Causes Of The Construction Defect Construction Essay

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Construction defects are very common and often arising or spot in the construction project, especially in the project which has poor management or supervision in the construction site. Construction defect can be known as a major problem in the construction industry that could cause the value of a building decrease eventually. For the question of "what is construction defect" there is no direct or short answer or explanation to answer the question of "what is construction defect". Construction defect in the construction project normally can be arise from two mains factor which is defect cause by workmanship and land movement. Some of the example for the common construction defect can be defective concrete of frame, cracking of slab; wood structural attack by termite, leaking in the building and etc. other than that, construction defects in construction project due to the reason of land movement could be underground water, settlement, improper compaction during earthwork stage and inadequate of drainage. Every construction project is always involved and appears the term of "construction defect" for the reason of there is no a building or project without defect occurs. In order to study the further detail information of causes, effects and methods to minimize construction defects in construction project, this dissertation would be carry out for the purpose of study in deep of construction defect.

1.2 Research Background

Climatic of Malaysia are change aggressively, therefore all of the buildings in Malaysia are expose to the aggressive environment all the time. Because of this, majority of the building in Malaysia will have the defects occurs in the buildings after the building is occupant a period of time.

The purpose of conduct this research is to study the common construction defect in the construction project. Once the defects study, it is also necessary focus on the effects of the construction defects that will occur, since defect is precedent of effects of the construction defects. In additional, in order to minimize the construction defects, an evaluation on methods to minimize the construction defect will also be focus on this research.

1.2.1 Causes of the construction defect

A construction defect can be known as a component in the building are built by the contractor or design by professionals not according to the specification, plan, not comply with the construction code that established by the authority( Calvin " Cal" E. Beyer, 2011). Construction defects can be also defined as that will make the project dangerous, unsafe, causes the user of the building to be injured or dead (Michael S. Poles, GC, CM, RCI, DABFET, ACFE, 1995). It can be occurs during the construction process and cause the project costly rework, project not complete in time and affect the overall performance of the building.

Construction defect can be classified as 2 types, which are 'Patent Defects' and 'Latent Defects'. Patent Defects can be detected by the normal inspection or testing and apparent to naked eye, for example roof leak or a foundation crack. However, Latent Defects are hidden and cannot discoverable by normal examination or testing which will appear itself after a period of time (Anon 1, 2007).

According to the researcher from the University of Florida, construction defects can be various types and influenced by many factors in the construction industry. The common types and the causes of the construction defect can be included (Calvin "Cal" E. Beyer, 2011):

Improper design Poor workmanship that leads to poor finishing quality

Improper means or methods of installation

Improper or poor quality of the materials

Defective material or poor material performance

Missing or inadequate protection from weather or environmental condition in the construction site.

Soil subsidence, movement and settlement

Base on the few studies of researcher, the effects of the construction defect can increase the overall construction cost and the final quantity of the project (Zietsman, R., 2004) and a survey conducted by the Building Research Establishment in the United Kingdom, it found that 35% of the defects were arise from faulty construction(Assaf, Al-Hammad, Al-Shihah, 1995). It can be

due to the reason of bad workmanship, inadequate supervision and substitution of poor material, components or fixings.

Beside those common type and the causes of the construction defect has stated above, the 35 most frequent defects was identified by the Building Research Establishment. The causes of defects that were identified which is (Assaf, Al-Hammad, Al-Shihah, 1995):

Lack of inspection

Making use of inexperienced, unqualified inspectors

Avoiding and ignoring inspection completely

Non implementation of corrective actions during the construction process

Inaccurate measurement

Making use of defective or damaged formwork

Excavations to close to an existing building and exposing the foundations

Non-conformance with waterproofing specifications

Inability to read and understand/interpret drawings

Insufficient concrete cover

Improper construction of cold joints

Loss in adhesion between materials

Stripping formwork too early

Unacceptable soil compaction procedures

Inadequate curing procedures

Lack of communication

Non-compliance with specifications

Inability to read and understand/interpret drawings

Insufficient site supervision

Lack of communication between the owner, architect/engineer, project manager

Employing unqualified supervisors

Speedy completion of certain activities specifically where equipment is on hire

Unqualified labor force

Multinational construction experience

Defects resulting from the wrong selection of materials

Using materials unsuitable for the climatic conditions

Using cheap materials

Making use of expired materials

Inadequate storage facilities

Misuse of equipment

Equipment not performing to specification

Lack of the proper equipment

Cross referencing and detailed referencing on drawings lacking

Conflicting details on drawings

Details of sections on drawings lacking

According to Marianne (2005), these 35 defects listed above can be grouped in to 4 categories which are:

Design deficiencies

Material deficiencies

Construction deficiencies

Subsurface/geotechnical problem

1.2.2 Method to minimizing the construction defect

In construction industry, there is varying of the methods to minimizing or reduce the construction defects. According to Alice M. Noble-Allgire (2008), improving quality control can be known as a method to minimize the construction defects occurs. A quality control programs can be set up by the builder and use to reduce the construction defects. Besides that, structuring their contract with certain of the rules that can ensures that the parties take responsibilities on the defects that created under his works. Construction defects can be also minimizing by the improved oversight, for example builder can improve their building inspection practices in all the way. Other than that, if there is insufficient for improve the quality control, it also can through licensing, certification, and education requirement to improved the quality control. For example, a contractor which intended to select, the contractor must be register with the Construction Industry Development Board know as CIDB. With the registration, that can ensure the quality of contractor and the works.

1.2.3 Effect of the construction defect

Construction defect can decrease and affect the value of the buildings. According to Atkinson, (1999), defects are developments in construction that reduces the project`s value instead of adding to it.

Other than reduces the project value, where the construction defect apparent, It also can cause the project totally delay which mean not complete with in the period state in the contract. Cost overrun can be known as one of the effect when the construction defects happen in the construction site. Construction defect will also affect society at large due to possible danger posed and result in direct and indirect cost in repairs, abnormally high maintenance dispute and possible loss of building.

1.3 Problem Statement

Construction defect in the construction project is very common. It is because buildings are exposing to the inclement weather especially in the climatic country such as Malaysia. Construction defects can be arising due to inadequate design, poor workmanships in the construction and lack of maintenance. The defects that in the construction project can become worst and worst due to the reason of invisible defect that not discover by the builder or the occupants. Construction defect can be also bringing negative impact to the occupant, builder, and country. Therefore it may affect the appearance of the building, health and safety of the occupant, country economic, reputation and etc. Thus, this problem can cause occupant unhappy eventually.

1.4 Research Aims and Objectives

1.4.1 Aim

This research was aimed at identifying and studies the causes and effect of construction defects in the construction sector. Besides that, the other aim of this research is to study the methods of minimizing the construction defects in construction projects.

1.4.2 Objectives

In order to achieve the aim of this research the objective has been listed as follow:

To determining and understand various types of construction defects in construction projects.

To identify the causes and effects of the construction defects in construction projects.

To analyze the methods used to minimizing the construction defects in the construction projects.

1.4.3 Key Question

What is construction defect?

What are the effects of construction defect can be occurs in construction projects?

What is the solution or methods to minimize the defect?

1.5 Importance and Benefits of Study

This research will have benefits of to prevent the construction defects occur. Thus, this thesis will study the causes, effects and the methods to minimize the construction defects. Besides that, this study can also enhance the knowledge of the builders or any participants involve in the construction in order to increase the quality of the buildings.

1.6 Scope of Study

Various types of construction defects will be study for the purpose of understanding the construction defects.

The main scope will be the causes of the construction defects will be study in depth and identify the most common causes that cause the construction defects occurs in the construction project.

Followed by the effects from the various construction defects that occur in the construction project will be study.

For the last, the method to minimize the construction defects will be analyzes.

1.7 Methodology of Research

In order to obtain the useful information for this dissertation study purpose, there is few methods to collect the data and information. Since the type of the data to be collecting having not been deciding therefore there is a consequence stage to follow.

Stage 1: Literature Review

Literature review is the Initial stages of the methodology, because some of the information that is useful for setting out the questionnaire.

There is numbers of way or method for carry out literature review to obtain information for this dissertation:

Magazines

Journals

Articles

Books

Newspaper

Internet (www.google.co www.yahoo.com)

Stage 2: Choose of suitable data collection method

There are 2 types of the methods to collect the data had been choose for this dissertation, which categories in 2 types. Only one of the methods will choose for this research to collect the data among the 2 methods.

