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Practical Completion and Defects Liability Period

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Construction
Wordcount: 4198 words Published: 2nd Aug 2018

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It would be inaccurate for a person, a reader to say they don’t feel different inside when they touch a psychical book page in comparison to when they touch an e-reader screen.

The feel of a book, its cover, its essence and the text somewhere on the first few pages that says ‘First edition’… is enough to make any avid reader smile ear to ear. In 2060 though, one would be smart to do away with that smile if you’re in public as it could be dangerous and matters do tend to escalate quickly.

Salutaris is for those people – the ones who love all things about reading physical books, but have to hide it from the rest of society for fear of being harassed – physically or mentally. It’s for the people who have to live a lie.

Objectives of the Project

Possible consequences of living a lie of this magnitude for an extended period of time include developing paranoia, thinking your secret may be found out at any time. This may hinder social development and a person may grow socially and emotionally inverted. In severe cases, this can escalate to much worse scenarios.

Salutaris seeks to –

Give these people, the literary folk who have to hide their books and knowledge, a sense of belonging.

Give them the freedom to indulge in the books around them without fear of being abused for it.

Be a sanctuary.

1.3 Client

The client for this project plays the role of the Interior Designer as well- Miss. Zuhdeeya Ghouse

1.4 Client objectives

To bring together a group of readers in an unwelcoming future by uniting them using their common interest, in this case physical books, the feel of the pages, the essence of it and the experience.

1.5 Funding of the project

Considering the project type, its funding will be in the form of a loan or grant from a financial institution. With the services provided by Salutaris daily, these costs will be paid off efficiently.

1.6 Appointment of designer and other consultants

The clients Interior Design firm, Feng. was hired for this project. This being the firm’s first large scale project, the client hopes to cement their feet in the design industry with this endeavour. This appointment was formalized with an appointment letter from her to the firm.

(Refer annexure blah)

This project also asks for a number of consultants to deal with different issues such as the old wiring or the building, the structural soundness of the building after years of weather damage, etc.

Considering some of the buildings that make up the British Council are over a hundred years old, and the others are a minimum of 70 years, a structural engineer will be needed to assess the buildings and deem them fit to be built on. Quantity Surveyors are required for preparing BOQs, tender evaluation etc. M&E engineers as well for lighting, plumbing and HVAC. Also needed is a landscape designer to tend to the once lovely gardens of the old British Council in Colombo. An IT consultant is to be hired as well for the computer systems that are to be installed within Salutaris. A Project Manager is also required for overseeing of the construction with the contractor.

1.7 Scope of Consultancy services & Fees

The afore mentioned consultants except the project manager, were recommended by the designer and agreed on by the client thus forming a consortium in which all consultants answer to the designer, except for the project manager who is to be hired via the client. The designer receives 10% of the construction fee.

The other consultants will be paid as follows (Refer next page please.)


Percentage (%) of fee

Mechanical and Electrical Engineer

1% of M&E costs (M&E costs come up to approx. 30% of construction cost)

Structural Engineer

2.5% of total construction cost

Quantity Surveyor

1.5% of total construction cost

Project Manager

0.7% of total construction cost (Paid directly by client)

IT consultant

0.1% of total construction cost

Landscape designer

0.5% of total construction cost

Table 1.

Chapter TWO – Brief

2.1 Clients Brief

The design should include a spacious library, a restoration room for older documents and a viewing room for them.

Budget rooms for writers or any member of the library who may need help because of their reading habits.

Small hall area for poetry and book readings/launches.

It has to look inconspicuous to the passer by.

A good security system – there will be no groups of angry people endangering the safety of Salutaris’ members.

Allowance for landscaping. Natural surroundings are needed for relaxation and thought.

2.2 Investigations – Context Study

The site is surrounded by both residential and commercial buildings. The entrance of Salutaris is situated at the end of a road that branches from Duplication Road – one of the busier roads in Colombo with retail shops and restaurants around the area. The back of the building, opens to a residential area and thus security will have to be located at the back to prevent mindless mobs getting onto the premises.

2.3 Site

The former British Council in Colombo, currently owned by The British High Commission.

49, Alfred House Gardens, Colombo 3

One of the main features of The British Council that makes it ideal for the project is that it is much smaller than it looks from the outside. When one looks at the British Council from Duplication road, it looks like a small building, but you can only measure its scale when you walk on the grounds of the site itself. The British Council is made up of the original building that was build in 1932, and has had newer buildings put up around it.

