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This report will outline the full range of roles and responsibilities within the JCT 2005 Standard Form of Contract with Quantities (SBC/Q) for the project of 'Oasis Leisure Complex'. This project is at the request of the employer the Gallagher Brothers, Duck Construction (UK) Ltd have been successful in winning the contract to complete the building works.
For this project the contract to be used is the JCT 2005 Standard Form of Contract with Quantities (SBC/Q). With this type of contract being selected there are certain roles and responsibilities that each party involved in the contract must observe. The key personnel involved in a contract of this type are as follows:-
Roles Within Project (Standard Building Contract: Ed 2 & Construction Contracts: Ed 4)
Client - The client is the employer for the project; this can be a single person, a partnership or a large scale company. The client is the role which issues the project requirements and provides the funding for the building works to go ahead. The client must select a principle contractor or a representative who is skilled in this type of contract to ensure the contract and project are carried out correctly.
Principle Contractor/Project Manager/Representative - The principle contractor will work on behalf of the employer to carry out all the major elements of the building project and the contractual procedures. The principle contractor will be in contact with all of the key personnel within the project liaising and instructing all of the external companies brought in to carry all of the building and design related work.
As can be seen on the diagram below (Standard Building Contract: Ed 2 ) the principle contractor will have to liaise with multiple parties throughout the whole of the project's duration ensuring all the employers requirements are carried out.
Architect - An Architect must also be employed in most projects, this can be done by the employer prior to appointing a principle contractor or they can be selected by the principle contractor when the project is underway.
The architect's role is to work with the client and the principle contractor to come up with an overall design from the requirements laid down by the employer. They will ensure that the building is functional and achievable and will provide all the drawings for the complete project with exact measurements and details for construction.
The architect will also work with designers and technologists to complete the drawings for the project to take shape. They are responsible for any changes that need to be made from the existing drawings. The roles of these specialists are:-
Technologist - The technologist will ensure the structure and design ideas from the architect are feasible. They will specify materials and structural design for the contracted builders to follow
Designer - The designer will specialise in fit out and interior area design and functionality. They will specify finishes and qualities of areas throughout the building project.
Quantity Surveyor - The role of the quantity surveyor is to provide measurement and costing from the architect's drawings. The QS will carry out this task to get an accurate cost model for the project from the drawings they are supplied with to give to the employer as a projected quote for completion of the building. The QS will work throughout the project adjusting the costing and final accounts as the job progresses if any changes or variations occur.
Management & Main Contractor
Person in Charge (PIC)/Site Manager - The role of the PIC/Site Manager is to be permanently on site to supervise the building works. They are usually specified by the principle contractor to act upon the role of the principle contractor via an onsite basis. The PIC/Site Manager is responsible for all building works taking place onsite; they are also responsible for all direction and specification given by any inspectors or Clerk of Works.
Clerk of Works - The Clerk of Works is employed by the client to work with the Architect in an onsite inspector role. The Clerk of Works responsibility is to ensure that all the design elements of the architect's plans are being carried out and are being done to the correct specifications from the employer.
Contractor - The role of the contractor is to work on behalf of the principle contractor to appoint each of the specialist trades needed to build the project; these specialists are known as sub-contractors. The contractor will source builders, glazers, plumbers etc to carry out each of the individual tasks that will need to be carried out to complete the final structure. The contractor will also liaise with suppliers to ensure that correct materials are ordered, the best prices are paid and that all materials are delivered to site at the right times. They ensure that the Sub-contractors are aware of the work that is required of them and coordinating all the elements taking place on the site at specific times of the construction process.
Sub contractors - This role consists of the builders, plumbers, glazers etc employed by the contractor. They are specialists in each of their individual trades and will be responsible for the actual construction and works that take place on site.
Suppliers - This role consists of taking orders and supplying materials on site that are required by the sub-contractors. Specific suppliers are normally stipulated in the contract and they will provide all of the required materials for the project for an agreed amount. Materials that they will supply can consist of sand for brickwork, block work, hardcore etc.
Problems & Conflicts - (Construction Contracts: Ed 4)
Many of the individual roles that have been outlined above will have never worked in collaboration with each other on a personal basis as well as the client potentially being inexperienced in the contract and construction process. With so many different roles having to come together and work efficiently over a large scale project inevitably problems will occur as the plans take shape. These issues are common with most projects and if managed correctly can be easily overcome, the use of a JCT contract will aid in solving the problems that occur and build a strong and reliable team. Some of the common problems and conflicts are as follows: -
Large-scale Project Team - The size and scale of man power and people involved even within the smallest of construction projects is very difficult to manage without problems. With so many different trades and specialisations coming together on one project communication and understanding is key. Many different professionals will no doubt be spread out across the country and will have to work together efficiently to ensure the project takes place, is to the correct specifications and on time. The timing of each trade or skill taking place must be streamlined in order to minimise the problems that may occur. Communication must be focused on at all times as this is the easiest solution to the problems that occur with large scale teams.
Professional Pride - Due to most people and trades involved with the project never working with each other on a single construction project pride and ignorance can play a huge role in conflicts occurring. Each individual is responsible for their part of the project and will face charges or sanctions if they do not carry out their role properly. Because of this some trades or individuals will feel that they are at a higher worth than other members of the project and that other roles are inferior. This attitude should be avoided at all costs, the principle contractor should ensure that all roles are working well together and take relative steps to counter any problems occurring or remedy any existing problems by liaising with the personnel involved.
Task/Timescale Overlaps - Almost all projects will have a timescale associated with them. Most projects will be meticulously planned so that all building and consultation works take place as efficiently and smoothly as possible. Each stage will be in line with all of the other tasks to ensure that no conflict occurs. Unfortunately task/timescale overlaps are also inevitable, damage limitations or contingencies should be thought through to ensure projects do not fall too far behind. The best way to counter this problem is to have someone meticulously monitor and adjust a semi-flexible timescale plan which is developed as the project takes place, this will ensure that the problem planned components can be changed quickly without too much disruption.
As shown above all the roles and responsibilities are outlined in the JCT contract, this helps to minimize the problems that can occur on a construction project. The JCT does this by clearly outlining each person's role and responsibility with in the whole of the construction project, it ensures that each person is fully aware of what is expected of them and if problems do occur the contract outlines can be used to source and remedy the problem immediately and efficiently.