Quantity Surveying And Construction Management Construction Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The Qatar Construction Industry aims to form a complete waste management plan make honest with the state master plan and with a strong stress on recycling. The targets are to recycle 38 % of solid waste, up from the current 8 %, and cover domestic waste group at 1.6 kg/day, the Qatar National Development Strategy (NDS) 2011-2016 has exposed.

Qatar produces more than seven hundred thousand tonnes of solid waste every one day. Much of it is crowded into landfills, with the underdeveloped recycling industry handling only 8 % of the waste

At presently 91 % of nondomestic waste is taken in a straight line to landfills, and the bulk of what is eventually recycled is picked through by companies that sift through the waste at the landfills. Qatar will take on an involved strategy to cover the levels of waste produced by industry and to recycle much more of what waste is produced.

The government published a policy text (QSAS) in 2010 in order to try and initiate better waste management activities within the construction sector.

This chapter appraises to introduce the dissertation according the following sections: background of the research; the research aim and objectives, outline methodology for the research; and the structure of the dissertation. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the background of the research set out the setting for details of the dissertation, the importance, and further more continue with an exploration of the research aims and the chapter conclude with an outline of the objectives; literature review, data collection and analysis. Its comprise the entire chapter which are contain in the dissertation and finalize with an explanation of the dissertation structure.

BACKGROUND

The waste management has been a long issue worry for the public, Increasing the Amount of waste by increasing the population producing, therefor continually been a concern that where waste drives or sprits. It is being determined by the most economically feasible selection and with slight concern for the earth natural environment

The principal importance is in waste escaping. Waste reduction can be defined as "any technique, process or activity which avoids, eliminates or reduces a waste at its source, typically within the confines of the production unit" (Williams, 2005). Producers must take responsibility for creating long-term produces with increased durability (Cooper, 1994). Waste decrease is the main to reducing the rising waste mountain and that is the main to sustainable waste management.

In a construction site whether you can be as a contractor, subcontractor, site director or a site member of staff, discovery that how to reduce, reuse and recycle construction wastes is important. It will not only benefit to save money at site, but it also permits you to pay an important part to reduce the construction harm that construction waste effects to the environment.

AIM

The aim of the research is to identify and establish sustainability of waste reduce, reuse and recycle the waste in construction industry and analyzing the real presentation in the Doha - Qatar Construction Industry.

OBJECTIVE

To identify the percentage waste management practice within the construction industry in relation to barrier/block.

Finding out how does the waste in construction been produced

To identify the answers why wastes are arise in construction site and the solution on it

To identify the solutions for incredulous barrier and recommend more sustainable methods.

To identify the feasible answer to overcome barrier and to advise practical recommendation using best available method on how waste can be achieved advance sustainably.

Identify the solution for solving the waste reduce, reuse and recycle the waste for a better environment.

OUTLINE RESEARCH METHODOLGY

The Outline of the research methodology is limited to literature review, data collection and analysis. The involved review of establish waste management theory form Books, journals and internet finding. The important concerns were found on this research to explore more and from the research exploration to be used questionnaires to assembled facts.

The exploratory questionaries' assemble to enlarge the research in an excellence method. The questionnaires was focused more than 150 organization within the Doha - Qatar Construction Industry and the inquiry was mainly conducted through the Email and online questionnaires

The data which are collected would then be analyzed to gain a conclusion towards the dissertation. More details about the methodology are mentioned in chapter 4 of this dissertation.

STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH

The dissertation is basically contains three main parts which are introduction, literature review and analysis of the collected data through questionnaires. The dissertation subject into six chapters, start with the introduction of the waste management, its comprising background to the study, aim and objectives and the explanation for undertaking the research. The second chapter comprises the concept of the waste and waste management. The three chapters comprise the concept of alternative materials used in construction. The chapter four comprises the research methodology used to data collection. The chapter five comprises analysis the questionnaires result consequence and discussion of the essential discovery for the research and the final chapter six completes the research process review and recommendation.

SUMMARY

The chapter set out to introduce the through a discussion of background to the research, its aim and objectives, the methodology to be employed and the details of the dissertation content. The research mainly concern to the aim of the dissertation is to explore sustainable waste management in Doha - Qatar Construction Industry and explore the research objectives of the research. As a final point, the chapter accomplishes with an account of the dissertation structure.

CHAPTER two

Literature review

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

1. INTRODUCTION

The chapter primarily comprise the basic principal of sustainable waste management within Doha Qatar Construction Industry. It is mainly focussing the alternative material recovered and recycled form the construction waste as well. And review of the percentage construction industry in Doha - Qatar.

2. WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

The Waste management in construction needs planning as it is a necessary portion in the commencement of the tendering and in the complete project planning. Construction planning is completed in feature, the way to deliver the project on period, the quality of the project and within an proper financial plan. (Karim. K, 2000) A related method wants to be completed for waste management also. A waste management plan is a main portion of the route, similar other planning basics of the planning development.

Generally in obverse area of the project place will be used as a loading area, by means of the material which are approaching to the site can be kept at this point and the back part will be used for storage the waste material, which will be kept in not the same hops, and little by little transported on view of the site with a loading truck (Guthrie and Mallet, 1995).

