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Project Scope of Plumbing Systems, Tools and Techniques
Toronto is a big city and it contains so many different locations like East York and Leaside, Etobicoke, Long Branch, Mimico, New Toronto, North York, Scarborough and York and Former city of Toronto as per zoning details available on www.toronto.ca
Out of these locations, we chose North York because it’s convenient for the owner as it is good for his business.
This project is being commenced to construct a new residence for Mr. and Mrs. Wilson. The new residence will be a single-family doublestorey dwelling built on a 4000 sq. Ft. lot (lot #19) located at Lotus Court, Don Mills, North York, Ontario, Canada (M3C 1P0). The project is to commence on February 2, 2020 and will complete no later than December 31, 2020.
This home is being constructed as one of the latest building materials and codes and with the help of latest technology to minimize energy consumption. Construction will be supervised and managed by the General Contractor Building Firm, the prime contractor who might also subcontract several parts of the construction. All labour will be bonded and all materials will meet or exceed local building code guidelines.
PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The main agenda of this project is to construct a new home for Mr. Wilson and family. The new home should be completed in December so that the owner’s family may move in during the first two weeks of 2020. Project should be completed by december 31, 2020 so that they can establish residence in the community with the appropriate lead time for their jobs
This is a Fixed-Price Contract
Contractor commitment estimate is CAD $950,000.
After completion of the house should have the following:
- Driveway – 570 sq. ft.
- Main home – 1050 sq. ft.
- Garage – 530 sq. ft.
In this particular project we will explain all the plumbing systems, tools and techniques that will be used accordingly. The materials provided in this house is all according to the owners requirement and also as per the plumbing codes of Canada.
A basic need for a successful building is a well-functioning plumbing system. The word ‘Plumbing’ derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes. The Plumbing System is the science of installing, repairing and servicing the pipes. It includes the waste pipes, fixture traps, vent pipes, building sewers, drainage pipes and devices within and outside the house, which distributes water in the different part of house.
Water Supply System, Drainage System, Sanitary Drainage Piping System, Vent Piping System are some of the parts included in the Plumbing System.
TYPES OF PLUMBING SYSTEMS
The plumbing system in any building serves two main purposes. The first is to bring water into the structure for human use, and the second is to remove wastewater of various types. There are three main types of plumbing systems: potable water, sanitary drainage and stormwater drainage.
Potable Water System
The potable water system in any building brings water into a structure; this water comes from the community water main. There is a valve on the water main itself for each structure that can be used to shut off its water supply. From there, a single pipe brings water into the structure, and it is then distributed to individual fixtures through a network of pipes. A meter keeps track of how much total water enters the structure.
DWV System (Drain, waste & vent) or Sanitary Drainage System
The sanitary drainage system removes wastewater from a building. It consists of pipes that take out human waste and fecal matter as well as wastewater from cooking, laundry, etc. The sanitary drainage system is connected to a series of vent pipes that go through the roof vertically; this allows for the venting of gases and for the entire system to operate at atmospheric pressure. The sanitary drainage system ultimately takes wastewater to the community sewer system.
Stormwater Drainage System
The purpose of the stormwater drainage system is to carry rainwater away from a structure. In older structures, rainwater simply drains into the sanitary drainage system, but in buildings that are more modern a separate system of drains carries water into the community storm sewers. Gutters are a part of the stormwater drainage system visible from outside the structure; other components, such as drains and pipes, are below the ground.
REQUIREMENTS IN DESIGNING THE SYSTEM
DETERMINING THE REQUIREMENTS
The main objective here is to determine plumbing system requirements and pipe sizing is to understand the building occupancy and plumbing fixture requirements. Plumbing fixture quantities are determined by the project architect based on code requirements IPS (international plumbing code) as well as project-specific requirements.
Step 1: AVAILABLE PRESSURE
The first step in sizing water supply pipes is to determine the available pressure. This can be determined by calling the local water authority and requesting the domestic-water service pressure at either the required area or cross streets for the project site. Based on the available pressure at the city’s connection location, hydraulic calculations can then be completed to determine the available pressure at the building.