2.4 Site Pictures

2.4.1 Buildings of significance around the area

Fashion retail store – Fashion Bug

Restaurants – Divine Foods, Cricket Club, Queens cafe

Businesses and stores – Dialog Telecom office, Raux Brothers, Triumph Head Office

Residential structures – Queens Court, The Byzantium

2.5 Demography

As mentioned in the Project Proposal for Salutaris, after doing surveys and other relevant research, it was concluded that the end user demography for this project will be 12 – 30 year olds and older folk (aged 55 and above), due to the fact that smaller children may not get permission from their parents to be there and those aged 30 – 55 may not be able to make time for Salutaris as they need to attend to their families. The main similarity between these people is of course, their passion for reading, and that too of physical material.

2.6 Rules and Regulations

During the construction of Salutaris, certain rules and regulations are to be followed, namely:

The Fire Safety Regulations by the Fire dept. (Refer annexure blah)

The Requirements for Disabled Accessibility by the Ministry of Social Services. [Refer annexure blah]

The standards for libraries as in ‘Neufert, Architects Data (Third Edition)’ (Refer annexure blah)

Chapter THREE – Pre-contract Stage

3.1 Designers Brief

After meeting the client and surveying the site, an accommodation schedule was settled on as follows:

A building housing the library of Salutaris.

A restoration wing that will house a viewing room for old documents

5 accommodation units with attached bathrooms

A reception area

Washrooms x 20

Accounts office + printing/photocopying facilities etc.

A Multipurpose hall for small events

Cafeteria and small kitchen

Storage area

Staff rooms x 3

Guard room x 2 (Front and back entrance)

3.2 Costing & Variety of the Project

It was estimated by the quantity surveyor that the project budget would be approximately 48 million LKR and that an approximate price per sqft of this roughly 8000sqft site is 5500-6000 LKR. Costs for the project will be from labour costs, materials and the logistics of getting them onsite. It will also come from overhead expenses and indirect costs.

3.3 Recommendation of Type of Contract

There are the types of contracts to consider:

The Lump sum contract, in which a fixed sum of money is received for the work done.

The Measure-and-Pay contract, in which certain amounts of money are received for each stage of the work. The amounts paid are in line with the percentage of work done on the project.

The Time and Material contract. In this arrangement, the client, designer and contractor must agree on an hourly or daily fee. This contract is usually chosen when there are uncertainties about issues like materials availability etc.

From the three types of contracts talked about above (lump sum, measure and pay, and time & material), considering the scale of the project, the designer’s preferred contract would be the measure and pay contract. This contract allows for variances and a certain degree of flexibility within the design process for the duration of the project.

3.4 Schematic Design Stage & Design Development

The designer proceeds to prepare schematic design proposals to give the client and consultants an approximation of the project size and in what direction the project is to go in. If after this has been proposed to the client and she wishes to make any changes, it will be applied in the Detail stage.

The design detail stage involves the designer then preparing detail design proposals that will include the changes wanted by the client from the schematic design proposals.

(Refer annexure blah)

3.5 Statutory Approval (Local Authority/City Zoning)

Authoritative approval is needed for the extension of existing buildings and the building of new ones on site. There will be no new buildings built however, as the client doesn’t allow it.

As the accommodation schedule features a cafeteria and kitchen, a Food & Drink license is required.

3.6 Work Programme

So that the client is kept up to date with the work progress, a work program was drawn up.

(Refer annexure blah)

Chapter FOUR – Contract Documentation

4.1 Detail Design Stage

A package of architectural and engineering drawings was prepared by the designer in collaboration with the relevant afore mentioned consultants.

The package includes numerous plans, sections, elevations, relevant schedules and tear sheets, lighting plans, plumbing/sewage plans, design details, colours and materials.

This was cross checked at several stages with the quantity surveyor who confirmed the final package as within the project budget of XXX LKR

A bill of Quantities was then prepared with the required consultants and was approved of by the Quantity Surveyor who, with all issues in mind proceeded to draw up the tender document.

4.2 Tender Document

The tender document comprised of the following –

Instruction to Tenderers

Form of Tender and Appendix

Form of Agreement and Conditions of Contract

Specimen form of Performance Bond

Specimen form of Advance Payment Guarantee


Pricing Preambles

Bill of Quantities

Schedule of Direct Contractors

Schedule of named subcontractors

List of drawings

4.2.1 Invitation to Tender

An invitation to tender was published in The Daily News and The Sunday Observer on the 5th of April and 7th of April 2060 respectively. The tenderers were given a deadline of the 20th of May 2060. Included in the invitation were instructions to the tenderers and basic information about the project at hand.

