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Basically, this report contains two tasks starts with an introduction giving a background of the modern method of construction (MMC) and reflecting the aim and objectives of the Project.
One part of the report involved:
Review the history and development of modern method of construction
Sustainable development and construction
The improvement of construction performance by the MMC
The justifications from part-1 are:
There were numerous changes came to the construction industry after the MMC.
MMC gives a wide range of benefits to construction industry
The second part of report involved:
The outline introduction of proposed hotel
Comparison between the traditional and modern method of construction
Conclusion with the case study
The justifications from the part-2 are:
To build a proposed hotel in Wolverhampton MMC is a better preferred method rather than going for a traditional method. This MMC gives better quality building with less onsite labour in a minimum time.
Finally there would be conclusions on each section. In addition, the report consist content pages, references and Bibliography.
Nothing can be accomplished without hard work so as a report on your hands, hence I really hope that the work I have done in this report will be a considerable work.
It's true to say that there are many types of non-traditional method of construction in the UK
than any other country in the world and also numerical types has been growing. Talking about modern method of construction, it's all are better products and processes. By using this MMC, building developers aim to improve business efficiency, quality of building, buyer's satisfaction, the performance of environmental, the sustainability time scale, delivery of time, etc. These Modern methods of construction could provide better quality building with less onsite labour in a minimum time.
This report mainly talking about the method of MMC and their development in the UK construction industry compared with traditional construction. Furthermore the selections of method for specific proposed hotel which will be build in city centre of Wolverhampton.
TASK01: Review the history and development of modern method of construction
Introduction to MMC
The MMC can be defined as those which give an efficient product management process to provide more products of good quality in a minimum time. It has been defined in a many ways which are pre-fabrication, off-site production and off-site manufacturing.
The MMC can be classified for five categories
Off site manufacture - volumetric
There are three dimensional methods produced in the factory, condition prior to transport to site. In this method the dwelling is pre fabricated at off- site then which are assembled on site.
Off-site manufacture - panellised
The flat panel prepared at off- site then assembled on site to make a three dimensional structure. Services, windows, doors, internal finishes and external cladding may also be incorporated.
This method referred to semi-volumetric which are mixed with both volumetric and panellised approach.
Off-site manufactured sub-assemblies and components
Large element that can be included into both conventionally built or MMC dwelling.
Using new ideas method of construction used on-site and use of element in an new ideas such as floor or roof cassettes, pre-cast concrete foundation building up, thin jointed blocks, etc.
The history of MMC
The United Kingdom's construction industry developed strong growth in recent years. UK construction industry is a trend setting construction industry well none for worldwide construction expertises'. Approximately one and half million people employed in the construction industry and over 160,000 firms. UK construction industry growing with the infrastructure and the commercial construction sectors at the forefront of this trend.
Ralph Morton. (2002) states the new forms of construction developed in response to new forms of demand and they transformed the face of Britain. In 1801 no town in Britain, with the exception of London, had a population of more than 100,000 people. Fifty years later there had been a vast increase in the area of housing, London had grown to two and half million, Liverpool to 376 000, Manchester to 303 000.
In the last decade procurement and practice of both public and private work has been subject of huge change. Several wrongs have identified the public and private sector clients' dissatisfaction with the traditional approach within the industry. Poor quality, over budget and late completion also has been increased problem in construction industry.
For ex: Scottish parliament building in Edinburgh
Initial budget-4o million
Final cost-430million and 20 months late.
The 1st step was taken in1994, Sir Michal Latham reported to the construction industry. Now the constructing best practice developed and developing with the support of Latham's and Eagan's reports.
These report led to best value, best practice achieving excellence in construction and new procurement routes and mainly focused in delivering value for money deliver project to time , quality and cost.