Step 2: DETERMINING THE PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS
The second step is to determine the pressure required for the building and all plumbing fixtures. As previously stated, plumbing codes dictate a maximum pressure of 80 psi to any plumbing fixture. Minimum pressures depend on the fixture or service type.
Step 3: WATER SUPPLY DEMAND
The required water supply demand needs to be calculated for the entire building. To determine the total demand, we have to tabulate and summate all of the water supply fixture units for all fixtures within the building.
Step 4: PRESSURE LOSS THROUGH BUILIDNG SUPPLY SYSTEMS
The fourth step is determining pressure losses through the interior-building supply systems. It is assumed that the civil engineer is providing the high and low water pressures at the building connection. Additional losses through the interior-building supply system will include piping friction losses, elevation losses, equipment losses, and other miscellaneous components with pressure losses.
Friction loss :Piping friction losses can be calculated by knowing the piping material, pipe size, and flow rate.
Elevation loss :Elevation losses (or gains) occur when there is a physical change in elevation in the piping system.
Equipment loss :Equipment losses are determined based on the type of equipment and associated pressure drops per the manufacturer.
Step 5: LONGEST DEVELOPED PIPE LENGTH
This step will determine the longest developed pipe length to the furthest hydraulically remote fixture/appliance. The longest developed length is calculated by determining the overall piping distance from the main-entry water service to the furthest hydraulically remote fixture.
Step 6: ALLOWABLE FRICTION LOSS
This step involves using the information from previous steps to determine the allowable friction loss in the piping system. The allowable friction loss will be used with the IPC to determine pipe sizes and flow-rate requirements.
Step 7: PIPE SIZE AND FLOW REQUIREMENTS
In this step with having all the information of the previous steps, and as per the plumbing and building codes the pize size and flow requirements are determined.
Step 8: PIPE SIZING
The final step is finalizing the pipe sizing on the associated plans. This includes summing up the water supply fixture units for all fixtures and totalizing the water supply fixture units through the entire piping system.
SCHEMATIC VIEW OF THE SYSTEMS
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Figure 1 Components of a typical residential potable water-distribution system.
Figure 2 Components of a typical residential DWV system.
INSTALLATION OF THE DWV AND POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS
UNDERGROUND ROUGH IN
- PRELIMINARY SURVEY
The plumbing personnel initially hires a surveyor or analyse the site himself and locate the existing water supply & waste connections and locate and mark their positions onsite.
- PLANNING & DESIGNING UNDER GROUND CONNECTIONS
With the obtained field data, the Plumbing personnel design the underground connections and decide where the water supply and waste systems enters and leaves the building.
The ground is excavated to a depth of a minimum of 5” in order to prevent the system from being close to the frost zone.
- LAYING & CONNECTING WATER SUPPLY AND WASTE SYSTEM
The pipes are lowered into the excavated trenches and they are connected by necessary means below the frost depth.
- TESTING THE SYSTEM
The pipes are tested using a compressor inducing a pressure of 100psi and then they are checked for leaks.
The excavated trenches are backfilled and compacted well.
ABOVE GROUND ROUGH IN
This phase takes place after the construction of the frame of the building has been done.
The necessary points in which fittings must be provided and the paths of the various stack vents, the waste stack, fixture drains, water supply pipes etc are marked on the existing frame of the structure.
- DRILLING HOLES
The necessary drills and the necessary bits are used to create holes and openings on the walls necessary for the pipe connections passing through.
- CONNECTING THE DMV PIPE SYSTEM
The DMV system is first connected as it occupies more space, PVC pipes are used to connect the pipe system and the networks are created as per the specification with the necessary fittings and features.
- TESTING THE DMV PIPE SYSTEM
The pipes are tested using a compressor inducing a pressure of 100psi and then they are checked for leaks .
- CONNECTING THE WATER SUPPLY PIPE SYSTEM
This is done after the installation of the DMV system the system is made of PVC pipes and the hot water and cold-water pipe systems are installed separately. They are connected using the necessary fittings.
- TESTING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
The pipes are tested using a compressor inducing a pressure of 100psi and then they are checked for leaks. Then the leaks are sealed if found.
