Project management plan of solar photovoltaic power plant

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Introduction

Solar photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity and many solar photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. As of September 2010, the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada, 80 MW), Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 60 MW), the Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany, 54 MW), the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany, 53 MW), the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 50 MW), the Moura Photovoltaic Power Station (Portugal, 46 MW), and the Waldpolenz Solar Park (Germany, 40 MW).[1]

This proposal is for setting up a 50 MW (10 MW x 5 Phases) capacity solar photovoltaic power plant based on latest High Power Modules using cells consisting of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Technology / Tandem Junction Thin Film Technology, which has been successfully developed for commercial implementation and has been delivering reliable power generation around the world for some years now. The solar photovoltaic power project is proposed to be set up in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, India which is one of the best suited locations in terms of higher annual direct normal insolation (DNI), favourable climatic conditions and land availability Some photovoltaic power stations which are presently proposed will have a capacity of 150 MW or more.

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Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use innovative tracking systems that follow the sun's daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than conventional fixed-mounted systems. There are no fuel costs or emissions during operation of the power stations.

AIM

This proposal examines the techniques of project management used in development of a solar photovoltaic power plant Project. The background of the project will be described including its planning, Execution, Operation & Maintenance and Financial analysis a project; critical success factors for the project implementation are identified presenting an overview of project structure, methods, risks, etc.

Objectives

The objectives for the project are the successful completion of solar photovoltaic power plant, on budget, on time and safely. The objectives are also to develop 'world class' project management best practices within the solar industry.

Research Methodology

The PMBOK Guide states that projects are composed of two kinds of process: project management processes and product-oriented processes (which specify and create the project product). Project management processes are further divided into initiating, planning, execution, controlling and closing processes. This proposal mainly concentrates on the core processes of planning, execution and controlling.

The project management process groups depicted in figure 1 are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. Initiating defines and authorizes the project or a project phase. Planning defines and refines objectives and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address. Executing integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan for the project. Monitoring and controlling regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives. Closing formalizes acceptance of the product, service, or result and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end. Figure illustrates the relative depth, breadth, and interrelationship between these process groups.

Planning

Planning in organizations constitutes both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental property of intelligent behaviour. This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of a plan or integration of it with other plans. It combines forecasting of developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them. An important albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds with forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.

The above scenario is often used to describe the formal procedures used in the creation of documents, endeavour, diagrams, meetings to discuss the important issues to be addressed, objectives to be met and the strategy to be followed. Beyond this planning has a different meaning depending on the political or economic context in which it is used.

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There are ten core processes:

scope planning

scope definition

activity definition

resource planning

activity sequencing

activity duration estimating

cost estimating

schedule development

cost budgeting

10. Project plan development.

The output from these processes project plans makes up an input to the executing processes. A distinction is made between the project plans proper and the project performance baselines.

Executing

Executing consists of the process used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.

Executing Processes

Project Plan Execution - performing the activities

Complete Tasks/Work Packages

Information Distribution

Scope Verification - acceptance of project scope

Quality Assurance - evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis; meeting standards

Team Development - developing team and individual skill sets to enhance the project

Progress Meetings

Monitoring and controlling

Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes which have performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken place. When necessary to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.

Monitoring and Controlling includes:

Measuring the on-going project activities.

Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline.

Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly.

Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented

This must be done in an integrated manner at regular intervals, not in a haphazard, arbitrary way. Any significant departures from the budget and the schedule must be reported immediately, because these anomalies affect the viability and the success of the entire project.

This will lead to adapting the project schedule, budget and/or work plan as necessary to keep the project on track. The project progress and changes must be documented and communicated to the team members in a consistent, reliable and appropriate manner for each level of the project team.

Success criteria for project control

Use the project plan as the primary guide for co-ordinating your project.

Consistently monitor and update the plan.

Remember that quality communication is a key to control.

Monitor progress on the project against the plan on a regular basis.

Get involved.

Adapt the project schedule, budget and/or work plan as necessary to keep the project on track.

Document project progress and changes and communicate them to team members.

What monitoring should accomplish?

Communicate project status and changes to other project team members

Inform management (and clients or customers) about the status of the project

Provide the justification for making project adjustments

Document current plans compared to the original project plan

Project Performance must be measured regularly to identify the variances from the plan. Variances are fed into control processes in the various knowledge areas. To the extent the significant Variances are observed. Adjustments to the plan are made by repeating the appropriate project planning process.

