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Employer should provide necessary information, proper instruction, appropriate training and supervision to make sure employees gain ability to be safe and take necessary action to maintain their health and safety.
Employer should take all the necessary action to arrange for the safe use, handling, storage and transport of goods and substances.
Employer should provide and maintain systems of work that are safe and healthy to the people who are at work.
Employer should provide and maintain a safe work place with safe entrance and exit places and also a safe working environment without risk to health and individual safety.
It should be noted that it is impossible to remove all risks and hazards from any working place. The law recognizes this. So, duties mentioned above qualified using the term 'so far as is reasonably practicable'.
Therefore level of risk involved always can be balanced against the time, difficulty of taking measures to remove the risk as well as trouble and cost.
Employee's duties are to:
Employees should always concern about care of the health and safety of themselves and of others who may be affected by what they do and people who are working around.
Employees should follow instructions from the employer on health and safety matters and attend relevant health and safety training conducted by particular organization.
Employees should not misuse any equipment that is provided and always use proper instructions given to use those equipment (eg fire extinguishers or safety goggles)
Employees should always cooperate with the employer on health and safety matters and be sensitive if their safety and health rights when working are violated.
Employer should always take action to report hazards and defects observed in the workplace which might threat to the employee's safety.
Welfare facilities for employees
The law states that employers must offer 'suitable and sufficient' welfare facilities for the comfort of their workforces though at work.
Health accommodations cover many areas.
Wherever clean to eat and drink during opportunities
Changing facilities ex: Changing rooms and lockers
Good facilities can positively benefit health and well-being of the employees and can help to prevent dermatitis. Well being of them increase efficiency of the work they are on and by making them happy with the facilities this will definitely helpful in conflict management and psychological wellbeing of the employees.
Question no 02
Health and safety policy
particular company a safe and healthy environment. Its commitment will be to protect the company, its employees and their clients.
It is the policy of the company to perform work of the highest capacity and in the safest manner possible while maintaining agreement with the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Protecting the health and safety of the employees will be a permanent objective.
Every employee will be held responsible . Desecrations will be recorded and addressed.
How to assess training requirements
There have use process which call "training need analysis" to training staff. The way of training mainly depends on the nature of the organization, capacity of the organization, the technology available, and the nature of the staff.
But for any kind of organization the fundamental elements of a training needs analysis are the same. It is a three-step process:
1. Identify the training needs
2. Deliver training that meets the needs
3. Assess the effectiveness of the training.
Why is health and safety training important?
Find out how you could manage health and safety better;
Meet your legal duty to protect the health and safety of your employees.
Those will contribute towards making your employees competent in health and safety;
The Methods of recording health and safety inspections and its importance
In addition to keeping administrative records, an occupational health service normally maintain another two type of records, these are:
Personal Health Records.-
Environmental Health Records.
This set of records concern the health status of each aspects of the workplace rather than the individual employee .
Result of physical investigations.
Occupational and Medical history.
Serious treatment entries and progress.
Worker's compensation and insurance medical records.
Site visit reports.
Hazard monitoring result.
Worksite health and safety committee reports.
Accident investigation files.
First Aid reports
CSC Inspection reports
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets)
WSIB (Workplace Safety Insurance Board) claims.
Question no 03
Hazards In a construction sites
Hazards while trenching and excavating.
Falls - Falling from scaffolding, ladders, stairways
Heavy Construction Equipment
Fire And Emergency
Identifying the hazards
Poorly designed workplace.
Hazardous tasks being performed in the workplace;
Introducing poorly designed plant and machineries.
Incorrect installation, poor maintenance, no repair or alteration of plant in the workplace when necessary.
There are a number of ways hazards can be identified in the workplace. These include:
Health and environment monitoring
Monitoring injury and illness records
Consultation between employees and employers
There are generally.
Identify the hazards and the place occurring it
Decide who might be affected and how
Record the findings and implement them
Review assessment and update if necessary
For simple example for the risk assessment, we can take Construction Company. Here five steps to risk assignment were followed.
To identify the hazards, first it should walk around all the areas and places in the construction site to find out where are the places can be potential threat to the health and safety to the employees.
And for the next step it should talked through the issues with the health and safety representative, other members of the staff and sometimes with supervisors to learn more about particular places and jobs and with the use of accident book more knowledge about hazards could be gathered.
Then it should write down the findings and the people who are affecting or could be harmed.
For each hazard, the fitter should write those hazards. And after that it should be noted down what else
Then with those finding and prepared report it is good to discuss with the safety representative, supervisors and with the managing director of the company. and Then those should. it should ticked if off and recorded the date which completed each tasks.
If decided t least once a when changes occurred to the workplace.
Question no: 04
Consequences of workplace hazards
Slipping, tripping and falls
Slipping, falling and falls can cause serious injuries such as
Sprains and strains to muscles and even death.
Heart failure by damage small blood vessels.
Radiation kills nerve cells and small blood vessels, and can cause seizures
Lower bearing life - unexpected plant shutdowns.
Energy wastage due to kinetic energy required for vibration.
Operator fatigue and nuisance. Annoyance.
Question no: 05
Importance of review and update assessment procedures
Monitoring and review involves ongoing monitoring of the hazards identified by risk assessment process, risk assessment and risk control processes and reviewing them to make sure they are working effectively.
Hazard identification, risk assessment and control are continuous processes. Therefore, regularly review the effectiveness of hazard assessment and control measures make sure that the employer undertake a hazard and risk assessment when there is a change to the workplace including when work systems, labor force tools, machinery, technology or equipment change.it also Provide additional supervision when new employees with poor skill levels or knowledge are introduced to the industry.
We have to suggest implementing changes to a health and safety policy
When Particular company's health and safety policy too old:-
An old policy becomes not suitable. Because
Company employees can be changed.
Company output (type of output/amount of output) can be changed.
Ex-in construction industry some time doing building construction, some time do road construction, and also some time water project, then can't use same health and safety policy.
Policy create by company responsible person (Ex:-Managing Director),if new Managing Director come in to company and that person need to change.
When not capable to protect the health and safety of all person in work place:-
The main objective of health and safety policy is to protect the health and safety of all people in work place. When any company unable to realize this objective,(That's mean in other words if hazard increases, if there problem with company workers health and safety)then need to change health and safety policy to ensure worker's health and safety.
When government implements arises.
Government implement also can made changes in health and safety policy. If government introduce new rule for every organization, that rule can say every organization have to ensure these, these things which related with health and safety to every employee. Then organizations have to change health and safety policy.
When introduce new technologies.
New technologies mean introducing new machines/plants. In this case new harms can happen in different way because of no better knowledge about new machines.
Monitoring implemented changes
Nominate some responsible persons to ensure health and safety policy.
Provide sheet which call weekly safety check sheet. (That include every safety methods) to the responsible person in the work place.
Order to that responsible person to fill that sheet at work place and submit it to health and safety department in a company.
Call meeting once a month to discuss about health and safety in company