This phase takes place after the finishing of the walls have been finished and the structure is in the end stage of the project.
- VERIFYING THE OPERATING SYSTEM
The established pipelines are checked once again to ensure work has been performed as per the specification to facilitate the required scope.
- CONNECTING FIXTURES
The Necessary fixtures such as showers, faucets, shower heads etc and they are provided necessary sealants at the ends of fixtures to ensure no leakages and then the fixtures are checked for quality.
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USE
In this two-storey residential building we used an up-feed system. Low multi-storey buildings also use an up-feed system if water demand is not excessive. A series of basement pumps provide the needed pressure to raise the water to desired heights and maintain pressure as fixtures are used. Up-feed systems are useful on multi-storey buildings that are not high enough to warrant the expense of a rooftop water storage system but do have height limitations. A system may require two or more pumps. As water demand increases, a second or third pump will come online to increase flow and maintain pressure. It should be noted that the supply available from the central water system main should be large enough so that demands of the building can be met without reducing water service to neighbouring buildings. This system does not have a reserve water supply.
Figure 3 An Up-feed distribution Systems
PIPING, TUBING, AND FITTINGS
Water supply is piped through buildings to a number of fixtures for various purposes. Potable water is delivered to sinks, lavatories, and water heaters. Typically, it is also run to toilets (water closets) and exterior fittings. Pipes for most applications are hidden inside the walls, floors, or ceilings of a building structure.
Pipes can be exposed in areas where their visibility is not important, but must always be protected from freezing. Plumbing systems use valves to control the flow of water into a building, within parts of large buildings, and to individual fixtures. The types of pipe used for potable water systems are given in the table below
Figure 4 Pipes hidden inside the walls
SELECTION OF THE PIPES
Decisions on which to use are based on cost, length of service expected, and the required quality of the water. Some water contains large amounts of minerals and is very corrosive. Pipes that carries hot water must withstand temperatures of 180°F (82°C) or higher. In special applications, the effect of the liquid or gas to be carried must be considered. Gasoline, liquified petroleum gas, and similar materials have a substantial effect on pipes. Plastic, copper, and steel pipe and fittings are manufactured with a variety of diameters and wall thicknesses. The thicker the pipe wall is, the greater the pressure the pipe can carry. Galvanized steel pipe is strong, long lasting, and can be used for hot and cold water. Piping and fittings are joined with threaded connections. Welded steel pipe is made by rolling a flat hot steel strip into a circular shape and butt-welding the edges as they are pressed together. It is available in the same grades as galvanized steel pipe. Red brass pipe is used for water lines, especially if the water contains corrosive elements. It is manufactured with threaded fittings and plain ends that are brazed to socket-type fittings. Copper water tubing is an excellent hot and cold-water distribution material. It is resistant to corrosion and does not rust. Flexible copper tubing is easy to bend into various shapes, reducing the number of fittings needed.
TYPES OF PIPES USED:
Every drainage system shall be connected to a public sewer, a public combined sewer or a private sewage disposal system.
PIPES USED FOR DWV SYSTEM:
(a) SOIL PIPE:
These pipes are used to carry human sewage from WC.
PVC, or polyvinyl chloride pipe, is the most commonly used as soil pipe.
The PVC pipes are flexible, lightweight and easy to handle. It is also durable and cost effective. PVC
pipes come with verity of fittings which makes it multi use product.
(b) WASTE PIPE/ DRAIN PIPE:
Waste pipes are used to carry sullage.
The same PVC pipes are used in waste pipes.
(c) WASTE STACK:
The waste stack is the pipe which is the main vertical pipe that starts with its connection to the main building drain and terminates with its connection to the stack vent.
For waste stack pipes the PVC pipes are used.
(d) STACK VENT/ VENT STACK:
Stack vent or stack vent are placed vertically and joined to the traps in such a manner for the ventilation and for the prevention of water seal from being siphoned out of them.
For stack vent pipes the CPVC pipes are used.