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.2 Instructions to Tenderers

This is general information to tenderers, including what exactly they should submit, by when they should submit it and how they should give it in.

(Refer annexure blah) Confidentiality Agreement

Due to the social delicacy of this project, it was decided that any potential tenderer and all consultants should sign a Confidentiality agreement if he/she wants to be considered for the post as if word got out, there will be disturbances during construction in the form of protests etc.

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.3 Conditions of the Contract

This includes the detailed terms and conditions for applying for the contract.

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.4 Form of Tender

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.5 Form of Agreement

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.6 General Specifications

The general specifications go according to the following documents issued by the ICTAD (Institute for Construction Training And Development) –

SCA/3/1 Irrigation & Land Drainage

SCA/3/2 Water supply Sewerage & storm water drainage

SCA/4/1 & II Building works Vol. I & II

SCA/8 Electrical & Mechanical works

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.7 Form of Performance Bank Guarantee

Before a contractor can be awarded the contract, he/she has to get a bank guarantee that satisfies the employer of all losses and damages that occur as a result of the contractor not working according to the contract. With this the contractor also confirms he/she has an all risk insurance in case of onsite accidents etc

(Refer annexure blah) Specimen Form of Bank Guarantee for Mobilization Advance Payment

This is an additional guarantee from the bank, stating that they (the bank) guarantee the advance payment as specified by the employer.

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.8 Appendix to Form of Tender

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.9 Pricing Preambles

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.10 Tender Drawing List

(Refer annexure blah)

4.2.11 B.O.Q

This document invoices the materials, parts, labour and other costs of the project in question. This BOQ will also contain detailed terms and conditions the construction of the project and any repairs that may need to be made.

Such a document exists for the contractor to put a price on the work for which they’re bidding. (Refer annexure blah)

Chapter FIVE – Tender Procedure

5.1 Invitation for Bids

(Refer Page 9, Chapter 4.2.1 ‘Invitation to Tender’)

5.2 Pre Tender Meetings

A meeting was held before the deadline for tenders to clear any doubts and to answer any questions that the tenderers had regarding the project. Present at this meeting were the designer and relevant consultants, along with the tenderers.

5.3 Tender Period

The tender period for this project is from the date of the first invitation (5th April 2060) to the 20th of May 2060.

5.4 Receipt & Tender Opening

As mentioned above, the deadline for receiving tenders was the 20th of May 2060 and the tenders received by the end of that day were opened on the 23rd of the month in the presence of the designer, quantity surveyor and project manager.

The results were as follows – (Refer the next page please)

T1 – xxx million

T2 – xxx million

T3 – xxx million

T4 – xxx million

T5 – xxx million

Where ‘T’ is ‘Tenderer’. (All amounts in LKR)

5.5 Tender Evaluation

After much consideration, it was decided that tenderer T3 and T4 were unsuitable for their extreme over estimation of the project costs.

Tenderer T2 did not meet the requirements of the invitation to tender and was thus not considered.

Tenderer T1’s estimation was within range but numerous flaws were discovered in the documents received and they were out of the running.

This left tenderer T5 whose estimation was higher than the estimated project cost, but their work was solid and on recalling the contractors past projects, it was found he was most suitable for this project.

5.6 Negotiation

Meetings were then held with the contractor, client, project manager, quantity surveyor and designer present to negotiate the bid proposal initially received and thereafter the contractor submitted a revised bid proposal for the project.

5.7 Acceptance of Tender

A letter of award was presently sent to tenderer T5 after negotiations took place.

(Refer annexure blah)

Chapter SIX – Contract Administration

6.1 Award of Contract

An ‘award of contract’ letter was prepared for the client to send to tenderer T5 (from now own known as ‘the contractor’).

This letter states among other things, that the mobilization advance has to be paid by the contractor within the said period after receiving the letter. It states the period of completion for the project and asks for certain documents to be submitted immediately, such as the:

Advance guarantee acceptable to the client

Workers compensation policy as per current labour regulations

Programme of work in a format acceptable to the designer.

(Refer annexure blah)

6.2 Bonds and Guarantees

These are a form of security in the project for the client and designer from the contractor should anything go wrong.

A performance bond is needed to guarantee the satisfactory completion of the project by the contractor. This comes in the form of a surety bond by a bank working with the contractor. The surety bond ensures payment is received by the client from the contractor should anything go against contract specifications on the contractors part.

(Refer annexure blah)

A contractors all risk policy covers damages to any relevant property during construction of the project and injuries and damage to third party property during construction.

(Refer annexure blah)

A retention bond is required and states that the contractor will have received his/hers full payment only when the project is signed off as having no off putting issues at the end of construction.

