The Examples Of Operating Systems Computer Science Essay

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Today, people rely on so many kinds of technology. For instance, people use computers for research, school related, pleasure, and to communicate with their friends. People use other technologies like Bluetooth, GPS, etc for their own needs. Basically, our world is evolving around technology; without it, then the citizens will go insane thus their lives would be difficult. The main topic discussed would be operating systems. People like to use computers, but the thing is some do not know what is behind it; how do operating systems evolve and help individuals see something spectacular rather than something blank and dull.

Operating system is "a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware" (Oak). Operating system handles and deals with the output devices (a monitor), input devices (keyboard and mouse), and peripheral devices (a printer). Basically, it makes sure that the operating system identifies the input devices, displays the output devices, and controls the peripheral devices. In larger systems, operating system checks to see "different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other" ("Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Computer and Internet Terms and Definitions."). In addition, it makes sure "that unauthorized users do not access the system" ("Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Computer and Internet Terms and Definitions."). Operating system acts like a security guard for the larger systems. Examples of operating systems are Disk Operating System (DOS), Windows, MacOS, and UNIX.

Different types of operating system are as follow: Embedded system, Real-time Operating System, Multi-user Operating Systems, Multi-tasking Operating Systems, and Distributed Operating Systems. Embedded systems are mostly for personal digital assistant (PDA) like mobile devices; they are compact and efficient. A couple examples of embedded operating systems are Minix 3 and Windows CE. Real-time Operating System likes to multitask and use algorithms, and they have a quick and immediate respond to inputs. Multi-user Operating Systems allows more than one user to access the computer and runs various programs. Multi-tasking Operating Systems are when various programs run at one time. Windows 95 is an example of this operating system. Distributed Operating System manages a group of computers and makes them emerge into one computer. Those are the different types of operating systems (Oak).

History of Operating Systems

Throughout history, mainframe operating systems evolve and led to so many different kinds of operating system such as UNIX, Window, and MacOs. Without this, then different kinds of operating system will not be created, and many people today will have difficulties obtaining the information they need. In order to begin this, mainframe operating system started around the 1950s right before desktop computers and laptops were created.

As computer programs became difficult to use, and the hardware of the computer became less expensive, computer engineers tried to figure out ways for the computer to adapt to the same and various types of programs. Based on that, they created the mainframe operating system. Mainframe operating system "process large amounts of information and support a great number of users" ("WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions."). This powerful device was used before and currently today by businesses, corporations, and governments because they needed a machine that could handle large databases for use or storage, large bandwidth, and reliability. When mainframe operating system was first created, they did not have any input devices (keyboard, nor mouse). Their input was through cards with holes punched into them; the holes being poke were the sign of data being entered. After that, the operating system read the cards and then transfers them into binary (1's&0's), so it could be understood by computers.

The most popular mainframe operating system was the OS/360. It was created at the end of 1965 by International Business Machines (IBM); its goal was to compute various lines of hardware. IBM wants "to merge these separate lines into one product and developed a new way of thinking about the commonalities amongst processes they were previously thought to irreconcilable" (Lunny).

Examples of mainframe operating systems were: z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE, Linux for System z, z/TPF. z/OS was designed to offer security, constant, and availability for applications running on the mainframe. "z/OS gets work done by dividing it into pieces and giving portions of the job to various system components and subsystems that function interdependently" ("IBM"). z/VM (Virtual Machine) runs different operating systems such z/OS, z/VSE, Linux for System, z/TPF in the virtual machines. Basically z/VM could run combination of guest systems. z/VSE (Virtual Storage Extend), known as DOS, ran "routine production workloads consisting of multiple batch jobs and extensive, traditional transaction processing" ("IBM"). Link for System z used ASCII characters and traditional count key data, and z/TPF (Transaction Processing Facility) was used by airline reservation systems and credit card companies for high transaction volume. Those were examples of mainframe operating systems ("IBM").

Examples of Operating System: UNIX

Based on the mainframe operating systems, it led to many different types of operating systems. One example of an operating system would be UNIX. UNIX was created by one of the Bell Labs member, Kenneth Thompson in 1969. This was intended for programmers to "access the computer at the same time and share its resources" ("Alcatel Lucent"). UNIX controls the commands from the keyboard, and the data being generated. Also, it "permits each user to believe he or she is the only person working on the computer" ("Alcatel Lucent"). This operating system became so powerful that industries, governments, businesses, and so forth wanted this operating system. This idea became popular in the programming and scientific communities.