Project reports should be:

clearly state the current status of the project

compare actual achievements with the planned target achievements

draw attention to critical issues

identify problems and propose solutions

promote effective management and control

Project status reports

"It is not simply a matter of keeping the scope from creeping, or a matter of completing the cheapest and fastest project; it is establishing the appropriate Scope and delivering the commensurate product, service, or result".

All the above processes have been iteratively revealed/implemented during the Proposed Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant project, which was revealed below.

Technology

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The proposed plant shall comprise High Power Modules using cells consisting of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Technology / Tandem Junction Thin Film Technology. Efficiency is varying from 6% - 18%. Temperatures beyond 25oC have nominal effect on the efficiency of the modules. White Tempered Glass, EVA Resin and weather proof film along with Al frame is used for extended outdoor use. Lead wire with weather proof connector shall be used for output terminal.

Both the technologies are standalone type which needs no external power or water source and hence is most appropriate for desert region of Rajasthan. Small amount of processed water or compressed air is required only for cleaning of the system.

Indicative scope of work

Electrical

Supply, fitting, fixing of Solar PV Modules with appropriate module mounting structures and frames including overall planning and design of the power plant.

Supply and installation of Junction boxes of appropriate standards with required protection and isolation system.

Design, supply and installation of AC power conditioning units with all protections and controlling arrangement as per specifications to get the desired performance. String monitoring and MPPT features are included as per requirements.

Interconnection of Solar modules, PCUs, transformers LT & HT sides, LT switchgear, etc with appropriate cables and associated materials including supply of materials.

Design, manufacture, supply, installation, interconnection and interfacing of computer aided data acquisition unit as per specification.

Supply, installation complete earthing as required for AC and DC power system, PCU, LT switchgear, Transformer, all metallic cubicles, HT switchgear with materials as required as per relevant standards.

Providing earth-mat and interconnection of array structures with earth pits in the PV array yard.

Design, fabrication, supply, installation of LT power interfacing panel to evacuate power to the grid through PCUs with appropriate capacity circuit breakers, isolators, indicators, metering arrangement with selector switch, CTs, PTs, and copper bus-bars as per requirement in complete.

Design, fabrication, supply and installation of plant monitoring desk to monitor the status of all major equipment's through remote monitoring system including connection to all major equipment's and status to be monitored.

Supply of all other BOS parts e.g. cables, electrical, etc as per the Bill of Material (BOM) which is not covered above.

Emergency DG Set 15 KVA with battery bank and battery charger.

Metering device.

Control Room and Others

Electrical wiring in the inverter room, control room and array yard with supply of cables and wires, switchboards, switches, Junction Boxes, distribution boards for lights, fans, exhaust fans, power points for both 5 Amps and 15 Amps.

Supply and installation of lightning arrestors for inverter room, control room as per relevant standards.

Supply, fitting and fixing of CFL lighting fixtures, FL lighting fixtures, LED lighting fixtures for lighting indoor and outdoor various installations including array yard with required accessories.

Providing of fire extinguisher and sand buckets complying with national or international safety standards.

Civil Works for solar Systems

Topographical survey

Design and construction of appropriate foundation base for holding the module mounting structure with supply of all requisite materials, excavation, concreting, backfilling, shoring and shuttering, etc.

Construction of power plant buildings including inverter rooms, control room as required, office, canteen, etc.

Barbed wire fencing of 3m height for complete power plant and sub-station.

Cable trenches, drainage, etc.

Main gate, side gates and Security guard rooms.

Erection and Installation of Power Evacuation Arrangement

Erection, supply, installation and commissioning of fifty 0.415/33 KV step up transformers and three 33/132 KV step up transformers, 3 phase, 50 Hz, with associated switchgear comprising of circuit breakers, isolators, LT panels, CTs and PTs, etc including metering and protection like over-current, earth-fault, reverse power protection and controls, etc.

Other Fixed Assets

Furniture for inverter rooms, control room and administration/office.

Pantry equipment, change room lockers, etc.

Store racks and cupboards.

Standard Mechanical Maintenance tools.

Engineering and Project Management

Design and Engineering

Project Management and construction supervision

Material Management

Insurance during the project period.

Project implementation schedule

Based on international practices and technological advancements, it is estimated that first 10 MW capacity phase of the project will be supplied, installed and commissioned from project approval and additional 40 MWp of the project will be installed and commissioned in 60 months from project approval.

Executing

Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.

