Occupational Safety And Health Management System Construction Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
OSH Management system standard has been widely used as an approach and strategy towards improving the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) standards at the workplace. As a Safety Officer , I have been instructed by my organization to get the OHSAS 18001:2007 certification within a year. There were some reasons that forced the Board of Directors took this step. I believe the reasons can be considered by other companies, which are willing to adopt it as their OSH management systems.
OHSAS 18001:2007 is occupational health and safety management standard. It defines a set of occupational health and safety (OH&S) management requirements for occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS).
This new OHSAS 18001 2007 standard was officially published during July of 2007. It cancels and replaces OHSAS 18001 1999.The purpose of OHSAS 18001:2007 is to help organizations to manage and control their OH&S risks and to improve their OH&S performance.They can achieve this purpose by developing an OHSMS that complies with OHSAS 18001:2007.
An OHSMS is a network of interrelated elements. These elements include responsibilities, authorities, relationships, functions, activities, processes, practices, procedures, and resources. These elements are used to establish OH&S policies, plans, programs, and objectives. Simply by meeting all of the OHSAS 18001:2007 requirements (Part 4), you will automatically establish an integrated OHSMS for your organization.
How we meet each of the OHSAS 18001:2007 requirements, and to what extent,
depends on many factors, including:
The size of the organization
The location of the organization
The nature of the organization’s culture
The nature of the organization’s activities
The nature of the organization’s legal obligations
The nature and scope of the organization’s OHSMS
The content of the organization’s OH&S policy
The nature of the organization’s OH&S hazards
The nature of the organization’s OH&S risks
Here are the reasons why implementing OHSAS 18001:2007 would give companies more value and benefits.
Meeting customer’s requirements, especially the customers which have been implementing OHSAS 18001
Attract more companies to deal with the company.
Fulfill stakeholder’s satisfaction
Ensure the company to meet legal and regulations on occupational safety
Improve the quality of workplaces
Improve company’s health and safety performance
Prevent company to pay unnecessary expenditures
Enhance company’s image and company’s commitment to continuous improvement on health and safety matter in the workplace
PENWIN Group is engaged in construction and investment holding activities. It operates in three segments: construction, which is engaged in construction activities; property development, which is engaged in development of land into vacant lots, residential, commercial and/or industrial buildings; manufacturing and quarrying, which is engaged in production and sale of concrete products and quarrying activities.
Element 4.2 : OH&S Policy
HSE Management System
PENWIN GROUP HSE Management System (“HSEMS”) is an integrated system certified by OHSAS 18001:1999, ISO 14001:2004 and MS 1722:Part 1:2005 standards. Committed to the set HSE objectives, the Group has systematically implemented, monitoredand measured significant HSE management elements translated into the Group HSEMS Manual, Procedures and Workplaces Plans; these include:
â€¢ Pro-active management of OHS Risks and Environmental Impacts by identification of hazards, assessment of risks and impacts, and determination of risks and impacts control measures during the project activities’ planning stage;
â€¢ Continuous identification and compliance evaluation of relevant HSE Legislations;
â€¢ Training and competency needs identification and provision for the Group’s employees based on specific roles and responsibilities towards HSE;
â€¢ Effective platforms for consultation and communication of HSE issues by active participation from various levels and functions;
â€¢ Determination of operational control measures to eliminate or reduce OHS risks and environmental impacts by establishment of HSE Standard Operating Procedures and Criteria;
â€¢ Pro-active planning for emergency readiness and responses;
â€¢ Effective programmes for measurement and monitoring of HSE performance covering planned and surprise inspections, statistical analysis and reporting;
â€¢ Non-conformity and Incident Management for managing identified non-conformity and incidents through causal analysis to determine improvement actions and prevention of recurrence;
â€¢ Scheduled internal audits for verification of system conformance; and
â€¢ Scheduled management review for reviewing established system suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. HSE Organisation
The Health, Safety and Environmental Management System has been implemented at all levels of the Group and HSE Organisations are established to effectively manage and monitor its implementation. The HSE Organisations include:
a) Health, Safety and Environment Management Committee (“HSEMC”)
The Committee, led by the CEO & Managing Director meets at planned intervals to review HSE operations and performance.
b) Health, Safety and Environment Committee (“HSEC”)
Led by appointed senior management staff, the Committee is established at corporate level and at all workplaces as part of compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (“OSHA”).
c) Corporate HSE Department
Established at corporate level to assist the Group in establishing, implementing and maintaining the Health, Safety and Environmental Management System.