The whole of labors on site want to be well knowledgeable around the method and techniques that are predictable of them in respects to reusing and recycling produces. Definite coloured baskets will cover convinced kind of waste. There would be baskets for recycling and rubbish mainly, every time the baskets are full, they will be deserted in the filling trucks, and in turns transported off site for further practices.

In advance, the works bring into being, let easy right to use to storing zones to make sure that the materials are secure from some damage, and also let every single worker know where to discovery the storing zone for the specific kinds of materials. It is greatest to stock the materials away from waste materials.

2. CONCEPT OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

The waste management is the conduct of waste materials. It can be almost anything and a primary objective of waste management today is to protect the public and the environment from potentially harmful effects of waste. The waste material is harmful by product of building progression in the construction sector and waste management is an essential method of finding and trating waste in order to minimize (BRE, 2003). One of the largest waste producers is the construction industry and the waste is producing 32 tons for disposal per year [Over view Construction waste in Doha Qatar, 2007].

3. RECYCLING AND RECOVERY

The recycling and recovery is the point if the waste cannot be re-used. Recycling and recovery only be carry out when the product no bigger functions or cannot be repaired (Cooper, 1994).

Recycling can be defined as the followings;

Collection

Separation

Clean-up

Processing - "To produce the market productivity", Williams (2005)

4. WASTE TREATMENT

The waste to reduction is going to landfill. Alternative waste treatment which create a negligible impact on environment as following;

Recycling

Composting

Energy from waste

Mechanical Biological Treatment

Pyrolysis

Gasification

Combined pyrolysis-gasification

Anaerobic digestion

Mechanical Heat Treatment. Williams (2005).

5. KEY CONCERNS ON CONSTRUCTION WASTE

The Qatar Construction Industry aims to form a complete waste management plan make honest with the state master plan and with a strong stress on recycling. The aims are to recycle 38 % of solid waste, up from the current 8 %, and cover domestic waste group at 1.6 kg/day, the Qatar National Development Strategy (NDS) 2011-2016 has exposed.

Qatar produces more than seven hundred thousand tonnes of solid waste every single day. Much of it is crowded into landfills, with the underdeveloped recycling industry handling only 8 % of the waste. The Domestic waste about 30 % and, with nondomestic waste from construction industrial accounting for the rest.

At this time 91 % of nondomestic waste is taken in a straight line to landfills, and the bulk of what is eventually recycled is picked through by companies that sift through the waste at the landfills. Qatar will take on an involved strategy to cover the levels of waste produced by industry and to recycle much more of what waste is produced.

Ministry of Department of Environment MoE (2022) classify that the construction and demolition waste into five groups which are following;

Construction and renovation- wood, roofing, fixtures, wall board, ductwork and piping, insulation materials and carpet.

Roadwork- asphalt, concrete and earth filling.

Excavated- earth, sand and stone.

Building demolition- mixed rubble, concrete, steel beams and pipes, bricks, timber, fixture and fitting wastes.

Site clearance- trees, brush, earth and the potential for mixed concrete rubble and sand.

Most of the issues contribute to the construction waste generation on site. Most usually documented sources of construction waste are design, operational, material handling and procurement. Designated that the considerable amount of construction waste on site is directly associated to design mistakes.

The construction industry is nature; it is essential that relies on good communication and close intersection for positive project delivery. It is mean the practical waste reduction strategies can only be expressed and implemented when interested party understand the original and reasons of the construction waste.

5. DIRECT AND INDIRECT WASTES

Indirect wastes are always producing from the design stages of the construction project. These wastes are able to be preventing by having a good waste management, planning and foresight and as for direct wastes are produce form the construction project progress stages (Chris, 2009).

5.1 DIRECT WASTES

Substitution of other material

Impropriate scale of drawing have been produce

Builder error such as over-digging in dimension and incorrect setting out

Return of work to complete unfinished work.

5.2 INDIRECT WASTES

Transport waste

Site storage

Conversation and cutting waste

Material handling

Lack of management in construction project

Streaming from material that are wrongly specified

5. THE WASTE HIERARCHY

The Gulf Cooperation Council - GCC states accepted a continuous waste management scheme and a specialist upkeep trick for waste making, collection, sorting, treatment and disposal. Most of the waste management creeds and plans applied are based on universally recognized scientific method counted in Waste Management Hierarchy as shown on figure 00.

Description: C:\Users\irfan\Desktop\186567195.gif

Figure 00: Waste hierarchy

Source: http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=186566927

Description: C:\Users\irfan\Desktop\186567198.gif

Figure 00: Waste hierarchy

Source: http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=186566927

The waste is escaping in the best perfect choice in the hierarchy. The theory dishonesties within the basis of not making the waste during the construction doing.

6. LANDFILLS IN DOHA QATAR

The waste management located in Mesaieed in Doha Qatar is expected to decrease the waste disposed of in landfill to 3 % to 5 %, in this manner reducing the share of total waste sent to landfill from 92 % to 64 % (http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com).

The proficiency also will alter waste to energy and rise the level of waste recycling form 8 % to between 20 % and 25 %. It will be the five transfer positions as "South Doha, West Doha, Industrial area, Dukhan and Al khor". Prepared with collection bunkers for splitting reusable such materials as concrete (aggregate), concrete (Block) metal (steel), timber and, glass are be % case in points of how companies can create practice or use of such materials. This will be helped to minimise the waste generation in the Qatar Construction Industry.

