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The Channel Tunnel between France & United Kingdom

3439 words (14 pages) Essay in Construction

18/05/20 Construction Reference this

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Table of Contents

Table of content ii

List of Tables and Figures iii

1.0 Project snapshot  4

2.0 Introduction 4

1.1 Background 5

1.2 Aim 6

3.0  Major Issues  1

4.0 Control Systems  4

5.0 Analysis of cost and/or schedule overruns  1

6.0 Analysis of Project execution team 4

7.0 Analysis of relationship between overruns and the stakeholders  4

8.0 Analysis of possible actions for success  4

9.0 Conclusion  4

10.0 References 4

PROJECT SNAPSHOT:

  • Before the channel passage, the development business respected burrowing rates of 25meters multi day as an incredible achievement. Be that as it may, on this task, burrowing records were broken and re-broken. Rates of 50 meters multi day were normal. On February 24th 1991, the English machine burrowing the southernmost running passage heading towards France finished an enormous 75.5 meters.
  • The contractual workers guarantee the solid for the passage linings is most grounded ever delivered, with a devastating quality of generally twofold that utilize in the weight vessel of an atomic power station.
  • The undersea hybrid caves are 156 meters in length, 18.1 meters high.
  •  More than 80,000 passage linings were introduced, weighing from under one ton to 9 tons each.
  • 74 sections of land of new land were made at the foot of Shakespeare bluff by utilizing the passage ruin.
  • The task utilized 11 passage exhausting machines. The TBMs that exhausted the principle running passages weighed more than 2,700 tons each.
  • Altogether in excess of 160 kilometers of passage have been assembled.
  • 200,000 trees and bushes have been planted at the UK terminal.
  • The inside width of the running passage is 7.6 meters, and the administration burrow 4.8 meters. The inward distance across of the Piccadilly line in London is 3.56 meters.
  • When TML was shaped in 1986 it had six staff members. At the pinnacle of development, it had 15,000. Day by day consumption found the middle value of over 5.45 million AUD.
  • The bus wagons intended to convey autos and their travelers are the biggest railroad wagons on the planet.
  • The power required for the trains alone is in excess, of 180 megawatts equal to the pinnacle heap of city with a populace of 250,000.
  • The French terminal covers a more prominent territory than Heathrow air terminal.
  • Request worth more than 3.99 billion AUD for gear and administrations were put 2.18 billion AUD on the UK side and 1.81 billion AUD by France.
  • On the UK side, 92 percent of requests were put in UK. On the French side, 72 percent of requests were put in France.
  • The van trains conveying vehicles and travelers take 30 minutes to cross from England to France.
  • The through express Eurostar trains to be controlled by English rail and SNCF will travel from London to Paris in three hours-less when the UK’s rapid line is fabricated.
  • The passages cooling framework is equal to 100,000 local refrigerators.
  • The contractual workers introduced in the passages more than 550 kilometers of pipe work, 1,300 kilometers of intensity links and 20,000 light fittings.
  • The passage utilizes 38 electric trains, 270 HGV wagons and 252 traveler wagons. (Veditz, L.A., 1993.) 

INTRODUCTION:

The Channel Tunnel or Chunnel is a tunnel running beneath the English Channel to pass Freight trains and Eurostar trains from UK to France. The channel passage is a grand underground association that connections the terrains of the Assembled Kingdom and France. Two rapid rail passages and one administration borrow; crossing in excess of 50km, interface and terminal at Folkestone, UK and another in Coquelles, France. Burrowed inside a layer of chalk marl under the English Channel, it presently transports around 15 million people annually.

Length of this tunnel is 49.89 kilometers. This tunnel construction started in the year 1988, this project didn’t complete within the time. It has taken 20% longer duration (Approximately: 5-6 years), than planned and also inclined in its budget graph more than they expected. Almost 80% of extra amount has spent on this project (Approximately: 4.74 – 8.39 Australian billion dollars). (Thomas, P. and O’Donoghue, D., 2013.)

Back Ground:

This channel taken place undersea channel tunnel from U.K to France opened in 1994 after some period of construction (just 6 years). Be that as it may, it took any longer to kick it into high gear; thoughts for a cross-channel fixed connection were first recorded in 1802. Since opening it has been tormented with various issues. There have been a few flames prompting its impermanent shutdown, and various train disappointments have prompted Eurostar travelers being stuck underground for quite a long time. Regard mechanical progressions, in any case, the Chunnel is perceived as the first mainline passage to have unique cooling hardware, which incorporates chilled water flowing through channels from either side of the underground section.

