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Background of the Problem
In recent years, the number of buildings constructed using energy-saving designs hasincreased due to the increasing awareness of the benefits of energy conservation, both economic and environment. The recent rapid advances in computer technology have facilitated the development of energy-saving building designs by allowing detailed simulations, involving the incorporation of many energy-saving building techniques and features, to be conducted in the design stage. These techniques have been widely studied in terms of their design potential, however, there are very few studies concerning the actual post-construction performance of the design features and whether the overall building design does in fact provide significant energy savings.
Energy conservation has been the utmost importance focus of agencies. It is the goal of this plan to reduce energy consumption to a minimum of 5-7% in all the borough facilities. The general approach presented in this draft depends on the cooperation and active participation of borough staff in the creation and implementation of a conservation strategy for two reasons: 1) staff have the knowledge and experience with specific facilities/operations to propose effective solutions and 2) staff support is essential for successful implementation. The plan would require a close working relationship and cooperation of borough staff. Time and resource demands on staff should be kept to a minimum and should not interfere with normal duties.
Conservation plan should include an initial education component to inform staff of the existing energy use and trends for each facility and to describe the conservation plan and goals. Staff will be asked to help identify conservation strategies that can achieve that goal without unduly impairing existing operations and efficiencies. One or more meetings will be necessary to discuss staff ideas and agree on one or more conservation strategies. The coordinator and/or commission may be able to help implement strategies. Finally, energy usage should be documented to provide regular feedback to staff of each facility to judge success and allow adjustments.
Energy conservation is considered a worthwhile goal because it conserves natural resources. The examples of CSDOC and Hyperion suggest that reductions in energy use can also lead to increased ability to comply with air emissions regulations. Carbon dioxide is a "greenhouse gas" which is released by all wastewater treatment and bio-solids management processes. Converting bio-solids to fuel achieves. Substantial benefit from the wastes before carbon dioxide is ultimately released. In addition, non-renewable energy sources are replaced by renewable energy from wastewater.
Goals of the Plan
The initial aim of this plan is to have 1% savings in energy consumption in all of the office buildings (until such time when these buildings can conduct an energy conservation feasibility study to indicate more precise benchmarks/metrics).
To support energy efficiencies at this location, energy conservation groups have partnered with the owners of these buildings. To this end, the owners shall adapt the goal of a 1% savings in energy until such time as an energy conservation feasibility study can be completed. In the meantime, energy conservation groups will conduct periodic utility awareness sessions with staff. As a minimum, these sessions will encourage the following actions, when practical:
â€¢ Turn off lights when leaving the office,
â€¢ Turn off outside lights during the day,
â€¢ Turn off computers/monitors and office equipment at the end of the day,
â€¢ Have TBPC set thermostats at 75-76 degrees in warm weather and 68-69 degrees in cool weather,
â€¢ Keep blinds/curtains closed during hot summer days and open on sunny winter days,
â€¢ Ensure heating and air conditioning vents are not blocked,
â€¢ Ensure water faucets are completely closed,
â€¢ Report water leaks immediately,
â€¢ Use standby function on copiers,
â€¢ Recycle paper.
These sessions shall run for the first quarter of the year. At the end of each fiscal quarter, the Agency Energy Conservation Manager will coordinate with the representatives of each organization to compile and review the utility rates and costs for the building's "fair share" portion of the said area for the previous quarter. The Agency Energy Conservation Manager will review the usage and expenditures incurred to determine if they vary abnormally. If so, a review will be conducted immediately to determine the cause.
Another goal of this plan is to have a 2% increase in average fuel mileage for the fleet of three agency vehicles. The agency's goal for reducing vehicle fuel costs will be centered on "miles per gallon (MPG) efficiency". In "MPG Efficiency", our goal is to increase the fleet average mpg efficiency by 2% over the FY 2005 average of 6.25. This will be accomplished by emphasizing the agency vehicle preventive maintenance program and by increasing awareness of fuel efficient driving habits.