The Qatar Construction Industry aims to form a complete waste management plan make honest with the state master plan and with a strong stress on recycling. The targets are to recycle 38 % of solid waste, up from the current 8 %, and cover domestic waste group at 1.6 kg/day, the Qatar National Development Strategy (NDS) 2011-2016 has exposed.

At % 91 % of nondomestic waste is taken directly to landfills, and the bulk of what is eventually recycled is picked through by companies that sift through the waste at the landfills. Qatar will take on a involved strategy to cover the levels of waste produced by industry and to recycle much more of what waste is produced.

7. TREND OF WASTE GENERATION IN DOHA QATAR

In December 1997, the Gulf Cooperation Council - GCC countries adopted a uniform waste management system and an detecting instrument for waste production, collection, sorting, treatment and disposal. Most of the waste management regulations and strategies adopted are based on universally accepted scientific approach enumerated in Integrated Waste Management Hierarchy.

186567197

Figure 00: Waste Trend

Source: http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=186566927

8. WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DOHA QATAR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

The Qatar Ministry of Environment - MoE has arranged the fresh standards for the construction and demolition of waste material, defining what are the materials are satisfactory for recycling and re-usable in the construction industry in Doha Qatar. The new standard have been arranged with a view to establishing a fresh waste management talent, in positive techniques like to the Ministry of Environment's Domestic solid waste management centre already in process near to Mesaieed Industrial City.

The MoE said that a new facility to form neat the existing landfills to process Twenty Thousand tonnes of construction waste produced in Doha Qatar Industry. Around 40-50 % of construction and demolition waste is re-useable, but at the moment most of it is deposited in landfills.

The following Table 00, 00 are display the arrangement of waste produced during the construction activities in Doha Qatar.

NO

DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS

WASTE

1

Timber

38 %

2

Soil

18 %

3

Plastic

11 %

4

Cardboards

8 %

5

Metals

8 %

6

Hard Materials

8 %

7

Bio Organic

5 %

8

Cast formless

2 %

9

Gypsum

1 %

10

Chemicals or Paint

1 %

Table 00- Doha Qatar Construction Waste Arrangement

Source: Qatar Construction Site (http://www.qc-sites.com/)

No

Description of Materials

Waste Type

Waste

1

Timber

46 %

38 %

2

Soil

38 %

18 %

3

Plastic

46 %

11 %

4

Cardboards

46 %

8 %

5

Metals

Recyclable

8 %

6

Hard Materials

38 %

8 %

7

Bio Organic

46 %

5 %

8

Cast formless

38 %

2 %

9

Gypsum

46 %

1 %

10

Chemicals or Paint

Hazardous

1 %

Table 00- Doha Qatar Construction Waste Arrangement

Source: Qatar Construction Site (http://www.qc-sites.com/)

9. RECOVERY OPTIONS

The Qatar aims to establish a wide ranging solid waste management plan aligned with the master plan and with the strong on recycling. Recovery is defined by the QDS in its document, assistance on MWMS as the worth to gain value form waste through recycling, other form of material, or recovery of energy and compositing. The Doha Qatar target to recycle 38 percentage of solid waste, up from the percentage 8 %, and contain domestic waste group 1.6kg/ day, the Qatar National Development Strategy - QDS 2001 to 2006 has revealed (QDS 2009). Therefor gives value to waste, and attempts to create a situation where the landfill of waste, becomes an economically un-viable disposal route (Waite 1995).

10. RECOVERIES AND ENERGY FROM WASTE

The recovery from waste as well-defined within the Waste Strategy is to achieve done of the followings. The statutory recovery targets as set by the Doha Qatar Ministry of Environment (MoE) are;

Composting

Recycling

Energy Recovery

Other forms of Materials Recovery

Source: QSAS

11. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

Sustainable construction is meeting environmental and social duties, and same while successful effectiveness. The important features of sustainable construction are similar to those set for sustainable development. The end result is to decrease a firm's detrimental things on the environment. Sustainable construction is usually used to describe the application of sustainable development to the construction industry, and balances 4 elements are following;

Effective protection deed of the environment

Prudent use of natural resources

Social growth which recognizes the wants of everyone

Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment (CIRIA1, 2001).

The industry is distinct by a number of subdivisions, all who plan, design, build, alter or maintain the built environment. Also its subsidiaries, those who making materials, suppliers, and end of life occupiers or owners. The entire life cycle of any structure, from initial concept to demolition must be encompassed in the meaning of sustainable construction. Buildings and structures alteration the face of towns and countryside, and their construction, use, repair, maintenance, and demolition consume vast amounts of energy and resources compared to many other industrial sectors, (DETR, 2000).

13. WHAT THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CAN PREPARE

There is the first step in moving to sustainable development; it is recognizing the strategic benefits of business environmental management can carry and to ensure that commitment to the environmental development exists in company (Welford1, 1998). In business, the concept of sustainability also embraces the three themes of the environment, economy and society. Bring changeover to sustainable construction, individual firms must comprehend and receive the devastating things their activities are having upon the environment, and the status of operating in an environmentally friendly manner.

They will then have to commit to not only approving to modification how they function, but really set up a pro-active outline for all employees, suppliers, and sub-contractors to adhere to. Sustainable businesses that show social corporate responsibility profit financially through more efficient actions and use of resources expand their corporate image; and maintain a modest advantage, (MaSC, BRE, 2005).