Health And Safety Policy Statement
Our Goal: “1 Malaysia, Health, Safety and Environment is Everyone’s Responsibility”
The Management of PENWIN Group is committed to the health and safety of its employees and for all who are involved in our projects. Protection of employees from injury or occupational disease is a major continuing objective. We are committed to continuing improvement toward an accident-free workplace through effective administration, education and training. All supervisors and workers must be dedicated to the continuing objectives of eliminating the “near misses” which will greatly reduce the risk of injuries.
Our philosophy is that the well-being of our company and clients is dependent on the health and safety or our workforce. The Directors and Officers of this corporation promise that every precaution reasonable in all circumstances will be taken for the protection of all workers. No job is to be regarded so urgent that time cannot be taken to do it in a safe manner. The welfare of the individual is our greatest concern.
Supervisors will be responsible for the health and safety of workers under their supervision. Supervisors are responsible to ensure that machinery and equipment required for use by each worker are safe and that each worker works in compliance with established safe work practices and procedures for each piece of equipment. Workers must receive adequate training in their specific work tasks to protect their health and safety.
All supervisors, employees and subcontractors must protect their own and fellow workers’ health and safety by working in compliance with the Occupational Health and Safety Act and all applicable regulations and safe work practices and procedures established by our company. We are a member of the NIOSH.
We recognize that a safe work environment can be established and sustained only through a united effort by all employees and subcontractors and that the assistance of each person is required. Your attitude and cooperation in promoting accident prevention will assist in achieving our goal, and make our company the best place to work, one where employees share in corporate growth and success.
Everyone from the President to new workers has the responsibility to ensure a safe and healthy workplace. Let’s all work together to prevent incidents from creating unwanted losses and personal injuries or illnesses.
[BADROL HISHAM BIN HJ BAHARI]
President PENWIN Group
12 September 2000
Health and Safety Responsibilities
Prepare a health and safety policy. Post it in the workplace and review it annually.
Develop a program to implement the health and safety policy. Ensure it is known throughout the organization. Ensure training is in place to make the program work.
Appoint competent supervision.
Ensure that equipment, materials and protective devices are provided and maintained in good condition.
Provide resources so supervisors and workers can carry out safe and healthy work.
Ensure that adequate and suitable planning is done to provide safe and healthy workplaces.
Review accident reports and respond where necessary.
Review middle management’s site inspection reports quarterly.
Delegate authority and responsibility.
Hold employees and subcontractors accountable for the authority and responsibility delegated to them.
Be visibly committed to making health and safety work. Inspire others to make it work.
Ensure that the workforce understands their health and safety responsibilities.
Ensure that equipment, materials and protective devices are provided and maintained in good condition.
Ensure the workforce is trained to safely complete the work and deal with hazards. Ensure that the training is current and regularly reviewed.
Be aware of applicable legislation and ensure compliance.
Ensure there is an effective mechanism for co-operative problem solving amongst workers and supervisors.
Take unresolved health and safety problems to senior management.
Respond appropriately to reports of problems and to Joint Health and Safety Committee/Health and Safety Rep recommendations.
Ensure procedures and practices are established so workers can carry out safe and healthy work.
Establish a system to review the health and safety program. Ensure it is up-to-date.
Review supervisor’s safety/toolbox talks
Review accident/incident reports. Ensure corrective actions are taken.
Conduct a formal inspection of a job site once a month.
Report quarterly to senior management on the status of health and safety performance.
Hold supervisors accountable for the authority and responsibility delegated to them and hold workers accountable for their responsibilities.
Be visibly committed to making health and safety work. Inspire others to make it work.
Ensure that workers use or wear the equipment, protective devices or clothing that the company requires to be used or worn and that it is in good condition.
Ensure that workers receive appropriate training to use or wear the equipment, protective devices or clothing that the company requires.
Establish procedures and practices to ensure that workers can carry out safe and healthy work.
Ensure that workers comply with the Occupational Health and Safety Act, applicable regulations and the company’s policy and program.
Ensure that workers are aware of potential hazards and have dealt with, or are dealing with, the actual hazards in the workplace.
Plan and communicate work assignments to enable workers to produce safety.
Involve workers in work planning and problem solving.
Provide orientation to new crew members.
Conduct weekly safety talks and weekly site inspections.
Review safety aspects of each task with crew.
Conduct accident or incident investigation.