Aim:

Since it’s opening in 1994 the channel passage has turned into a key component in the vehicle framework connecting England and mainland Europe. In any case, just as shaping piece of the trans-European rail system, the channel passage was additionally observed as a potential improvement to trans-wilderness coordinated effort and as a conceivable impetus for provincial financial advancement. The aim of the paper is to assess the provincial effects of the passage inside the old English French wilderness zone on the two sides of the English Channel. Albeit a huge number of travelers travel through the passage consistently, numbers have neglected to achieve the gauge levels and the general advantages are less than had been foreseen. The English Channel still speaks to a mental boundary and the outskirts zone has neglected to create as an incorporated work showcase. Besides, the discoveries recommend that the channel passage has just limitedly affected the spatial economy of the trans-wilderness zone in Kent and Nord-Pas-de-Calais. While ash ford has without a doubt picked up from its fast rail association, the best effects have happened in metropolitan districts further from the passage, including Lille and East London. 

MAJOR ISSUES:

The entire development task was commonly cultivated effectively and in an auspicious way. Be that as it may despite the fact that intricate readiness had been done in the arranging and configuration stage, the architects ran over specialized issues during the development. A large portion of them were fixed promptly because of cutting edge systems. Shockingly, some different issues brought about unforeseen cost overwhelm. To compound the situation, a few arrangements were not unassailable, which prompted mishaps later on activity.

Construction issues:

  • Early burrowing endeavors additionally kept running into certain issues on both the French and English sides. There were more unfortunate than anticipated geographical conditions on the English side, prompting consistent postponements for security. Nonetheless one of these TBMs did not capacity well, prompting a great deal of postponements in trading and exchanging gear.
  • On the administration side, there were significant delays due to conflicting needs among Eurotunnel and TML.

Tunnel excavation issues:

  • Toward the start of excavation, progress endured because of some poor attributes of the dark chalk, combined with an incredible amount of water influx. These issues, joined with the less-experienced machine administrators and the underlying disappointments of the machine, raised worries about the capacity to build the speed of uncovering.
  • Different issues happened during the removal for example, a slipping of grime on the belt transport, water sprinkle from the screw transport, twisting of shaper head, waste infiltration into the driving piece of screw transport, and so on. (Uga, Y., 1995.)

Air conditioning system issues:

Under ground-burrow issues:

  • It ought to be one of the potential reasons why the temperature in the passage was so high. Obviously, there is no sign that the creators had digressed from standard specialized standards. Be that as it may, for this situation, further exploratory computation could have uncovered such oversight. In this case, the significance of the early task stages is appeared. The cooling issue was found accidentally toward the finish of the execution stage, which was past the point of no return for the Eurotunnel Gathering to take care of the issue. The vast majority of the passages had been assembled, so the cooling framework must be coercively actualized inside the current development. Subsequently, the cost invade was unavoidable.

Feasibility issues:

  • Actually they are planned that tunnel for the passage of 1million people per year and also by that the thought that they will get a great income to originate from driving current ship administrators bankrupt. Obviously, these ship administrators were the primary method to cross the English Channel before the channel tunnel existed. In any case, this investigation overlooked the likelihood that the ships would respond to the channel tunnel with improved valuing and administration, prompting them holding piece of the pie. Likewise the production of spending carriers giving shabby air travel among UK and France was not anticipated. It is a decent update that in making vital gauges of advantages or results you should remember how contenders will respond to the venture they are imagining. (Kreydieh, A., 1996.)

CONTROL SYSTEMS:

Risk control system:

  • Venture procedure and endorsement was ignored.
  • Not set up to deal with the level of Intergovernmental commission (IGC) supervision and change management controls.
  • Possibilities for known and obscure hazard and methodology for dealing with change management is missing.

Cost control system:

  • Utilize an institutionalized control system to dispose of cost contemplations issues forced by wild change the executives control process.
  • Particular and approval of practical and specialized pre-requisites at front.
  • Substitution of material, gear with interchange choice of same detail.

Schedule control system:

  • Falling appraisals of past stages.
  • 19 months delayed.
  • Venture supervisory crew couldn’t be considered capable.

Stakeholder control system:

  • Stakeholder management project plan was not set up in detailed and furthermore not pursued all through the undertaking life cycle. By executing this difference in cost, schedule and additional cases could have been limited.

Scope control system:

  • Point by point functional requirement and specialized determination.
  • Thought of scope possibility.

Contract control system:

  • Appropriateness of single contract to both gathering.
  • Inclusion of hazard exposures.

Communication control system:

  • Correspondence convention arrangement.
  • Convention for raising uncertain/pending issues.
  • Following and checking.

(Kirkland, C.J., 1995.)

ANALYSIS OF COST AND SCHEDULE OVERRUNS:

Enrollment venture expenses are decayed into development costs, corporate costs and financing costs.