Introduction to Sustainable Development and Sustainable Construction
Sustainable development is the process by which we move towards sustainability. Sustainable development focuses on improving the quality of life for all without increasing the use of natural resources beyond the capacity of the environment to supply them indefinitely. As defined in 'The Brundtland Report' (1987):
Within the UK construction industry, the concept of sustainable construction has emerged because of growing concerns on the environmental and social impacts created by the construction activities. By definition, sustainable construction is (Khalfan, M.M.A., 2002: 15):
"The creation and responsible management of healthy built environment based on resources efficient and ecological principles"
In 2004, Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has registered more than 170,000 private construction contractors working in the UK and 93% of these companies employed less than 8 people (DTI, 2004).
The Triple Bottom Line of Sustainable Construction
As a whole, sustainable development or sustainable construction comprises of three broad themes of social, environmental and economic accountability, often known as the 'triple bottom line'. The objectives of these three themes are (Constructing Excellence, 2004):
To recognise the needs of everyone impacted by construction, from inception of a project to demolition. The list will include construction site workers, local communities, the supply chain and people that will use the finished product.
To protect the environment from the impact of emissions, effluent and waste and where possible, to enhance it and use natural resources, carefully.
To increase profitability by making efficient use of resources, which includes labour, materials, energy and water.
Figure 5: The Three Themes of Sustainable Development
(Source: Khalfan, M.A.A., 2002: Figure 2)
Sustainable construction takes account of these objectives in a balance at all stages of a construction project. However, within the context of this research, emphasis will be given the environmental aspect of sustainable construction, at production/construction phase.
The improvement of construction performance by the MMC
The MMC gives a wide range of benefits to construction industry. This includes a range of technologies and processes. By using MMC construction industry can benefit from:
Reduced construction time
The MMC can provide new construction facilities in less than half the time required for traditional construction.
Reduced on-site activity
MMC techniques require less time on site. This can be in the order of 20% of the time required using traditional methods.
Reduced on site disruption
As a many of construction work carry out off-site, the impact to the existing site is significantly low. In comparison to traditional construction, there is a reduction in noise, dust, and light pollution and the site will also benefit from less vehicle movements. As a result, the construction is able to carry on its operation with minimum disruption to the daily activities.
Reduced health and safety risk
Most construction work at the off-site therefore risk will be reduced for the workers and also for third parties.
Improved quality control
This construction makes higher degree of quality assurance. Both contractor and client could able to prove the building before the installation.
Reduced force on on-site parking
Minimum time required on-site for construction so reduced in need for parking. These are the major issue on many construction sites during the major development. The majority of construction related traffic is directed to the factory, causing less impact on the construction site.
Increasing site utilisation
Many construction sites are struggle to accommodate much needed new facilities. The nature of construction enables to provide facilities in many challenging locations such as over rooftops, on gantry style support structures and in enclosed courtyards.
Overcoming skill shortage
Predictable construction progress
Fast and precise
Speed up housing creation
Maintain high standards of design quality
Minimum resource consumption
Makes use of more effective materials
Less period of investment to the client
The background to change has been:
The apparent failure of the industry to satisfy the perceived needs of its customers, particularly in the way it organises and executes projects
Changes in society towards greater openness and accountability, greater efficiency, effectiveness and economy
Changes in IT and technology
Growth in construction professionals
Change in culture of working practices
Spectacular failures of high profile, high value projects
Recent reports into the state of the industry:
Accelerating Change (Rethinking Construction, 2002)
Government intervention in construction through privatisation philosophies e.g. compulsory competitive tendering, European legislation, PFI
Pressure groups forcing through changes i.e. Clients wanting single point responsibility
Impact of quality assurance systems which have evolved into a desire to establish best practices in construction work
Sustainable construction has increasingly gain popularity in the construction industry. It has been recognised as the way forward to improve the performance of the construction industry in the UK. With regards to the construction activities, sustainable construction practices such as waste management, water conservation, energy efficiency, use and procurement of materials and protection of biodiversity, should be given higher priority by the construction team. Emphasis on these practices will benefit the contractors and the whole construction industry.
The outline introduction of proposed hotel
The hotel will be built in the city centre of Wolverhampton which is near to the railway station on a restricted area.