To increase driver awareness of fuel efficient driving habits, each vehicle will have a copy of the fuel efficiency goals which include the following common sense guidelines:
do not leave vehicle idling while stopped,
no rapid acceleration from a standstill,
maintain adequate tire pressures at all times,
maintain engine tune-up and filter replacement recommended by manufacturer,
make sure that transmission overdrive is working properly,
Drive at 10% below the posted speed limit on major thoroughfares.
Further, the energy conservation group will encourage staff to consolidate trips, when practical, to reduce overall fleet mileage by scheduling routine pickups/deliveries well in advance.
Evaluating a facility for energy efficiencies and adopting an energy conservation plan often result in increased treatment efficiency, along with the potential for increased treatment capacity, an increased ability to meet effluent limitations, reduced O&M requirements, and reduced energy costs.
The main requirement on the part of the tenants of these buildings is a commitment to spend the initial time needed to evaluate the system, to follow through with the development of an energy conservation plan, and to implement the plan's recommendations.
A number of U.S. facilities, including the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC) and the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) in the San Francisco Bay area, have developed and implemented energy conservation and management plans (Taylor 2005, Cohn 2005).
These plans typically have the goal of reducing energy costs by a specified percentage. The key components of an effective energy management plan are:
â€¢ Creating a system to track energy usage and costs
â€¢ Performing energy audits of major operations
â€¢ Upgrading equipment, systems, and controls, including facility and collection system improvements to increase energy efficiency
â€¢ Developing a cost-effective electric supply purchasing strategy
â€¢ Optimizing load profiles by shifting operations where possible
â€¢ Developing in-house energy management training for operators
Creating a system to track energy usage and costs
Gaining an understanding of where the energy is being used.
Performing Energy Audits of Major Operation
Periodic Checking of Energy allocation
Upgrade of Equipments, Facilities, etc.
Installing high-efficiency influent and effluent
pumps, high-efficiency motors, and
Discontinuing second-stage activated-sludge
Upgrade of Equipments, Facilities, etc.
Adding plastic balls to prevent heat loss and
evaporation losses in the oxygen production
Tying in pipes on gas recirculation blowers
to allow one blower to service two mixing
There is still significant energy-saving potential in the public sector. For example, energy consumption by municipalities and institutions varies widely. The Government is insisting on the need for public administration to be cost-effective so that public money is used prudently.
As a major procurer of energy-efficient products and as a large building administrator, the public sector can help to develop and promote the markets for energy-efficient products and solutions, including through the procurement of energy services.
A recent study shows that there are a number of barriers to energy savings in the municipal sector. These have to do with economic management and organisation, lack of knowledge, and behaviour, among other factors. The municipal reform can help to break down these barriers.
The new requirements for energy labelling of buildings will include a requirement for regular labelling of all public buildings, regardless of size. The energy labels of public buildings must be accessible to the public. Energy consumption be must regularly published on the Internet so that it is possible to conduct benchmarking between institutions. At the same time, suppliers of energy-efficient equipment and providers of energy services will have access to up-to-date information on market opportunities, which in turn will support the realisation of the savings potential.
Although significant efforts have been made in recent years to increase the use of energy-efficient appliances, electricity consumption for appliances, etc. is still increasing as a result of more devices and more equipment being used.
There are still large potentials for energy savings, and there is a need to expand and develop the initiative with regards to apparatus categories and effective interventions. Most appliances have a relatively short lifetime. Significant savings can therefore be achieved quickly if energy-efficient appliances are chosen when old ones are replaced. Such appliances are usually not much more expensive, but can result in significant energy savings and hence economic gains.
Well-functioning markets for energy savings and energy-efficient products require easy access to relevant information. Transparency is therefore a keyword in the future energy-conservation drive. Information on energy consumption and on possible savings must be readily accessible to citizens and enterprises.
It is also essential that the information initiative is coordinated and that there is consistency between general and more targeted information and campaign activities. At the same time, as part of the on-going energy conservation effort, general information and behaviour modification must be provided on energy conservation, for instance through educational programs for schools, etc.