There are a number of steps firms can take towards sustainable construction, as identified by CIRIA, (2000).

Create a commitment to address their influences

Aim to be the finest and standard their performance

Life cycle costs of products and their impacts

Communicate with stakeholders with environmental and social reports

Work with others in the supply chain to increase the act

Develop staff awareness through training

14. PROFITS OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

The ten themes for action discussed above simply make good industry intelligence, e.g. designing a project for minimal waste (DTI1, 2003).

14.1 ENVIRONMENTAL

Sustainable act can deliver significant business efficiency & success.

Thin construction and pollution deterrence can create the calculable cost savings.

Recycling further waste material will minimize landfill tax and material purchasing costs.

Improve competence through regulatory obedience

Improve public and enhanced particular standing.

Evasion of pollution events, averting penalties, law court overheads and bad public relations.

14.2 SOCIAL

Improving proof of output improvements for staff complicate in environmental and social presentation improvement provisions.

Commencing a social viewpoint, financial aids rise from better affairs with the clients, local groups and other sponsors.

Well health and safety performs to develop competence and minimize accidents, saving both managerial time and legal costs and fines.

14.3 ECONOMICAL

There are significant chances available to improve or stand marketplace Point.

Making and business Doings will not be forced by local opposition, regulatory bodies or client necessities.

Improving project supply is essential to construct trust with the clients, improve success and advantage.

Inspire mutual, favorable long term relations with the clients.

Source: CIRIA1, 2001

15 THE TEN THEMES FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

The essential to develop performance in the construction industry is necessary for it to become more sustainable. Managing and decreasing the environmental influences of buildings and structures, and the methods of construction, is a common starting for many organisations wishing to address sustainability (DETR1, 2000).

Re- use existing built assets, and renovate which develops their sustainability, where likely.

Design for minimum waste. Design out waste at all stages of product, building or structure, think about using recycled materials.

Aim for lean construction, working on continuous improvement and high quality work.

Decrease energy in construction; be aware of energy consumption during construction.

Decrease energy in use, consider more energy efficient solutions in the design stage.

Do not pollute, understand environmental impacts and adopt an EMS or ISO to manage.

Preserve and enhance biodiversity throughout the construction process, from extraction of materials to landscaping buildings.

Conserve water resources, design for water efficiency in buildings.

Respect people and their local environment, be responsive to community and consider your workforce.

Set Targets to measure and compare your performance against others, set targets for Continuous improvement.

(DETR1,2000 & DTI1, 2003)

16. CONCLUSIONS

The Chapter is generally defining to establish recommendation for Sustainable Waste Management in Doha Qatar Construction industry. The chapter will review the research objective of the dissertation; the chapter will then come to an end with an investigation of suitable recommendation of regarding Sustainable waste management system in Doha Qatar construction industry.

CHAPTER three

Alternative materials for construction

CHAPTER THREE

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS USR FOR CONSTRUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

Maximum of the waste will be produced from the construction industry and the source of the waste is produced must be known at the early stage as it will expansion good effect in waste management development. The materials identical like concrete (aggregate), concrete (Block) metal (steel), timber and glass.

2. CONCRETE (AGGREGATE)

Each quantity of concrete waste that is recycled for aggregate in fresh concrete would protect almost a quantity of key aggregate that comes from the countryside or dredged from the seas. Recycling concrete keeps money, and has further environmental aids.

2.1 THE KEY REASONS OF THE WASTE OF CONCRETE ON THIS SITE COMPRISE

Unexpected modifications on design

Improper proportions of aggregate, water and cement

Purchasing too much

Over pouring

Pumping waste

Incorrect use of material

2.2 METHODS IN WHICH TO RECYCLE CONCRETE

Recycle the concrete and use it as aggregate for other local site as new concrete; it will protects/save the aggregate and waste disposal charges.

The Recycle concrete waste as sub base in roads or fill-in works.

The leftover aggregate can be transported off the site, by the loading vehicles as soon as the endorsed sum has been used on site.

concrete-disposal

Figure 0: Concrete Waste (Aggregate)

Source: http://civilpents.blogspot.com/2012/02/recycled-concrete-aggregate.html

3. CONCRETE (BLOCK)

Approximately 6 % to 28 % of concrete blocks results in waste in construction (QCS. 2007).

3.1 THE CHIEF BASES OF THE WASTE OF CONCRETE BLOCKS COMPRISE

Unexpected changes on design

Over purchasing the quantity

Incorrect conduct of the blocks and stacking

The arrangement of the concrete walls and the columns

3.2 METHODS IN WHICH TO RECYCLE CONCRETE BLOCKS COMPRISE

Practice greater pieces for erosion control

Castoff as a substitute for landscaping stone

Castoff as new aggregate for other sites

Castoff as sub base on new roads

3.3 RECYCLING CONCRETE WASTE

Initially, when the concrete waste has been elated from the baskets on site to the loading trucks to be additional elated off-site, we need to discover, waste of concrete can be used for it, Then eliminate whatever within the concrete that could contaminate the concrete, (CIRIA, 1995) and then crush the concrete with a mobile crusher to the size of aggregate, if need be. Then store the crushed concrete in a separate area, so no other materials are dumped there. Then use it for other requirements.