Bed room: 16
Hotel and surrounding area
The site is in a prominent gateway location, on a major arterial route into the city centre, very close to the railway station.
Narrow width between Culwell Street and Lock Street
Levels difference between Culwell Street and Lock Street
Overshadowing and lack of outlook because of Wednesfield Road and
Noise from traffic, railway line and station
Carver blast zone
Site bisected by public footpath
This is a very significant and unique site in terms of its location, prominence and constraints. The appropriate uses for this site are limited and a viable alternative to the proposed student housing seems highly unlikely, particularly in the current economic climate.
It is considered that the proposed high quality buildings on a very difficult yet prominent site will create a positive landmark that has the potential to substantially improve the image of the City and the scheme should be welcomed. The proposed use and buildings will generate a range of benefits identified above.
Comparison between the traditional and modern method of construction
Basically, talking about the traditional method of construction it's very attractive and simple. Most of the people like to build their dream building in the traditional method.
Even though when it's compared with modern method it has some disadvantages. The proposed hotel of comparison between both methods given by below.
In the context of the construction industry, many of professionals would acknowledge that successful construction projects are often attributed to those that achieve the client's requirements and project objectives set out at the outset of the project. Such objectives may include delivery within the stipulated TIME period, construct within the budgeted COST and meet the QUALITY standard set. Other objectives, equally important, may include meeting functional requirements and satisfaction of the clients.
Clients have been increasingly concerned with the overall profitability of projects and the accountability of projects generally. Cost overruns, in association with project delays, are frequently identified as one of the principal factors leading to the high cost of construction (Charles and Andrew, 1990).
In the hotel project, MMC leads to more effective than the traditional method. The MMC will help to ensure cost certainly.
By using of MMC Builders could provide proposed hotel in less than half the time required for traditional construction. So this could help to the client earlier return of money.
Site labour requirement
In the MMC, most of the working process will carry out at off-site. Therefore all of the project members will be working together to maximise the output, in turn reducing the work required on site compared with traditional method. This implies the construction cost will be saved at all the stages.
The standard design details used for MMC therefore hotel will be simplify and minimise the need for specialist design input.
Site installation of the MMC is rapid and quiet operation this can be done just in time without site storage requirement. On the other hand the delivery of huge amount of materials will be reduced so that waste and also cost will be reduce by using MMC against the traditional method.
Return of investment
MMC technique has minimum time on-site because most of building element constructs using pre-fabricates elements, off-site production and off-site manufacturing. This could be in order of 20% time required compared with traditional method, again fast return of investment to the client.
To the client, quality may be defined as one of the components that contributes to "value for money" (Flanagan and Tate, 1997). Vincent and Joel (1995) define total quality management as:
"â€¦the integration of all functions and processes within an organisation in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services. The goal is customer Satisfaction."
Furthermore, in order to achieve successful project quality management three separate drivers to quality management must be managed, namely:
Integration of the project team so as to have a single objective and a common culture
A customer focus for the team thereby facilitating the provision of products and services that will meet the client's needs
A process of continuous improvement in the management of the construction project.
MMC can deliver the hotel as good quality as much techniques providing under the durability. It makes possible a far higher degree of the quality control than a traditional construction project because of the factory controlled environment in terms of pre-assembled units. The hotel of both contractor and client can prove the building before installation on site. Using MMC hotel could ensure majority of internal fitting and mechanical and electrical installations with the good quality control and protecting against the weather damage and delays during the construction.
Speed completion of a construction project is frequently seen as a major criterion of project success by clients, contractors and consultants alike. Newcombe et al. (1990) note that there has been universal criticism of the failure of the construction industry to deliver projects in a timely way. NEDO (1983) states that a disciplined management effort is needed to complete a construction project on time, and that this concerted management effort will help to control both costs and quality. This is tantamount to saying that the client's objectives can be achieved through a management effort that recognises the interdependence of time, cost and quality.