POTABLE WATER SYSTEM:
In Potable water system we are using Up feed system as height of the building is not more than 30m (2 storey residential building). According to the pipe used in this water system, it is categorised as Internal and external water system.
INTERNAL WATER SYSTEM:
In this system, as per the Plumbing code, we can use only CPVC, PEX, Copper pipes for the internal conveyance of water. We are using CPVC pipe because of its price and availability. Water is conveyed from the outside of the building to the inside via this pipeline.
EXTERNAL WATER SYSTEM:
As use of CPVC pipe is also allowed by plumbing code outside of the building to convey water inside of the building, we are using the same.
TYPES OF FITTINGSUSED:
FITTING USED FOR DWV SYSTEM:
For DWV system where pvc pipes are used solvent welding connection method is used to join the pipes.
- Combo tee
- Sanitary tee
- Baffle tee
4. Wye (Y) fitting
FITTINGS USED FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
In water distribution system where CPVC pipes are used glue connections are used but this glue is different than the used in PVC pipes.
1. Slip fitting
2. Threaded pipe adapters
3. Grooved pipe adapters
4. Pipe hangers
MAJOR TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED FOR INSTALLATION
TOOLS USED IN DWV SYSTEM:
- PVC pipe cutter
- Metal file and brush
- PVC primer
- Pipe glue
- Fixed wrenches (standard and metric)
- Pipe wrench (large and small)
- Adjustable crescent wrenches
- Basin wrench
- Hand auger (also called a plumber’s snake)
- Bucket, rags, and sponge
TOOLS USED FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
- Scissor Shears.
- Ratchet Shears.
- Plastic Pipe Saws.
- Internal Pipe Cutters
- Tubing Cutters
OTHER TOOLS USED FOR PLUMBING SYSTEMS
Right Angle drill
Power bore bit
Hole saw bit
Portable Grinders (4-1/2” and 7”)
Heel Inlet 90
Power bore bit:
Hole saw bit:
Male & Female Adapter:
Heel Inlet 90:
The most common methods for connecting pipe are shown in figure below.
Figure 5 Connections for steel pipes
Figure 6 Connections for Plastic fittings
Water pipe uses butt-welded, socket, and threaded fittings. The bell and spigot connection is used on sewer lines, while the flanged connection is used in applications such as petrochemical and power-generation piping. No hub pipes are joined using gaskets and stainless-steel straps.
Couplings are used to connect two pipes end to end. Elbows change the direction of the pipe. A tee permits one pipe to intersect another. The end of a pipe can be closed by installing a coupling and screwing a plug into it with a cap that screws over the end of the pipe.
Plumbing fixtures are vented to prevent water from being siphoned when a nearby fixture discharges water into the system.
A P trap is a plumbing device which prevents odorous gas in plumbing drains and sewers from rising up through a toilet, sink or floor drain into a home
Valves are used to control the flow of water, oil, gas, and chemicals in pipe distribution systems. Some of the frequently used types are shown in the figure below.
Typical valves used in water distribution systems: (a) ball valve, (b) pressure-reducing valve, (c) stop and waste valve, (d) swing check valve, (e) strainer, (f) relief valve.
WATER METER AND SHUT OF VALVE
Condensation forms on the exterior of cold-water pipes when they contact warm humid air. Condensation can drip from a pipe into a wall cavity, ceiling, 720or floor, wetting insulation and penetrating drywall or other wall finishes. To prevent damage from condensation, pipes are covered with preformed fiberglass or foam insulation that is usually ½ in. to 1 in. The insulation is fitted around the pipe and taped. Hot water pipes are insulated to reduce heat loss to the cooler atmosphere. Most plumbing units, such as water heaters, have insulation built inside their jackets, and extra batts can be taped to the outside.