Construction Waste Recycling

Figure 00: Concrete Waste (Block)

Source: http://www.ds-crusher.org/sloution/Construction_Waste_Recycling.html

4. REUSE OF METAL (STEEL) RECOVERED FORM WASTE

"Steel is an ideal material to recycle. In fact 30% of all steel products in construction are now made from recycled steel" (Guthrie, P M, 1997) and the steel waste in construction it is able to recycle up to an approximately 90% of the total (Karim. K, 2000).

4.1 CAUSES FOR METAL WASTE

Over-ordering

Faulty workmanship

Incorrect handling

Improper type of metal

Scope of cut-offs on site

Approach of workers

4.2 REDUCE METALS

The greatest method to decrease any metal waste is to order a "made to measure" bar from the manufacturer, it would be set for use and will not essential any decoration or bending.

4.3 RE-USE OF METALS

Principal is to check the prospects on site, and if it is not, you might stock the materials somewhere else, for it to be used another time. When storing the metal, it is necessary to separate it from other metals. Loading trucks are wanted to carrying the metal waste off-site.

4.4 RECYCLING METALS

The greatest method to recycle metal is to shift scrap metal by the quantity to local salvage operators, the price of metal differs according to the variety. Materials identical like aluminum will be more valued than say ferrous metals. The metal waste that is made on site, will then be disposed of in the according basket, and additional later dumped into the loading trucks for it to be used somewhere else.

1641988-91588-james-hardy-altopress-maxppp-construction-waste-rebar-from-reinforced-concrete

Figure 00: Metal Waste (Steel)

Source: http://www.ds-crusher.org/sloution/Construction_Waste_Recycling.html

5. TIMBER

The timber creation waste can come in various methods, from pallets which other goods were shipped with, engineered timber and treated timber. Wood wastage typically happens in residential construction industry and renovation works doings as the main produce. This is faced to concrete waste, which is more often produced in commercial sites involving demolition. Other factors such as the geographical location of the site and the framing methods used effect the amount of timber waste made.

5.1 REDUCE TIMBER

The method to decrease the timber waste is best that those who are comprise to timber work are proper train with carpentering skill to handle for minimal the off cut or incorrect cut of the measurement. All timber are wanted to store in dry area due to water moisture will damage the timber.

5.2 RE-USE OF TIMBER

Most of the timber that are not completely loss are to cut and store for advance use in storage or un-nailing all other timber after use and move them for more use if are refillable.

5.3 RECYCLING TIMBER

Chipped timber, off cut and damage timber are to dump in selected bin and transport to local timber recycles operators to create recycled ply wood or other timber material.

Construction Waste: Construction wood waste texture.Many thanks to H. Walfridsson and colleagues at RGS90 for giving me access to the disposal area.Link to my other waste photos:http://www.sxc.hu/browse. ..

Figure 00: Timber Waste

Source: http://www.rgbstock.com/photo/mifsfSy/Construction+Waste

6. GLASS

Effects of Glass Waste

Over ordering/purchasing

Lowly Handling of the Glass

Accidents containing shattering or breaking of glass

Poor transportation handling

Faulty workmanship

Incorrect storage

RECYCLING GLASS

After the glass has been elated from on-site to the loading and then off-site, the glass waste used on site is crushed, the cullet is usually mixed with new glass in order to create new goods. The glass is transported to the furnace, it is then heated and melted at approximately 1500°C, which are then molded and complete into other forms. Glass can be recycled millions of times over. (Wikipedia, 2010)

3.5 SUMMARY

Use of materials such as recovered and recycled material from construction and demolition of waste, more research should be carried out in order to recover and reuse more waste types from construction the waste.

CHAPTER four

Research methodology

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

This chapter will also include the method of the dissertation was conducted and the reason why it has been conducted under a positive way. The principal used in the aim of the methodology and questionnaires survey will be discussed what the each questions in the questioner trying to classify. It also comprises information on how data collection has been used on this dissertation.

VARIETY OF RESEARCH METHODS

There are various methods or technique can be carried out the research. On the other hand when we consider the data collection method there are initially 2 methods are available which are well known Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The way depends on the research are and incident of which the research is done.

2.1. QUANTITATIVE METHOD

The point of Quantitative method consideration of the size and magnitude and perceived as being more analytical as well. This will be containing the structured interviews, surveyors, symbolic models and physical experiment also (Dr. Holt 1988). The ultimate goal of Quantitative research, as stated by Miller and Brewer (2003:193) is to find as mall a set of variable as possible which explain as much as possible.

The objective of this method is to be verified the theory and it not to make a new progress. In attendance for by using the base theory and collecting information related to it using as structure work to the research

2.2. QUALITATIVE METHOD

The Qualitative method is done by using subjective methods very often based on personal opinion perception. This is directed by doing observation, opinion, formless interview and open question surveys (Dr. Holt 1988). The method typically includes "in depth investigation of phenomena through such means as participant observation, interviewing, other documentary analysis or ethnographic study" (Regin 1004:91). The evidence that is collected under this method is classified in to 2 units which are expletory research and attitudinal research (Dr. SG Naoum 2007).