(Refer annexure blah)

6.3 Signing of Contract

On the 15th of June 2060, the signing of the contract between client and contractor took place after both parties agreed on the numerous terms and conditions mentioned in said contract. Copies of previously mentioned documents are also shared between the two parties.

6.4 Project Planning and Management

The contractor will hand in a work programme (Refer annexure blah) that will cover the work that’ll be done from the start of the project construction to the end of it. This will be reviewed and either be agreed on by the designer or will have significant changes made to it till both parties are content with the work programme. The project manager will receive regular updates from the contractor on what is happening onsite till the end of construction.

6.5 Handing of Site

The ‘award of contract’ letter should state that the site is to be handed over to the contractor and it is done so, along with the occupational health and safety requirements (Refer annexure blah) to ensure a safe and well oiled construction site.

6.6 Advance Payment

At the stage of beginning construction, 80% of the project fees should have been paid to the designer who will in turn give to each consultant a certain percentage of the fee, while keeping a percentage of the contractors’ fee in accordance with the retention bond.

6.7 Commencement of Work

Once the work programme submitted by the contractor is approved by the designer, project manager and other involved consultants, the contractor is given the go to start construction.

6.8 Site Organization

This covers numerous topics such as the condition in which the land is given from the client to the contractor; the site should have some sort of temporary lodging for the builders if they are expected to stay onsite. They have to have access to running water and electricity to use their tools etc and for basic hygiene, among other things.

Site organization is also considered for the duration of the project in different ways to those mentioned above. These include scheduled or recorded site visits by the project manager or designer and also consist of all related parties being informed on the works progress regularly.

6.9 Monitoring Progress and Site Inspections

This will take place in the form of weekly or bi weekly meetings held between the designer, project manager, client and relevant parties in which everyone is briefed on work progress and it is made sure that everything is going according to the contract, health and safety regulations etc.

6.10 Site Visits and Instructions to Site

As mentioned in chapter 6.8 (Site Organization), there will be a record of site visits made by the project manager, necessary engineers and the designer. This record will be in the form of a log book, also containing any instructions from the designer or engineers regarding the project that they may have stated when they visited the site at a particular time.

6.11 Quality Control

During the mentioned site visits, inspections of quality will occur, making sure that the construction site is working in accordance to the contract and ICTAD specifications etc.

6.12 Variations and Extra Work

As with any project, there are bound to be some variation from the original brief that was signed off on. These variations have to be documented in a physical form and should always be known by the client and designer.

Such variations can occur:

Due to unavailability of a certain material, leading the designer to have to substitute it for another.

New structural requirements that were not initially identified.

Changes in quantities and measurements resulting from errors in the drawing plan stages,

New changes in government regulations that now disallow certain acts in construction to happen.

6.13 Interim Bills and Payments

During this time, any expenses that the client needs to pay for will documented by the main contractor.

6.14 Delays and Extensions of Time

With the project being in Sri Lanka, there are bound to be delays in work due to multiple factors, foreseen and unforeseen:

The numerous holidays and festivals in Sri Lanka such as The Sinhala and Tamil New year, Vesak, Diwali, Ramadan, Poya days etc.

Monsoon season. The project is in the middle of urban Colombo thus landslides are unlikely, and flooding is not known to be a problem in the area.

Natural disasters

Logistical delays

Chapter SEVEN – Completion

7.1 Practical Completion and Defects Liability Period

After construction was completed a certificate of practical completion was issued by the designer, as was a final defect list, and a copy of that was handed over to the contractor to rectify within the first six months of the end of construction.

(Refer annexure blah)

7.2 Certificate of Conformity

At the end of those six months, there will be an inspection of the building and if it is found that all defects have been rectified, a Certificate of Conformity (Refer annexure blah) is issued. At this point the rest of the contractors fee is paid and he receives a Final Payment Certificate (Refer annexure blah) and with that, his contract is terminated.

7.3 Feedback

Thereafter the project manager informs the relevant parties of the final completion of the project and if needed, meets with the parties for feedback.

Chapter EIGHT – Conclusion

Salutaris is a haven to the literary geeks of this age that are shunned by society or would be shunned, if anyone knew their secret. There are the lucky few that do get away with reading, but they are the exception to the rule.

Social trends can be counted on to blow over but as for how long it will take for this trend to do so, a trend that has been building up for decades, is an uncertainty; and that is one of the biggest reasons Salutaris will prosper.

This feasibility report showcases the entire process of getting this project off the ground, from the appointment of the designer and consultants to the end of construction.


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