Quantitative

Questionnaires

A set of questions will be form base on aim, objective of this study and the information that I found in the literature review.

Target groups: experience contractor and the site supervisor.

Reason: personal financial and able to obtain the data in short period.

Qualitative

Case study

Observation and investigation (site visit).

Targeted Place : construction sites, occupied buildings

Identify the common defects in the construction project and some of the photo will be taken.

Stage 3: Data analysis

Once the data collected, in this chapter will analysis the data that collected from the questionnaire and case study by either method of SPSS, table method or bar chart.

Analysis will include:

Respondent age

Collected data for Cause of defect in construction project

Find out the major cause

Collected data for the effect of defect in construction project

Find out most worst effect

Collected data for the method to minimize the defect in construction project

Analysis which method most effective

Details of the construction site or building

Comparison of site or building

Major defects arise in construction from the case study data

Stage 4: Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

Result of analysis will be conclusion.

Judgment for the result will be including in the conclusion.

For example which common cause of the defect in the construction project.

Most effective method to reduce the defect in construction project will conclude.

Recommendation

A further scope of study will be recommended.

Most effective methods as remedial action for construction will be recommended.

Some of the field for study in depth will recommended.

1.8 Summary of chapters

1.8.1 Chapter 1 - Introduction

In chapter 1, information regarding the research topic will be discussed in brief in the introduction. Other than that, background in this chapter will further study in depth the causes, effects and method to minimizing the construction defects. For example, defects can be categorized in 2 types, which is patent and latent defect. In additional, the research aim and objective will also include in this chapter follow by research methodology, which is how the data be collect and analyze.

1.8.2 Chapter 2 - Literature Review

In chapter 2 Literature Review, the causes of the construction defects will be discussed. Once the causes of the construction defects is discussed, the effects of the construction defects will also be discuss follow by the methods to minimize the construction defects. In additional, ways of obtain information for the purpose of conduct Literature Review will be from the articles, journals, internet, reference books and etc.

1.8.3 Chapter 3 - Research Methodology

In Chapter 3 Research Methodology, structure of questionnaire will be form and the procedure of the case study will be plan. (If case study method is choose). Once the information obtains from the questionnaire, it will be listed in this chapter.

Example for the structure of questionnaire:

Improper design Poor workmanship that leads to poor finishing quality

Improper means or methods of installation

Improper or poor quality of the materials

Defective material or poor material performance

Missing or inadequate protection from weather or environmental condition in the construction site.

Soil subsidence, movement and settlement

This questionnaire is base on the Likert's scale of 5 ordinal measures from 1 to 5 according to level contributing. For example:

= strongly Agree (4) = Agree (3) = moderate (2) = Disagree (1) strongly disagree

Example of the case study procedure:

Step 1: Selecting the sites

Step 2: Meet up with sites manager and get approval

Step 3: Conduct case study

-Observation

-Take necessary photo

Step 4: Gather all the data

Step 5: Analysis the data

1.8.4 Chapter 4 - Data Analysis

Once the data successful collected from the questionnaire or case study, the following step is to analysis the data in this chapter 4. The methods use to analysis the collected data can be SPSS, Bar Chart or table method. For example the data can be analysis included: Respondent age, collected data for Cause of defect in construction project, collected data for the effect of defect in construction project, details of the construction site or building, major defects arise in construction from the case study data.

1.8.5 Chapter 5 - Conclusion and Recommendation

In this chapter a conclusion will be conduct to conclude the whole research including the result from the analysis that carry out through the SPSS, bar chart. Besides that, most effective methods to minimize the construction defects will be recommending base on the result of analysis in order to fulfill the research aim and objective.

1.9 Summary

In Chapter 1, general information regard this Research will be discus in the introduction such as definition of the construction project and defects. Some of the further information from other resource such as internet, articles, books, magazines and etc will be discuss in further in the Research Background. For example, causes of the construction defects, methods to minimize the construction defects and effects of the construction defects in the construction project will be discuss in more detail.

Identifying and studies the causes, effects and methods to minimize the construction defects is the aim and objective for this Research.

In additional, the Methodology of this research will include literature review and data will be collect from either questionnaire or case study.

In this chapter, the aim and objective include identifying and studies the causes and effect of construction defects in the construction sector, and the methods to minimizing the construction defects in construction project.

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