A typical simple sanitary piping system for a residence operates in different steps. The waste from the fixtures drains through waste pipes or branch soil pipes into a soil stack. Each waste pipe is then sized to carry the flow from a fixture. The branch soil pipe is sized to carry the flow from all the fixtures flowing into it. The soil stock extends below the building and connects to the building drain and sewer, which in turn connects to the central sewer system or a septic tank. Each fixture has a vent pipe of its own connected to a vent stack running through the roof. The vent pipe keeps the water in the trap of the fixture under atmospheric pressure, thus eliminating the chance of its being siphoned out when another fixture is used. For example, if the waste system were a closed installation, a trap in a lavatory could have the water siphoned out when a connecting toilet is flushed. Some fixtures, such as toilets, have a trap built into the unit. The house drain will have one or more cleanouts. A cleanout is a pipe fitting with a removable plug through which an auger may be run to dislodge obstructions in the pipe. Piping used for sanitary systems may be cast iron, copper, plastic, lead, glass, and clay. These are used for various drainage, waste, and vent installations (DWV). Cast iron soil pipe and fittings are gray iron castings suitable for installation and service for storm drain, sanitary, waste, and vent piping. Copper tubing used for sanitary waste systems is classified as DWV (drainage, waste, vent). Copper tubing is used in residential, low-rise, and high-rise buildings for all parts of drainage plumbing, including soil and vent stacks and soil, waste, and vent branches. Plastic pipe suitable for DWV systems include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), styrene rubber plastic (SRP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). All three are used for sewer systems, and ABS and PVC can be used for drain, waste, and vent systems. Local plumbing codes should be checked to verify approved uses.
In a typical project life cycle there are different steps that are co-ordinated and managed from the beginning, throughout and till the closing of the project. The construction manager has to manage and maintain co-ordination between different contractors and specialized sub-contractors in order to complete the project in given constraints and to maintain a smooth flow of construction processes. In this project we will explain the co-ordination between the project manager and plumbing contractor throughout the project lifecycle.
The initiating phase of the project life cycle is the starting point of any project. In this phase the scope of the project is in conceptual stage. Plumbing sub- contractor has no role in this particular phase.
This phase is started when the need and scope of the project is identified. Moreover, in this phase of the project the conceptual design is converted into the full detailed design and the need of all the staff is identified in order to complete this particular project including the general contractor and other specialized sub-contractors like Plumbing, electrical and HVAC.
This is the phase where the actual construction process is done. In this phase a construction manager schedule meeting, bondings and site visiting with all the sub- contractors to actually interpret the work they have to execute.
The execution of the project is done in following steps:
In this stage the detailed plans are given to the sub- contractors so that they can understand the tools, techniques they have to use and also the actual positions of each of the fixture in the house and moreover the steps he has to do in below ground rough-in stage and above ground rough-in stage.
The first step is Setting the sewer accommodation stubs that is, where the home’s sewer line connects to the municipal sewerage system marks the beginning of the plumbing system installation. This step happens before the concrete foundation is poured.
When the actual construction starts the project, manager has to make a schedule for different types of sub- contractors like plumbing contractor so that they can they can co-ordinate with the ongoing construction of the building. The next step includes where the basic lines are laid without making the final connections happens when the framing is complete, but before hanging the drywall. The main drains of the plumbing system are all installed and connected to what’s called the stack. Rough-in drain fittings for sinks and bathtubs are also installed at this stage, as are the water supply pipes and toilet flanges.
All these installation steps of the plumbing systems cannot be executed in the one after the other without the construction progress of other building materials and steps like framing and installation of the drywall so proper communication and co-ordination is required between the project manager and plumbing contractor in order to complete the plumbing systems.
The next step includes the setting large pipe fixtures. Major Plumbing fixtures like showers and bathtubs are often too large to set once doorways and walls are framed. Any fixtures larger than sinks generally get set before the walls are framed.
The last part in this phase consists the installation of the fixtures. Sinks and toilets are always installed in thelast, after finishing the walls and flooring. From there all the fixtures can be connected to the supply and drainage systems.
In this phase almost all the installation processes are done for the plumbing systems, but proper communication between the project manager and plumbing contractor is required because all of these installations and construction steps are interdependent on each other.
In the closing phase of the project after all the construction is completed the plumbing contractor ensures that all the fixtures are properly installed. Then, these systems are then tested according to their pressure requirements.
SOURCES AND REFERENCES
- Construction materials, methods and techniques: Chapter 39 Plumbing systems
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