These expenses caused since august 1990 are as per the following:

                   Costs of each event      

          Amount (AU$ million)

  1. Construction costs

                       2297.6

  1. Target works

                         1516.9

  1. Terminals

                         298.2

  1. Fixed equipment

                         98

  1. Fixed equipment

                         60.5

  1. Bonuses

                         7.21

  1. Effects of inflation

                         266.5

  1. Corporate costs

                         433.6

  1. Net financing

                         257.85

  1. All out expenses since august 1900

                         5236.22

                                                            Costs breakdown since the year 1990

The task had gone on an 80% invaded and at begin had been deferred 19 months for support. By and large, if estimation of expenses had been done accurately, it could have been that an alternate bidder and proposition could have legitimately won the task. The cost overwhelms of the venture were shared among Eurotunnel and TML. Eurotunnel was in charge of around 70% of cost overwhelms while TML was in charge of the staying 30%.

The agreement was overhauled in 1990 as indicated by which Eurotunnel was in charge of about 2.88 billion(AUD) and TML was in charge of  30% of all expenses of the objective works over this dimension. The explanations behind cost overwhelms were complex. As referred before, the rate of burrowing in the underlying stages was slower than anticipated, and the work costs on the English side were higher than anticipated (costs, danger and financing). As referenced before, the fixed-value contracts marked with contractual workers and sellers was additionally a terrible move, bringing about significant claims for surpassing starting extension parameters. What is more finally, the acquisition evaluates in the 1987 figure were never again relevant after the long endorsement process by the national governments, bringing about the final costs surpassing the underlying arrangements of the agreement (costs, dangers and financing). On the administration side, unforeseen financial costs, the augmentation of specific divisions inside and the procuring of outsider task the board faculty from the Bechtel gathering were not canvassed in the underlying appraisals and prompted expanded (costs, dangers and financing). Looking back, the scale and multifaceted nature of the undertaking ought to have shown to the Eurotunnel bunch that idealistic evaluations would not be exact. (Srivatsav, N., Joys, J., Wang, Z., Safty, K. and Kapoor, R.,)

CONCLUSION:

In the awake of defeating the financial, political and specialized issues, the channel passage were practiced and hundreds years of dream of the two nations worked out. We cannot deny the noteworthy accomplishment in this phenomenal task. Be that as it may, there are heaps of experience and exercises in this venture we could benefit from. Along these lines the venture can be briefly made a decision to have been effective practically and actually, however not fruitful from a vital arranging and calculated arranging point of view. Because of the exceptional multifaceted nature, we cannot censure the general population engaged with the undertaking excessively. The channel passage was foreordained to have difficulties to be finished because of its uniqueness.

Another significant exercise from the channel passage undertaking was the absence of binding together initiative. May be the binational groups were viewed as fundamental and furthermore efficient since the task was being built from the two sides of the channel freely. Nonetheless, the group suggests that paying little mind to the physical work areas, the administrative group ought to be unified, on the off chance that not geologically, at that point at any rate mechanically (for example; Skype, email and so forth). As mentioned before, the absence of financial repercussions for the IGC made them very requesting, harming the undertakings basic way and prompting cost and time invades. A few answers for this were talked about before. Notwithstanding, the group like-wise suggests that paying little mind to the expense, probably some piece of basic foundation ought to in truth be financed with open subsidizing too, to reflect and practice the open great as a substantial partner intrigue (stake holder).

In conclusion, the channel passage venture reflects one of the most distinguished accomplishments of current building and merits its place as one of the miracles of the world. Indeed even from a task the executive point of view, the venture offers numerous takeaways from first-hand involvement, which ought not to be disregarded.

REFERENCES:

  • Veditz, L.A., 1993. The Channel Tunnel–A Case Study (No. NDU-ICAF-93-CS8). INDUSTRIAL COLL OF THE ARMED FORCES WASHINGTON DC.
  • Thomas, P. and O’Donoghue, D., 2013. The Channel Tunnel: transport patterns and regional impacts. Journal of Transport Geography31, pp.104-112.
  • Srivatsav, N., Joys, J., Wang, Z., Safty, K. and Kapoor, R., The Channel Tunnel: A Project Management Perspective.
  • Uga, Y., 1995. The channel tunnel project: challenge and rewards. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology10(1), pp.27-29.
  • Kirkland, C.J., 1995. The channel tunnel–lessons learned. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research1(10), pp.5-6.
  • Fenton, J., 2007. baltimoresun. com.
  • Kirkland, C.J. (2002) the fire in the Channel Passage, Burrowing and underground space innovation
  • (Kreydieh, A., 1996. Risk management in BOT project financing (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Srivatsav, N., Joys, J., Wang, Z., Safty, K., & Kapoor, R. The Channel Tunnel: A Project Management Perspective.
  • Cushing, A., Hurt, J., Talby, R., DiMillo, T. and MacFarlane, M., Design and Construction of the Billy Bishop City Airport Pedestrian Tunnel, Toronto, Canada.  
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