Total project shall be completed within 60 months in 5 (five) stages of 10 MW each from date of sanction of the project.

The modules will be ground mounted and tilted 27 degrees to face the sun. The ground mounting will require a flat level surface and will be set into concrete. The modules will require an area that is unshaded from the sun. Any vegetation underneath the modules will need to be kept to a level below that of the modules in order to avoid shading. All the modules will be at least 1.0m from the ground. It is assumed that this is adequate to keep the modules above the height of sand deposition at the site during sand storm.

Monitoring and controlling

Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.

Monitoring and Controlling includes:

Measuring the on-going project activities.

Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline.

Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly.

Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented

In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and controlling process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan.

Operation and maintenance

Whether a solar plant performs well in the long term and remains technically available depends to a large extent on servicing and regular maintenance. This shall be carried out by designated electrical experts in conjunction with technicians from the respective component manufacturers.

To keep all components optimally available, an electronic data processing unit in the solar power plant will permanently gather and evaluate all relevant performance data and possible error messages. Using target/actual comparison, data from the power plant shall be continually compared with data from an on-site weather station.

Possible errors shall be precisely located and immediately passed on via email, SMS or fax to the relevant service technicians. They can then, from their workplace, conduct fault repair through on-line remote maintenance.

Financial analysis

Assumptions & estimates

The assumptions are made that suppliers will abide by the following:

Provide Safe Working Condition

Consistency of Processes

Adhere to Design Standards

Adhere to Standard Components

Follow the Framework Agreements

The proposed Solar Photovoltaic Power Project is of 50 MWp capacity. Estimated cost of the project is INR Rs. 17 Crores per MWp. (2.42 Million Pounds) The total project cost is Rs. 850 Crores (. Gross aggregate electricity generation has been arrived at 83.22 million kWh per annum. The capacity utilisation factor (plant load factor) is 19%.

Project cost break-up & means of finance

Apart from machinery, installation and commissioning cost, interest during construction, financial institution fees and margin money for working capital is part of project cost. Project financial analysis has been carried out considering debt equity ratio of 70:30. Interest rate at debt part has been considered at 14.29%.

Project Deliverables

The project deliverables are based on the completion of project based on the following:

On time

On budget

No accidents

The fulfilment of original quality requirements

Develop industry project management best practices that are measureable and repeatable

Operational terminal both in the short and long-term

Advantages

The 89 pet watts of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface is plentiful - almost 6,000 times more than the 15 terawatts equivalent of average power consumed by humans. Additionally, solar electric generation has the highest power density (global mean of 170 W/m²) among renewable energies.

Solar power is pollution-free during use. Production end-wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are under development.

PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up, so after the initial capital cost of building any solar power plant, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies.

Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Long-standing examples include satellites, island communities, remote locations and ocean vessels.

When grid-connected, solar electric generation replaces some or all of the highest-cost electricity used during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions). This can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power to provide for use in times of darkness. These features are enabled by net metering. Time-of-use net metering can be highly favourable, but requires newer electronic metering, which may still be impractical for some users.

Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses (transmission losses in the US were approximately 7.2% in 1995).

Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research money has been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is considerable room for improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% in case of concentrating photovoltaic cells and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass-production costs are rapidly falling.

Disadvanges

Photovoltaic are costly to install. While the modules are often warranted for upwards of 20 years, much of the investment in a home-mounted system may be lost if the home-owner moves and the buyer puts less value on the system than the seller.

Solar electricity is seen to be expensive.

Solar electricity is not produced at night and is much reduced in cloudy conditions. Therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required.

Solar electricity production depends on the limited power density of the location's insolation. Average daily output of a flat plate collector at latitude tilt in the contiguous US is 3-7 kilowatt and on average lower in Europe.

Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter) when used in existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4-12%.

Time Scale

Duration/ Period

Task/ Milestone

Week 1 - 2 (01 - 14 Oct, 2010)

Assemble common information through explore resources

Week 3 (15 Oct, 2010)

Research Proposal Assignment 1

Week 3 - 4 (16 - 28 Oct, 2010)

Organize meetings and cart out reviews

Week 5 - 7 (29 - 18 Nov, 2010)

Gather and compile key Data

Week 8 - 12 (19 Nov - 23 Dec. 2010)

Lettering and discussion with supervisor

Week 12 - 13 (24 - 30 Dec, 2010)

Review

Week 14 (31 - 5 Jan, 2011)

Review and submissions