This chapter explains about the process of installation steel framing component and to identify the safety aspect and the requirement during the installation process of steel framing component at site and to identify the level of safety during installation process at site.
For this chapter, definition and description of Industrialised Building System will be given. Beside that this chapter also included history of IBS in Malaysia, installation process, safety requirement during the installation work and more.
2.1.1 Industrialised Building System (IBS)
Industrialised Building System is a technology of construction which there are manufactured in controlled environment, either at off site or site. And then only transported, positioned and assembled into the construction works (CIDB 2012). There are five main IBS groups identified in Malaysia, there are:
Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box System
Steel Framing System
Block Work System
Prefabricated Timber Framing System
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There are few definition of IBS according to few researchers.
IBS is the method of construction developed due to human investment in innovation and on rethinking the best way of construction work deliveries based on the level of industrialisation (Abdullah and Egbu 2009).
IBS is defined as an organisational process continuity of production, implying a steady flow of standardisation, demand, integration of the different stages of the whole production process, a high degree of organisation of work, and mechanisation to replace human labour wherever possible (Hassim et. al 2009).
IBS is defined as a mass production of building components, either in factory or at site, according to the specification with a standard shape and dimensions and then transporting them to the construction site to be re-arranged to a certain standard to form a building (Chung 2007).
IBS is defined as a concept of mass production of quality building by using new building systems and factory produced building component (Badir et.al 2002)
IBS also defined as a new construction method that can increase the quality and productivity of work through the use of better equipment, materials, plant and machinery and extensive project planning (Haron et.al 2005).
Zulkefle (2007) defined IBS as a set of interrelated elements that act together to enable the designated performance of a building.
Hence, from the information I get they say that Industrialised Building System (IBS) is a process of the steel frame component are manufactured in the factory with standard requirement and then transported to the job site for installation to be assemble together to form a building.
Other than that, it is interesting to note that the term Industrialised Building System" (IBS) is often misunderstand as systems limited only for construction of building. But IBS actually covers all types of structures as the word building actually related to constuction (Shaari and Elias 2003).
2.1.2 History of IBS in Malaysia
IBS in Malaysia begun in the early 1960's when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries and evaluate their housing development program (Thanoon et.al,2003).
After their successful visit in 1964, the first project using IBS had started by the government. The aims were to built quality and affordable house and speed up the delivery time. About 22.7 acres of land along the Jalan Pekeliling, Kuala Lumpur was dedicated to the project comprising 7 blocks of 17 stories flat, 3000 units of low-cost flat and 40 shops lot. This project was awarded to JV Gammon & Larsen and Neilsen using large panel precast concrete wall and plank slabs. The project was completed within 27 month including the time taken in the construction of RM2.5 million casting yard at Jalan Damansara (CIDB, 2006; CIDB, 2003 and Thanoon et al, 2003).
In 1965, the second housing project initiated by the government comprise of 6 blocks of 17 stories flats and 3 block of 18 stories flats at Jalan Fifle Range, Penang. The project was awarded to Hochtief and Chee Seng using French Estoit System (CIDB,2006; CIDB, 203 and Din, 1984)
Another earliest IBS project was at Taman Tun Sardon, Penang (1,000 units of five storey walk up falt). IBS precast component and system in the project was designed by British Research Establishment for low cost housing (precast system). A similar system was constructed at Edmonton, North London. About 20,000 precast dwellings were constructed throughout UK from 1964 to 1974 (CIDB, 2006). Nonetheless, the building design was very basic and not considering the aspect of serviceability such as the local needs to have wet toilet and bathroom (Rahman and Omar, 2006).
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Many construction in the following years utilised precast wall panel system. One can observed that IBS was engage at first place in the construction of low cost high rise residential building to overcome the increasing demand for housing needs (CIDB, 2006). However, the industrialisation of construction at the earlier stage was never sustained. Failure of early closed fabricated system made the industry players afraid of changing construction method. Some of the foreign systems that were introduced during late 60s and 70s were also found not to be suitable with Malaysia social practices and climate (CIDB, 2005).
Newer and better technologies were constantly being introduced in the market. Wet joint systems were identified to be more suitable to be used in our tropical climate. It also was better to utilised the bathroom types which relatively wetter than those in Europe (CIDB, 2005). In 1978. the Penang State Government launched another 1200 units of housing using prefabrication technology. Two year later, the Ministry of Defence Adopted large prefabricated panel construction system for constructing 2800 units of living quarter at Lumut Naval Base 9 Trikha and Ali, 2004). During the period of early 80s up to 90s the use of structural steel components turn particularly in high rise building in Kuala Lumpur. The usage of steel structure gained much attention with the construction of 36 storey Dayabumi complex that was completed in 1984 by Takenaka Corporation of Japan (CIDB, 2003 and CIDB, 2006).
In the 90s, demand for the new township has seen the increase in the use of precast concrete system in high rise residential buildings. Between 1981 to 1993, Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Selangor (PKNS) as state government development agency acquired precast concrete technology from Praton Haus International. It was based on Germany to build low cost house and high cost bungalow for the new townships in Selangor (CIDB, 2003 and Hassim et al.2009). It was recorded around 52,000 housing units was constructed using Praton Haus system (Trikha and Ali, 2004).
In the booing period of Malaysian construction 1994 to 1997, hybrid IBS application used in many national iconic landmarks such as Kuala Lumpur Convention Center, Bukit Jalil Sport Complex constructed using steel beam and roof trusses and precast concrete. Other than that, Lightweight Railway Train (LRT) and KL Sentral was constructed by using steel roof structure and precast hallow core. While KL Towe was built by using steel beams and column for tower head. Kula Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) was contructed by steel roof structure and Petronas Twin Towers was 9 steel beams and steel decking for the floor system. (CIDB, 2006)
The local IBS manufacturers were mushrooming, althrough yet to operate in full capacity. The current IBS systems used in Malaysia housing projects are steel frame, precast frame, formwork frame and large panel system. These system is largely used for private residential project in Shah Alam, Wangsa maju, and Pandan (Sarja, 1998), Dua Residency in Kuala Lumpur, Taman Mount Austin and Tongkang Pecah in Johor (CIDB,2006).
The new generation of building that utilised IBS is better as compared to conventional method in term of speed, cost, quality and architectural appearance. Steel frame, precast panel and other IBS systems were used hybrid construction technique to construct government building (CIDB, 2006).