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE METHOD

No

Description

Method

Quantitative

Qualitative

1

Role

Details discovery bases on the proof or records

Based on opinions, viewers and perceptions

2

Connection between researcher and subject

Distant

Near

3

Scope of discoveries

Nomothetic

Idiographic

4

Connection between theory/concept and research

Trying or Validation

Development

5

Nature of data

Hard and reliable

Rich and deep

Table 00 - Quantitative and Qualitative Method

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

The research objectives are comprising, chapter two review the sustainable waste management, chapter three method of waste management, the research email and online questionnaires survey has been conducted in Doha - Qatar construction industry. The research aim to examine the report of sustainable waste management in Doha - Qatar construction industry.

COMMON DATA COLLECTION METHOD

There are three method of data collection available as following Table 00

No

Data collection Method

Desk top study

Questionnaires

1

It can be investigate what is sustainable waste management, recycling work, advantage and disadvantage of selected company. This can be search library & Journal articles on the internet

It sent to Quantity Surveying firms in addition to obtain current waste strategies information. The way was selected because of quick and cheap to administer than conducting interview from every authority (Bayman, 2004)

Table 00 - Method of data collection

THE METHOD USED ON THIS DISSERTATION

The questionnaires survey was more useful in this research. On the other hand, emails and online questionnaires survey were preferred and the questionnaires result which will be describe by the following data analysis chapter.

QUESTIONNAIRES

The questionnaires were used to collect some data which is associated to this dissertation. The format of the questionnaire which was sent to the candidates is attached with the appendix. The part of the question comprises 12 questions. (http://www.esurveyspro.com/Survey.aspx?id=5c9b324e-0b8b-4f81-a8e8-638fa6d7a252).

DATA ANALYSIS

Once the data has been collected, the data was analyzed based on the questionnaires. The response was evaluated with the MS Excel as following;

The responses was estimated

The question was evaluated with the percentage in an individual format

Finally the graph was created based on the above noted information

The data collected form the questionnaires was more useful to understand the issues for the Sustainable Waste Management in the Doha - Qatar construction industry.

INTERVIEWS

Interviews were done in order to get a better understanding of line of work waste recycling collections and how they are set up. Interviewees were chosen founded on the done questionnaire, their agreement to participating in an interview, and the notes they had prepared. A range of interviewees were chosen counting certain of with trade waste recycling and collections. The oral interviews are the number one system for this kind of study as it allows for enlarged appointment of the interviewee (Holbrook et al, 2003), and allows for responses to facial expressions such as puzzlement (Bryman, 2004). Afore each interview, a communication explanation what the interview would comprise, and appropriate dates was mailed to the designated defendants. Succeeding this, the phone call was prepared according to position an interview, if the defendant had not responded to the correspondence by now. Subsequent to the interview a common interview conductor was made according to allow for a semi-structured interview (Bryman, 2004). The selection in the applicants' practices meant that for each interview the guide had to be adapted. The questions on the guide were not certainly requested in the particular instruction, and permitted the interviewee to answer in their own words (Bryman, 2004).

CONCLUSION

The study of the Dissertation subject in Sustainable Waste Management in Doha - Qatar construction industry. Where the simple principles of the study part were known through the literature and research were carried out to explain. The literature review was principally to classify the realities that are associated to the subject part. The email and online questionnaires survey approaches were used in this research. It was actual easy and effective method to conduct the questionnaires surveys.

CHAPTER five

Analysis the questionaries

CHAPTER FIVE

ANALYSIS THE QUESTIONNAIRES

1. INTRODUCTION

The chapter will describe the questionnaires analysis to observe the success of waste and finding the blocks of sustainable waste management in Doha - Qatar construction industry. The questionnaires analysis conducted within the Doha - Qatar construction companies.

2. QUESTIONNAIRES ANALYSIS

The questionnaires are made up of twelve questions (http://www.esurveyspro.com/Survey.aspx?id=5c9b324e-0b8b-4f81-a8e8-638fa6d7a252). The leading 3 questions are common and the continuing (nine questions) questions are based on the research focus. Regarding the above mentioned 12 questionnaires, I have send more than two hundred (150) questionnaires to the Doha - Qatar's Construction Companies through the mail and online questionnaires survey. According to my request, I have received only 9 response from varies organizations. For the reason that the companies was busy at that instant. (Refer the attached appendix AA)

QUESTION - 01

No

Description of Organization

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Contractor

2

22.222%

2

Consultant

7

77.777%

3

Designers

-

0.00%

4

Others

-

0.00%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate what is the organization and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate what is the organization

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the designers, others have been responded as 0% and the consultant firm has been responded as 77.777%, the rest of 22.222 have been responded by the contractor. According to the above statement, it is clearly stated that the contractor and consultant are mostly involving with the current construction in Doha - Qatar.

QUESTION - 02

No

Description of Profession

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Project Director

3

33.333%

2

Engineer

4

44.444%

3

Quantity Surveyor

2

22.222%

4

Others

-

0.00%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate what is the profession and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate what is the profession

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the others has been responded as 0% and the Project Directors or Project Managers have been responded as 33.333%, the Engineers have been responded as 44.444% and the rest of 22.222 have been responded by the Quantity Surveyors. According to the above statement, it is clearly stated that the Engineers are mostly involving with the current construction activities in Doha - Qatar.