Encourage workers to report health and safety problems
Respond quickly and appropriately to worker concerns and cooperate in their correction. Take matter to higher level if beyond supervisor’s authority/ability.
Report safety problems to middle management.
Be aware of the applicable legislation and company procedures.
Set an example by being consistently safety conscious, and insisting on the safe performance of work.
Supervise, advise and coach workers as required.
Observe the work in progress and provide positive input to the worker.
Use or wear the equipment, protective devices or clothing that the company requires.
Work safely in accordance with the company’s or the client’s health and safety policy and program, and with the Occupational Health and Safety Act and applicable regulations.
Do not remove, displace or interfere with the use of any safeguards.
Report unsafe conditions to the supervisor, after taking appropriate immediate action.
Report all accidents, injuries and near-misses immediately to the supervisor.
Work in a way that will not endanger yourself or others.
Advise other workers of unsafe conditions or work practices.
Participate in solving health and safety problems.
Provide recommendations to the supervisor to improve health and safety.
Element 4.3.1 : Planning For Hazard Identification, Risk Assesment and
Job Hazard Analysis
The purpose of our Job Hazard Analysis is to identify, control or eliminate potential or actual dangers in a job or task.
Factors to be considered in assigning a priority for analysis of jobs include:
Accident frequency and severity: jobs where accidents occur frequently or where they occur infrequently but result in disabling injuries
Potential for severe injuries or illnesses: the consequences of an accident, hazardous condition, or exposure to harmful substances are potentially severe
Newly established jobs: due to lack of experience in these jobs, hazards may not be evident or anticipated
Modified jobs: new hazards may be associated with changes in job procedures
Infrequently performed jobs: workers may be at greater risk when undertaking non-routine jobs, and a Job Hazard Analysis provides means of reviewing hazards
PENWIN Group management and supervision is responsible for ensuring all work is safely planned; the Job Hazard Analysis will assist in determining firstly, what are the steps in the job; secondly, what are the potential hazards in the job; and finally, what are the protective measures for the safety of our worker(s) assigned to do the non-routine work.
Procedure for Completing a Job Hazard Analysis
Breakdown of Job Steps
Job or task identified for analysis by supervisor
Supervisor overseeing the job breaks job into steps (with assistance from crew members, h & s rep etc)
A job step is defined as a segment of the operation necessary to advance the work
Keep the steps in the correct sequence
Identify Actual/Potential Hazards (refer to checklist in appendix)
Once the basic steps have been recorded, potential hazards must be identified at each step. This is based on observation of the job, knowledge of accident and in jury causes, and personal experience. To identify potential hazards, the supervisor may use questions such as these (this is not a complete list):
Can any body part get caught in or between objects?
Do tools, machines or equipment present any hazards?
Can the worker make harmful contact with objects?
Can the worker slip, trip or fall?
Can the worker suffer strain from lifting, pushing or pulling?
Is the worker exposed to extreme heat or cold?
Is excessive noise or vibration a problem?
Is there a danger from falling objects?
Is lighting a problem?
Can weather conditions affect safety?
Is harmful radiation a possibility?
Can contact be made with hot, toxic or caustic substances?
Are there dusts, fumes, mists or vapours in the air?
After completing the risk assessment and having taken account of existing controls the company should be able to determine whether existing controls are adequate or need improving or new controls are required. The following provides examples of implementing the hierarchy of controls.
Elimination – modify a design to eliminate the hazard, e.g introduce mechanical lifting devices to eliminate the manual handling hazard.
Substitution – substitute a less hazardous material or reduce the system energy e.g lower the force, amperage, pressure, temperature, etc .
Engineering Controls – install ventilation systems, machine guarding, interlocks, sound enclosures, etc.
Signage, warnings and/or administrative controls – install alarms, safety procedures, equipment inspections, access controls.
Personal protective equipment – safety glasses , hearing protection, face shields, safety harnesses and lanyards, respirators and gloves.
Eliminate the Hazard
This is the most effective measure, some examples are:
Choose a different process
Modify an existing process
Substitute with less hazardous substance
Improve environment (ventilation)
Modify or change equipment or tools
Contain the Hazard
If the hazard cannot be eliminated, contact might be prevented by using enclosures, machine guards, worker booths or similar devices.
Revise Work Procedure
Consideration might be given to modifying steps that are hazardous, changing the sequence of steps or adding additional steps (such as locking out energy sources)
Reduce the Exposure
These measures are the least effective and should only be used if no other solutions are possible. One way to minimizing exposure is to reduce the number of times the hazard is encountered.