Although the primary objective with price-sensitive electricity consumption is not to achieve electricity savings, it nevertheless contributes to supply security in the short term and to the evening out of peak loads in electricity consumption.
An initiative for price-sensitive electricity consumption has aspects in common with an initiative for increased energy efficiency. Intelligent appliances that react to prices will also be more energy efficient.
Advanced meters are necessary for price-sensitive electricity consumption, as well as for providing information on the composition of the electricity consumption with a view to energy efficiency. Energy efficiency and price-sensitive electricity consumption should therefore be more closely linked, with respect to both consultancy and to the technological design of meters and appliances.
It is essential that the promotion of energy conservation be well-organised and that the funds available be used as efficiently as possible. The point of departure for organising future initiatives is the desire for balanced and yet effective action that pays back in the short term. The target is that enterprises and energy consumers experience that energy saving results in economic gains and a reasonable return on investment that would not otherwise be achieved.
The Government considers it essential that the organisation of the energy conservation drive reflect the priorities set for energy saving. The organisation must support the market-oriented strategy and the initiatives described in the action plan. It is important that the funds made available result in the highest possible profitable savings.
Energy conservation and emission reduction is essential to suitable development and economic development in harmony with the environment. Building the government management mechanism of energy conservation and emission reduction has become an important task of government reforms. Study the retraining factors of energy conservation and emission reduction, and propose legal guarantees, management innovation, technology innovation, service system construction and upgrading of industrial structure are the critical factors to energy conservation and emission reduction management mechanism's performance. Then discuss the critical factors deeply. Improve the special legislation; department law linkage and strengthening law enforcement supervision are essential to providing legal guarantees for energy conservation and emission reduction; comprehensive evaluation system and strict control system are essential to management innovation; policy guide and comprehensive utilization is essential to technology innovation; positive policy guide for development of consultation industry is the main task of energy conservation and emission reduction service system construction; high and new technology industries, elimination of outdated production capacity and development of recycling economy are useful for upgrading of industrial structure.
Construction and consummation of energy conservation and emission reduction relevant law could provide measures for government to solve the problem of energy dissipation and environment pollution. The construction and consummation of law related to energy conservation and emission reduction is system engineering. All of the work must be based on the present laws and regulations. Then refine these further. And the refining works must be in connection with the actual need and based on thorough investigation. If necessary, new laws and regulations could come into existence. The construction and consummation must follow in proper sequence, and then could provide a solid legal security foundation.
Today, our government have more than twenty law related to environment and resources protection. For example, "Law on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution", "Air Pollution Control Law", "Law on the Pretension and Control of Noise Pollution", "Law on the Pretension and Control of Solid Waste Pollution", "Cleaner Production Promotion Law" , "Law of Environmental Impact Assessment" and so on. But these laws and regulations couldn't meet the need of energy conservation and emission legal security. Although there is an energy conservation and emission reduction legal security framework, there aren't special laws and regulations related relevant industry and special type of enterprises' energy conservation and emission reduction control. And there aren't effective legal means to closely restraint on enterprises' disposal of pollutants and energy consumption. So, it is necessary to set some corresponding laws and regulations for special industry and enterprises in aspect of saving energy, recycling economic and pollution prevention. For example, the British has many special laws and regulations, "Alkali Act", "Industry development Environment Act", "Clean Air Amendment", "Fume Emission Act", "Environmental Protection Act", "Water Act", "and Water Industry Act" and so on.
Reinforce the supervision and control measures, then the energy conservation and emission reduction works could carry on effectively and orderly. Determine the responsibility of the establishment units according to the energy conservation and emission reduction plan and tasks. Strictly examine the achievement of there goals. And during the above process, the comprehensive utilizations of resources should be the focus. At last, it's useful and essential to collect the suggestions of various establishment units. And optimize the energy conservation and emission reduction management system according to the suggestions and the feedback information of management system's control activities. So the innovation of energy conservation and emission reduction management system would go forward for ever.