QUESTION - 03

No

Description of Experience

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

01 - 10 Years

2

22.222%

2

11 - 20 Years

4

44.444%

3

21 - 30 Years

2

22.222%

4

> 30 Years

1

11.111%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate the experience and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate the experience

Regarding the consideration of above chart, between 1 to 10 years' experience have been responded as 22.222%, between 11 to 20 years' experience have been responded as 44.444%, between 21 to 30 years' experience have been responded as 22.222% and the rest of 11.111% have been responded by above 30 years' experience. According to the above statement, the % record of the best Doha - Qatar Companies hired between 11 - 20 years' experience people in related to the field.

QUESTION - 04

No

Description of Waste Estimate

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

00 - 10 %

6

66.666%

2

10 - 30 %

3

33.333%

3

30 - 50 %

-

00.00%

4

> 50 %

-

00.00%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate waste estimate for the previous project and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate waste estimate for the previous project

Regarding the consideration of above chart, between 0 to 10 % have been responded as 66.666% waste, between 10 to 30 % have been responded as 33.333% waste and between 21 to 50% and above 50% have been responded as 0.00% waste. So, According to the above statement, the % record of the Doha - Qatar Companies are tried to reduce the waste during the construction works.

QUESTION - 05

No

Description of Response

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Yes

7

77.777%

2

No

2

22.222%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 01 - Demonstrate waste neutrality on the construction project and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate waste neutrality on the construction project

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the most of the Doha - Qatar Companies have been responded as 'Yes' (77.777%) and the rest of the companies have been responded as 'No' (22.222%). So, According to the above statement, it is clearly stated that utmost the Doha - Qatar companies are not confident about the waste neutrality on the construction project by Next year.

QUESTION - 06

No

Description of Response

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Yes

9

100.00%

2

No

-

00.00%

3

May be

-

00.00%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate Important for sustainability waste management and Reply

Figure 01 - Demonstrate Important for sustainability waste management

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the Doha - Qatar Construction Companies have been responded as 'Yes' (100.00%) and 0.00% has been responded as 'No' and 'May be'. According to the above statement, all the companies have been responded positively as Sustainable waste management is important to the constriction deeds.

QUESTION - 07

No

Description of Response

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Most Important

1

11.111%

2

Important

6

66.666%

3

Not Important

2

22.222%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate SWM is important of manage well on project and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate SWM is important of manage well on project

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the Most Important have been responded as 11.111%, Important have been responded as 66.666%, and the rest of 22.222 have been responded by Not Important. According to the above statement, most of the Doha - Qatar construction companies are stating that the waste management is key to manage water effectively on construction project so that the cost implication (cost saving) to the client.

QUESTION - 08

No

Description of Waste

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Material Storage

3

33.333%

2

Workmanship

3

33.333%

3

In excess of material ordering

1

11.111%

4

Others

2

22.222%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate Major case of waste on construction project and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate Major case of waste on construction project

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the Material Storage and Workmanship have been responded as same 33.333%, In excess of material ordering have been responded as 11.111%, and the rest of 22.222 have been responded by other opinion. According to the above statement, most of the Doha - Qatar construction companies are declaring that material storage and workmanship is the major cause of waste on construction project.

QUESTION - 09

No

Description of Response

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Yes

5

55.555%

2

No

4

44.444%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate Formal Waste Management plan in company and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate Formal Waste Management plan in company

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the Doha - Qatar Construction Companies have been responded as 'Yes' (55.555%) and 44.444% has been responded as 'No'. According to the above statement, the formal waste management plan is to some extent important to the construction deeds.

QUESTION - 10

No

Description of Response

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Yes

5

55.555%

2

No

4

44.444%

Total

9

100.00%

Table 00 - Demonstrate Practical Application for the Waste Management System and

Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate Practical Application for the waste Management System

Regarding the consideration of above chart, the Doha - Qatar Construction Companies have been responded as 'Yes' (55.555%) and 44.444% has been responded as 'No'. According to the above statement, the practical application for the waste management system is to some extent important to the construction deeds.

QUESTION - 11

No

Description of Waste

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Other (Specify) - 1

6

100%

2

Other (Specify) - 2

5

83.33%

3

Other (Specify) - 3

4

66.66%

Table 00 - Demonstrate Issues for the block of waste management and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate Issues for the block of waste management

Regarding the consideration of above chart, 100.00% have responded at least one, 83.33% have responded by 2 answers, 66.66%% have responded by all three answers. In presently Doha Qatar construction industries aspect so many barriers for the sustainable waste management.

QUESTION - 12

No

Description of Waste

Responses (Nos)

Responses (%)

1

Other (Specify) - 1

6

100%

2

Other (Specify) - 2

5

83.33%

3

Other (Specify) - 3

4

66.66%

Table 00 - Demonstrate best answer for the waste blocks and Reply

Figure 00 - Demonstrate best answer for the waste blocks

Regarding the consideration of above chart, 100.00% have responded at least one, 83.33% have responded by 2 answers, 66.66%% have responded by all three answers. There are some best answers available to overcome these barriers.

In Doha Qatar some of the construction companies are having formal waste management system but all the Doha Qatar construction companies are practicing the waste management for the period of their construction periods.

The respondent/replay states sustainable waste management is respectable and valuable for the construction. The most of answers state this sustainable waste management is decrease the budget for the waste and, also sustainable waste management is most suitable for high value Constructions.