Based on this superior operating system, its features were: Multitasking capability, multiuser capability, portability, UNIX programs, and Library of application software. One of the features, multitasking, allows a computer to do several things. For instance, this operating system allows a person to create a document while the other run spell check, and the other one editing a document. Another feature, multiuser, allows users to "access the same document by compartmentalizing the document so that the changes of one user don't override the changes of another user" ("Alcatel Lucent"). Portability is another feature that moves a brand of computer to another with a code of changes. This helps the operating system to be upgraded without the customer inputting the data. Library of application is another feature that can be purchased from third-party vendors, so they can use it ("Alcatel Lucent").

UNIX comes from several programs (at least 100 and more); they can be divided into two classes. The two classes are integral utilities and tools; Integral utilities are "necessary for the operation of the computer, such as the command interpreter" ("Alcatel Lucent"). Another class is the tools; it provides the person with "additional capabilities, such as typesetting capabilities and e-mail" ("Alcatel Lucent"). Basically, tools could be removed or added whether if the applications are required or not. That is the final feature of the Unix Program.

UNIX communication came a long way before the development of the World Wide Web. It first allowed people to communicate with each by email at the same terminals. Then users at different machines were connected, so they could communicate too. As a result, they link around the world into the World Wide Web, so it made it easier for other users to communicate.

The UNIX is organized at three levels; they are the kernel, the shell, and the tools and applications. The kernel, "schedules tasks and manages storage" ("Alcatel Lucent") and are controlled by programmer's command. Meaning they can tell the system to shut off or on. In the kernel level, it tells the computer to read the files, and then display the files on the screen. The shell "connects and interprets users' commands, calls programs from memory, and executes them" ("Alcatel Lucent") allowing the output of a program to become the input of another program. The tools and application "offer additional functionality to the operating system" ("Alcatel Lucent"). That is how UNIX is organized at those three levels.

Example of Operating System: Windows

Another example of an operating system is Microsoft Windows. Windows came a long way, and the features that people see today were not like that in the past. In 1975, Paul Allen and Bill Gates saw an article regarding about the MITS Altair 8800 (a microcomputer). They had a better idea and decided it was their time to do something about it. Based on that, they developed and formed Microsoft Corporation in 1975.

On November 20, 1985, Microsoft launched Windows 1.0. This was the first display screen where you could use your mouse, type, and see the screen. According to Bill Gates, he said, "It is unique software designed for the serious PC user" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows"). They also have icons, scroll bars, drop-down menus for people to understand, learn, and be able to use it. Some of the programs included are Notepad, Paint, MS-DOS file management, clock, etc; also they have a game called Reversi ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released on December 9, 1987; this includes expanded memory and provided desktop icons. Having the graphics to be better improved, you could "overlap windows, control the screen layout, and use keyboard shortcuts to speed up your work" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows"). Also, the taskbar was removed; the utilities and the program are still the same. Intel 286 was designed for Window 2.0. Overall, Windows continue to develop better speeds, usability, and reliability of the PC. In addition of this creation, Control Panel was born ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

During 1990 to 1994, Microsoft launched two more operating systems; they were Windows 3.0 and Windows NT. Window 3.0 was released on May 22, 1990 followed by Windows 3.1 in 1992. Windows 3.0 had "better performance, advanced graphics with 16 colors, and improved icons" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows"). In addition, with the Intel 386, the programs ran a little bit faster. Print Manager, Program Manager, and File Manager started to appear in Windows 3.0; with this operating system rapidly growing, it released software development kit (SDK). This helped software developer's focus on writing programs rather than writing device drivers. Games such as Hearts, Solitaire, and Minesweeper came along too. Another operating system that launched in 1990 to 1994 was Windows NT; it was released on July 27, 1993. This however, provided a 32-bit operating system generally for business platform, and Windows NT represents "a fundamental change in the way that companies can address their business computing requirements" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

On August 24, 1995, Microsoft launched Windows 95. It sold about seven million copies by the end of the fifth week. With this creation, it led to the start menu, close, maximize, and minimize, and taskbar in Windows 95. This helped included "Plug and Play capabilities that made it easy to install hardware and software" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows"). Based on this, Internet Explorer (the first version) was created; this was basically the new online world and people could email each other ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

In 1998 to 2000, Microsoft released Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows Me. Windows 98 was released on June 25, 1998; this operating system was described "as an operating system that works better, play betters" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows"). You could find information much easier on your pc, and you could open or close programs much quicker. Another benefit was, you could read DVD discs, and have universal serial bus (USB) devices. One feature that came into appearance was the quick launch bar; this made it easier to run programs without browsing at your desktop, or the start menu. Windows 2000 came along during February 2000; this improved "reliability, ease of use, Internet compatibility, and support for mobile computing ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows"). Also, it provided variety of new plug and play hardware, wireless products, USB devices, etc. Windows Me was released on September 2000; this provided video, music, and home networking entertainment for home users. Based on this, System Restore was appeared for the first time. This makes your PC go back in time if you accidently install a program that affects your computer ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