Communication of Job Hazard Analysis to Workers
When the Job Hazard Analysis is completed, the results must be communicated to all workers who are, or who will be, performing the job. The job hazard analysis must be discussed by the employees performing the job to ensure that all the basic steps have been noted, are in the correct order, have suitable controls and be documented and signed by the worker and supervisor. Supervisors will ensure that workers are following the appropriate control procedures.
Hazard Reporting System
PENWIN Group is committed to identifying and removing or controlling hazards. The hazard reporting system is a worker-oriented process. Workers are in the best position to identify the hazards in the workplace because they are the ones who perform the work. Workers act as a second set of eyes for supervisors.
Report any perceived hazard verbally to the site supervisor.
Provide recommendations to the supervisor on how to eliminate or control the hazard.
If the supervisor does not respond to your concern you are to inform management.
Discuss the hazard and controls with the worker and complete the Hazard Identification Form.
Respond to the worker’s concern by the next shift.
Ensure that the form details the action or non-action which will be taken.
Provide a copy of the completed Hazard Identification Form to middle management.
Middle Management Responsibilities
Ensure action is taken to address the hazard identified.
Initialize and date the Hazard Identification Form.
See ATTACHMENT for:
Hazard Identification Form
Risk assessment is the process where you:
Analyze or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard.
Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard.
In practical terms, a risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made, you evaluate how likely and severe the risk is, and then decide what measures should be in place to effectively prevent or control the harm from happening.
Risk assessments are very important as they form an integral part of a good occupational health and safety management plan. They help to:
Create awareness of hazards and risks.
Identify who may be at risk (employees, cleaners, visitors, contractors, the public, etc).
Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done.
Prevent injuries or illnesses when done at the design or planning stage.
Prioritize hazards and control measures.
The aim of the risk assessment process is to remove a hazard or reduce the level of its risk by adding precautions or control measures, as necessary. By doing so, you have created a safer and healthier workplace.
Assessments should be done by a competent team of individuals who have a good working knowledge of the workplace. Staff should be involved always include supervisors and workers who work with the process under review as they are the most familiar with the operation.
In general, to do an assessment, you should:
Evaluate the likelihood of an injury or illness occurring, and its severity.
Consider normal operational situations as well as non-standard events such as shutdowns, power outages, emergencies, etc.
Review all available heath and safety information about the hazard such as MSDSs, manufacturers literature, information from reputable organizations, results of testing, etc.
Identify actions necessary to eliminate or control the risk.
Monitor and evaluate to confirm the risk is controlled.
Keep any documentation or records that may be necessary. Documentation may include detailing the process used to assess the risk, outlining any evaluations, or detailing how conclusions were made.
When doing an assessment, you must take into account:
the methods and procedures used in the processing, use, handling or storage of the substance, etc.
the actual and the potential exposure of workers
the measures and procedures necessary to control such exposure by means of engineering controls, work practices, and hygiene practices and facilities
By determining the level of risk associated with the hazard, the employer and the joint he Ranking or prioritizing hazards is one way to help determine which hazard is the most serious and thus which hazard to control first. Priority is usually established by taking into account the employee exposure and the potential for accident, injury or illness. By assigning a priority to the hazards, you are creating a ranking or an action list. The following factors play an important role:
percentage of workforce exposed
frequency of exposure
degree of harm likely to result from the exposure
probability of occurrence
There is no one simple or single way to determine the level of risk. Ranking hazards requires the knowledge of the workplace activities, urgency of situations, and most importantly, objective judgement.
One option is to use a table similar to the following as established by the British Standards Organization:
Note: These categorizations and the resulting asymmetry of the matrix arise from the examples of harm and likelihood illustrated within the British Standard. Organizations should adjust the design and size of the matrix to suit their needs.
Definitions for Likelihood of Harm
Very Likely – Typically experienced at least once every six months by an individual.
Likely – Typically experienced once every five years by an individual.
Unlikely – Typically experienced once during the working lifetime of an individual.
Very unlikely – Less than 1% chance of being experienced by an individual during their working lifetime.