3. SUMMARY

The chapter proposed to define the investigative questionnaires survey results and the questionnaires was established form the data collection from the Doha - Qatar Construction Industries. In addition to find the success of waste management and issues which are blocks apply to sustainable. The following chapter will going to do the conclusion and recommendation for the research.

CHAPTER six

Conclusion and recommendation

CHAPTER SIX

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

INTRODUCTION

The chapter set out to finding and makes recommendation for the sustainable waste management in Doha - Qatar construction industry and it will be revived the research objectives of the dissertation and will continue with the recommendation for the sustainable waste management system in Doha-Qatar construction Industry.

CONCLUSION

The information was done according to the process of Data Collection through the expletory Questionnaires and explanations of the results. It was also the purpose of the research to offer approval and ideas. The one (1) objective was to refer literature associated to the research. The Tow (2), Three (3) and Four (4) objectives were fulfilled, for the reason that literature and Questionnaires, sufficient questionnaires to request and received answers of effectiveness/helpfulness of the waste management and blocks put on to sustainable.

Use the alternative materials for instance recover and recycle materials for the Demolition and Contraction waste and the municipality solid waste may possibly to be an another way to approach the overall difficult or problem of waste by the sectors. And such materials as concrete (aggregate), concrete (Block) metal (steel), timber and, glass are be % case in points of how companies can create practice or use of such materials. Certain types of technology or methods are still developing and the necessity. Developing market to promote such as materials by the construction sectors in Doha - Qatar. Additional research has a duty to be carried out in order to recover and reuse extra waste type from Demolition and Construction waste.

RECOMMENDATION

Most of the construction industry waste %ly drives into landfills, growing the weight on landfill loading and process. Waste prevention is even more helpful than recycling. Doings that prevent waste manufacture, reusing building materials, not only cut garbage and recycling gathering costs but also decreases materials expenditures. Minor variations to building perform and additional care to detail can add up to significant savings to the producer, homebuyer and the environment.

3.1 SOLUTIONS WANTED IN ORDER TO DECREASE THE WASTE

3.2 SOLUTIONS FOR CONCRETE ON CONSTRUCTION SITES

organize certain occasions to any additional concrete on site is used for other uses, that will needs to planning and start up to help complete definite methods to re-use the excess concrete.

Use sand or issue representatives to pour pump waste back for reprocessing

Some additional authoritarian fines for workers who are wrongly handle the material and therefore create waste, which will be helping to add the pressure to handle the materials with more certain attention, so that the amount of work is at the suitable values.

Confirm the formwork condition, so that there won't be a deflection, bulging or efforts.

Decrease the difficulty of the design in an early stage of the construction

Decrease the amount of changes for the period of construction

Do some training and motivation to the workers.

3.3 RESULTS FOR CONCRETE BLOCKS ON CONSTRUCTION SITES

Correct wrapping is required in order to stop chipping and cracking at junctions and edges on concrete

The blocks should not be loaded too much from top to bottom or else they are at risk of falling and possibly destructive the material or become a danger to employee or personal in the construction sites.

The blocks has to be put in storage on flat sides to decrease as many risks for additional expenditures

Reuse off cuts in area might able to practice.

Try to evade excess of ordering/purchasing and order within the time divinely of structure.

Decrease of design modifications during the construction stage.

Responsibility of attention, and quality should be developed in the middle of workers

Storing places has to be designated in order to degrees the waste

3.4 RESULTS FOR METALS ON CONSTRUCTION SITES

Try to evade in excess of ordering/purchasing and order within the time divinely of structure.

Re-use scrap metals. e.g. certain provisional work are required in construction

The drop of design modifications during the construction stage.

Decrease the difficulty of the design in an early stage (design stag).

Storing positions has to be ready in order to degrees the waste

To be confirmed the metal is corrosion resistant.

3.5 RESULTS FOR GLASS ON CONSTRUCTION SITE

Try to escape in excess of ordering and order within the time of divinely structure.

Put on the anti-scratch material for glasses to stop flaw material at site.

The greatest method to decrease any glass of waste is to order a "prepared to measure" from the builder, so that it won't be any trimming or cut

3.6 WAY OUT FOR TIMBER ON SITE

The lumber blocking on level at the store and cover to degrees the waste (e.g. twisting, warping)

The marked and chosen part, lumber and plywood element board cut-offs that can be used as fire blocking, parts in header construction and in other methods as following;

Watchful preparation to make sure collection and ordering of best economical sizes.

Protect from waster to store under shelter.

Parts and bits of timber that are reusable are needed to cut and un-nailing for further work.

Formwork should be designed to reduce the incidence of cutting.

Watchful preparation to reuse.

Careful stripping and movement of formwork to get the most out of the number of use before being discarded

Prevent using timber formwork and encourage to use metal or plastic formwork due to more durable and able to reuse in future construction project.

3.7 WAY OUT FOR THE EXCAVATED MATERIAL

Limited Excavate

Use additional material at the same or any other site for leveling (e.g. landscape)

Keeping of topsoil has to be done prudently to avoid pollution.

SUMMARY

The chapter concludes the dissertation and makes recommendation for the further research. And the chapter once include with the introduction, background, aim, objectives, outline research methodology and structure of the research, the chapter two includes with review of literature, the chapter three continue with the alternative materials used in construction industry, chapter four describe the methodology of the research, chapter five explore the questionnaires and the chapter six conclude the research conclusion and recommendation

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.