MMC technique requires minimum time on-site because hotel construction going to be built using pre-fabricates elements, off-site production and off-site manufacturing. This could be in order of 20% time required compared with traditional method. This time saving implies:
The site productivity will be increased and also speed.
Earlier return of investment of hotel for the client
Site preliminaries could be reduced as 8% to 15 of the total construction cost.
Reduced in on-site labour requirement to less than a quarter.
The standard design will be used in the project.
Therefore this MMC could make better use of scarce and minimise in total development time with regard to maximum speed.
In the last 25 years over 2,800 people have died by injuries as a result of construction process in Britain. Today health and safety conditions have been improved by the construction professionals. Many of contractors are seeking for improve safety on site for its employees and also subcontractors.
The location of hotel project is close to the rail way station and also restricted area. The risk should be considerable mainly at the working site. The major benefit of using MMC in the hotel project, the health and safety risk involved minimised due to following factors:
Many of the construction and fit out of the hotel will take place in a controlled factory environment where is not affected by the weather condition.
The multi story of hotel will be constructed at ground level minimising risks from working at height.
Safety measures could be strictly imposed and simple to supervise.
Once the installation delivered to site, a fit out modern building requires fewer contractors, far smaller no of deliveries, less construction compound and overall minimises the disruption to the hotel surrounding environment. All of these things reduce the health and safety risk.
When compared to traditional method, overall the complete construction process could be 60% of the total time of traditional method, again reducing probability of incident.
The installation to the hotel will take place off-site. It has fewer people will be around and cause less disruption to the site area. The less period on site also exposes hotel staff and public to minimise risks.
The reduced working progress on site will reduce exposure to risks both for construction workers and the public, again MMC makes much safer from construction.
05) Design integration:
In the MMC the design integration must be considered early and also economy of scale could be achieved through the design.
Once it compared to traditional method the MMC has more preferred method when design integration considered. The following key points are consist benefits of MMC compared to traditional.
At off-site manufacture hotel building gives a pre-assembled unit life spans could vary from 25 to 60 year design life by using frame type and specification employed.
The frame going to be used in the construction of hotel, which benefit from void at roof level allowing easy to re-routing of mechanical and electrical services. During the life cycle of the hotel, floor could be reconfigured with the mechanical and electrical services simply suit in the service void.
The hotel could be relocated en masse to another site, and it will be used for the same purpose where it was originally constructed or re-configured for a different requirement.
In the MMC, most of the hotel structure will be built using steel. This gives very efficient as a structural material and relatively small quantity of steel accomplishes spans of high-load bearing capacity and also it has less in weight so it can be handled easily on site.
MMC offers considerable offers to the developers or builders in term of fast of construction, ability to pre-plan the construction work and minimised call-backs. Its providing hotel building offers sustainability in the honest way that traditional construction will never be able to match.
Even though this MMC still facing some barriers which are poor understanding, poor courage, poor acuity, poor agreement for products, poor skills and cost perception. So in this hotel construction its essential that these obstacle both by client and project team members.
Case study 01: Hotel, Granada Travelodge, London
This project contains 64 bed rooms building with underground parking facilities. It was built by the steel frame with the support of MMC. It has five story building and space for public on the ground floor. Building includes bar for breakfast and different lifts facilities.
The benefits arisen from MMC in this project were:
Maintained better finished quality
Site production and preparation was done in same time with factory production, therefore less disruption for existing business and environment.
There was a cost effective for 5 storey building.
Hotel was built within 27 weeks, more of this winter moths also included.
The all manufacture cost was reduced by 35%
Extra revenue, as early completion of the building was brought additional £179,000 income for the client.
Case study 02: Barling court, stockwell, London
This project contains 8 apartments with the bed room facilities. This apartment originally were manufactured in Krakow and transferred to sites.
No of apartments-08
Construction type- Modern
Reduction in site labour-75%
Reduction in commercial vehicle movement-40%
Reduction in waste-70%
From these case studies
Again these case studies give a better preferred method is MMC
It's a preferred method of proving hotel as proposed.