invalid result and affect result of study. In other word, this chapter will review method applies in data collection that determine the level of knowledge of the all site workers awareness to hazardous work and safety and health training. A research study can gain information with two sources which are primary sources and secondary sources. The information that obtains by internet, book, journals and magazines are secondary sources. However interview and questionnaire are classify as primary sources which these two method can obtains information and get a real picture of the study.
There are three methods can be carried out to collect data. These three methods can define as case study, interview and questionnaire. In this chapter, researcher decides to use interview to collect data. To make the research more clearly and fully interpreted for achieving three objectives. Researcher will discuss rationale of the research interview and revise the statement of the research aim. In this chapter, researcher will be explaining the way of conducting the interview questionnaire. However, rationale of the questionnaire design will be included in this research which to enable interviewees understand the questions that stated in questionnaire. Last parts of this chapter will be determining the method of analysis that selected to evaluate and analysis the data.
3.1 Data Collection Technique
After review to method of data collection, the method to be use in collecting data is qualitative data collection method. The reason of select qualitative data collection method; it is because qualitative data collection method is more suitable in this research study.
Interview can defined as a conversation between two or more people, purpose of interviewer questioning is to obtain information from the interviewee. Beside that, interview can be flexible or inflexible which it is depending on the freedom of formulate the questions and issue being investigated. According to Dr S. G. Naoum, the interview can be classified in two forms which are structure interview and unstructured interview as Fig 3.1
Flexible interview structure
Flexible interview contents
Flexibility in interview questions
Rigid interview structure
Rigid interview contents
Rigidity in interview questions and their wording
Fig 3.2 Types of interview
3.2.1 Advantages of Interview
Interview is more applicable and useful for a complex situations compare to the other method. If interviewee encountered difficulty in answering questions or unable to understand the questions, the interviewer can direct clarify doubt to interviewee and ensure the interviewee is properly understood. In this case interview can obtain a higher understanding. Furthermore, interview will help in collecting depth data and information. The researcher can gain more detailed and accurate data through probe deep in interview situation. Face to face interview can produce a higher response rate which interviewee provides the answer through communication as interviewee may not require reading and writing the answer. Beside that, interviewing has a wider application, especially suitable for those who are week and lacks reading skills.
3.2.2Disadvantages of Interview
Interview is more time-consuming and expensive compare to other method of research. Interview will spend a lot of time and may not be cost efficient if particular of research have number of tasks to study. On the other hand, the quality of data is depending on the ability of the interviewer. Quality of data collected might affected by experience and skill of communication of the interviewer. Interviewee may provide inaccurate information if interviewer being faulty in ambiguous questions to interviewee. Furthermore the other disadvantage is interviewer bias in leading. Leading is the way that interviewer guide the interviewee in answering the questions. Verbally may affect the leading by the actual word used, other than that non-verbally which is body language might effected the leading during the interview. Any faulty of leading will cause inaccurate data collected. In additional, quality of interaction might affect the quality of data collected. The interaction between interviewer and interviewee might vary from different interview, in the result the quality of data collected may dramatically lower and lack of credibility.
3.3 Statement of Research Aim
In this research will carried out based on one aim and three objectives. To make the research more credibility, one aim and three objectives will apply in design of the interview and conduct the questionnaire. The aim of this study is to determine roles of safety officer to implement safety training programs, in order to create a safe workplace. In achieving this aim, there objectives stated as following:
To highlight the hazard and accidents that most commonly found at construction sites,
To identify the scopes and characteristics of safety officer to create a safe workplace
To determine effectiveness safety training programs for site workers in Malaysia construction sites.
These three objectives are generated, after the researcher critically reviews the book, articles and journal. Three objectives might apply in interview through face to face interview to local construction site personnel.
3.4 Rationale of Questionnaire Design
This dissertation title is â€œSafety Plan in Construction Site: Safety Officer Perspectiveâ€Â. Safety and Health Officer is playing a very important in create a safe workplace. The accident occurs in construction site are usually affect the objective of the project. Questionnaire design may touch on background and organization of interviewee. Questionnaire will identify causes and effect of accident occurs in construction site. The interviewees are request to elaborate the hazard and risk in construction site which to achieve the first objective set out by researcher. Furthermore, roles of Safety and Health Officer will be included in the questionnaire, it is to understand task and job done by Safety and Health Officer which related to the second objective of this dissertation. Other than that, questionnaire might investigate the process of hazard assessment. The third objective will achieved that the questionnaire will determine the training element which carry out by Safety and Health Officer. The interviewee is requiring to explain the contents of the safety training.