Definitions for Severity of Harm
Potential severity of harm – When establishing potential severity of harm, information about the relevant work activity should be considered, together with:
a) part(s) of the body likely to be affected;
b) nature of the harm, ranging from slight to extremely harmful:
1. slightly harmful (e.g., superficial injuries; minor cuts and bruises; eye irritation from dust; nuisance and irritation; ill-health leading to temporary discomfort)
2. harmful (e.g., lacerations; burns; concussion; serious sprains; minor fractures; deafness; dermatitis; asthma; work-related upper limb disorders; ill-health)
3. extremely harmful (e.g., amputations; major fractures; poisonings; multiple injuries; fatal injuries; occupational cancer; other severely life shortening diseases; acute fatal diseases)
Definition for Risk Level – Tolerability Guidance on necessary action and timescale
Very low – These risks are considered acceptable. No further action is necessary other than to ensure that the controls are maintained.
Low – No additional controls are required unless they can be implemented at very low cost (in terms of time, money, and effort). Actions to further reduce these risks are assigned low priority. Arrangements should be made to ensure that the controls are maintained.
Medium – Consideration should be as to whether the risks can be lowered, where applicable, to a tolerable level and preferably to an acceptable level, but the costs of additional risk reduction measures should be taken into account. The risk reduction measures should be implemented within a defined time period. Arrangements should be made to ensure that controls are maintained, particularly if the risk levels area associated with harmful consequences.
High – Substantial efforts should be made to reduce the risk. Risk reduction measures should be implemented urgently within a defined time period and it might be necessary to consider suspending or restricting the activity, or to apply interim risk control measures, until this has been completed. Considerable resources might have to be allocated to additional control measures. Arrangements should be made to ensure that controls are maintained, particularly if the risk levels are associated with extremely harmful consequences and very harmful consequences.
Very high – These risk are unacceptable. Substantial improvements in risk control measures are necessary so that the risk is reduced to a tolerable or acceptable level. The work activity should be halted until risk controls are implemented that reduces the risk so that it is no longer very high. If it is not possible to reduce the risk, the work should remain prohibited.
Element 4.42 : Competence , training and awareness.
PENWIN Group is responsible for ensuring all employees and supervisors are properly trained. It is committed to providing adequate time and resources to train all personnel to perform their duties in an efficient and safe manner.
Management is responsible for ensuring records of all completed training courses are maintained. A review of all training should take place at the regular management/supervisor meetings and meetings of the joint health and safety committee and must be completed no less than annually.
In addition to participating in supervisory training requirements, operations management will be given the opportunity to attend advanced training in maintaining safety in the workplace.
All construction supervision must attend the following safety competency courses:
Supervisor competency via an accredited organization
First aid and CPR
Fall protection train the trainer
PENWIN Group health and safety program training
Specialized tool and equipment instruction as required
Workers will be instructed by a competent person to ensure that safety is maintained in the workplace. Formal training must be provided for the following:
Personal Protective Equipment (Respirator, hazmat if required)
Tools and equipment (new or specialized)
An evaluation must be completed to ensure workers are familiar with program content and the activities for which they will be responsible.
The objective of training is to ease the implementation of health and safety policies into specific job practices and to raise awareness and skill levels to an acceptable standard. While all employees can benefit from health and safety training, special attention should be given to the training of supervisors, trainers, and workers. Occasions when employee training may be required are:
commencement of employment
reassignment or transfer to a new job
introduction of new equipment, processes, or procedures
The following topics be included in supervisory safety training:
safety and the supervisor
know your accident problems
maintaining interest in safety
instructing for safety
personal protective equipment
material handling and storage
guarding machines and mechanisms
hand and portable power tools
The supervisor is generally responsible for much of the training of workers. This duty, however, is often delegated to an experienced worker. To be an effective instructor, an instructor should:
Receive training in how to instruct.
Prepare an orderly plan for instruction.
Explain reasons why each step must be done in a certain way.
All instructors should be taught how to proceed when training a new or inexperienced employee:
Plan the session beforehand; break the job down into steps; have training aids available.
Explain what is to be done.
Describe all the hazards and protective measures.
Demonstrate each step, stress key points, and answer any questions.
Have the employee carry out each step, correct errors, and compliment good performance.
Check frequently after the employee is working independently to ensure correct performance.
Documented correct work procedures are an invaluable aid in job skills training. External sources for training assistance are industry associations, unions, government agencies, and professional consultants.
Once the health and safety program has been set in place and the program appears to be running smoothly, effort is still required to maintain enthusiasm and interest. Studies have shown that the effectiveness of health and safety educational techniques depends largely on how much importance management is seen to place on health and
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