3.5 Research Sample
The interviewees were selected based on certain characteristics required to meet the research objective. In this chapter, the site personnel with experience in safety and health issue and training will be selected. In this case, with experience and knowledge of the interviewee, the data collected from them will become more credibility and accurate. Furthermore, project manager, site supervisor and safety and health officer will be the target population for this study. This survey target on different construction position level of interviewees, it is because every position of work may have their own opinion and knowledge in safety and health issues. The sampling area will focus in peninsular Malaysia and Sabah construction sites. It is more easier to gather the accurate information and answer.
3.6 Method of Analysis
In this element, the analysis will do based on data that collected from the interviewees. The method of analysis used is trend approach that require to analysis the interactions provided by interviewees. In the analysis part, researcher will describe the out come of interview with ten site personnel in a conversation from. Every question will provided with three answers that collected from the selected interviewees. In the other hand a discussion will be included to analyze and compare the information obtained from the interviewees.
3.7 Reason of choose interview
In this research, interview will carry out to gather data and information. By using this matter, data collected from interviewees will more accurate compare to other matter. If used questionnaire method, the respondents may simply answer the questions, due to respondent might not understand the questions asked. But used interview method, if interviewees not understand the questions asked, the interviewer can explain to them. In the other hand, if interviewees understand the questions asked, the answer provided by them will become credibility.
3.7 Potential Problem and Contingency plan
Quality of data collected
The problem might encountered during the interview are the quality of information and data that collected from the different interviewees. All interviewees are from different background, furthermore they have different experience and opinion in safety and health issues, so the data that obtained by them may vary. To over come this problem, interviewer might select the interviewees who have number of years experience in construction firm. Beside that, interviewer may interview the site personnel who currently on position project manager or site supervisor or safety and health officer.
Low respond rate
During the interview, the interviewer may encountered hard to make appointment with the interviewees, because not many people are willing to interview. In interviewees opinion, interview are not part of job for them, the interviewees might think spend time to accept interview and answer the questionnaire is wasting time. Therefore, the interviewer have responsibility to minimize the problem that ensure have enough people to accept interview. The method can be use to solve this problem is interviewer should list out the company to be interview. Companies selected for this interview should more than 20 companies to avoid some of the people refuse to accept interview.
3.8 Rationale of Questions
The below questions were designed based on Objective 1.
Question 1: Do you think apply Personal Protective Equipment can reduce the number of accident? Why?
This question is to identify use of the PPE and purposes apply PPE when site workers carried out the hazardous work in construction site. Interviewees require to explain how their apply PPE when carried out the hazardous works.
Question 2: In your opinion, what are the causes of accident happened in construction site?
This question attempts to find out the factors and causes of accidents happened in construction site.
Question 3: In point of view, what are the effects of accident occurs in the site? Please elaborate.
This question attempts to request the interviewees to mentioned the effect that generated by accidents occur on site.
Question 4: How does the first-aid unit locate in construction site?
This question attempts to determine how interviewees locate the first-aid unit in their construction site.
The below questions were designed based on Objective 2
Question 5: In practical standard, what are the roles of a Safety and Health Officer?
This question attempts to identify the tasks and works should carry out by a Safety and Health Officer. Furthermore interviewees are requiring to elaborate what are the scopes of work of a Safety and Health.
Question 6: Who is responsible for risk assessment and hazard control?
This question attempts to find out who is responsible for risk assessment and hazard control.
Question 7: What are the procedures for risk assessments?
This question attempts to determine process of risk assessment to be carried out before and during the life of project.
The below questions were designed based on Objective 3.
Question 8: Who is responsible for safety and health training?
This question attempts to find out who responsible for safety and health training.
Question 9 Based on your experience, what are the elements needed to cover during the safety and health training?
This question attempts to determine the contains of safety and health training. Beside that, interviewees have to explain what to be trained during the safety and health training.
Question 10: In your organization, did the site personnel receive the refresher Safety and Health training? If yes, please explain how frequent the training held and how long of the training period.
This question attempts to find out does every construction company have provide refresher Safety and Health training to their workers.