On October 25, 2001, Window XP was released with better features, usability, and security, reliability, and performance. This help cooperate the use and emphasis of Help and Support; it is when you need help on one particular program. This operating system helped citizens understand viruses and mistrustful attachments that could damage your computer. Windows Media player became better in style, and the way it looks. In addition, it led to wireless connectivity, Windows Messenger, Remote Assistance, and 64-bit Edition ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

In 2006, Windows Vista was released; this provides the best security system you get, so you don't have to buy too much protection on your computer. You could buy a simple security system, and you would be fine. One feature was the Window Media Center; that was for entertainment. If you have TV Tuner, you could watch, pause, and record live TV. Another feature was the taskbar; they remade the Taskbar to look better and different from previous operating systems. Lastly, the network section became user friendly, so people could easily connect to any network that was unprotected, or their network.

On October, 2009 Microsoft released Window 7; this feature was similar to Window Vista, yet it has more advantages. The main feature that Window 7 has is the Touch feature. This feature enabled you to touch the screen like the web browser and so forth if you have a touch screen computer. By 2010 during the fall, "Windows 7 is selling seven copies a second----the fastest selling operating system in history" ("Windows Home - Microsoft Windows").

Examples of Operating System: MacOS

MacOS is another example of Operating System. It is part of Apple and was created by Steve Jobs. The first version of MacOs was released in 1984; it was user friendly because you did not need to use the right click button on the mouse. Also, it did not have command line interface. After that, it released System 3.0, which could not tell the difference between lowercase and uppercase letters to System 5.0, which ran multiple programs at the same time.

Four years later in 1988, System 6.0 came along; this could organize hard disks up to two GBs (gigabyte). This had multitasking capability and it provided word processes programs like "WriteNow, MacWrite II, and Microsoft Word 4.0" ("Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)"). In May 1991, System 7 was released, and virtual memory was allowed to be used. This also helped display colors and incorporated a help section (the balloon), so the user did not have trouble using the interface. Based on this, System 7.5 appeared in 1994 with slightly better features. Some of the feature and benefits were bug fixes and storage drives could store use up to four GBs. In early 1997, they changed the name from System to MacOS 7.6. Performance improved a lot in the memory management and virtual memory. QuickTime Version 2.5, a pure image quality, was featured in this operating system.

MacOS 8 was released on July 1997 and MacOS 9 on October 23, 1999. This lead to three different versions; they were: MacOS 8.1, MacOS 8.5, and MacOS 8.6 versions. In MacOS 8.1, information could be stored efficiently, and the system could handle up to two billion files! In MacOS 8.5, the speed became much better and the graphic display was fast by QuickDraw routines. Also, copying files' speed was much faster than before. In 8.5, you had these kinds of applications: "Finder 8.5 QuickTime Pro 3, Open Transport 2, Internet Explorer 4.01, Outlook Express 4.01, Netscape Navigator 4.0.5, Mac OS Runtime for Java 2.0 and File Exchange 3" ("Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)"). In MacOS 8.6, it improved the performance and supported the PowerPC G4 processor giving it the ability to multitask with the new features. In MacOS 9, they had 50 additional features, and "This includes support for multiple users with password and access management for files and settings" ("Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)"). Your login could be use by voice, and the files could be encrypted for security.

The final Operating System for Mac so far, but has different versions was MacOS X. The first version, 10.0 was released on March 2001; this help made the display look better and not as dull as before. Their icons were place in a docket at the bottom of the screen. Then, version MacOS X 10.1 was released; with this, "The surface reacts quicker at user interaction, the system start was accelerated and the OpenGL performance increased noticeable" ("Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)"). Mac OS X 10.3 began to have Graphic User Interface in metallic scheme and the finder (optimized). Mac OS X 10.4 had 200 features including Safari 2.0 (web browser). MacOS X 10.5 offered "the user an enhanced user interface with virtual desktops, a fast file preview and Dock with 3D effect" ("Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)"). MacOS X 10.6 (currently used today) improved performance, speed, and stability. It could support up "to 16 TByte memory, it is optimized for multi core processors, and is a pure 64-bit operating system. With the technology OpenCL graphics processor can speed up in specific applications calculations" ("Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)").

Which Operating System do People use (Jobs, etc.)? Which one is recommended for you?

Those are the examples of the operating system, so which operating system would companies, businesses, and governments, individuals, or schools would use. Companies, businesses, and governments like to use Microsoft Windows especially Windows XP because they used it for over five years. Also, they did want not upgrade to Vista because the security features it had would slow down the computer. Overall, they like to use Windows XP because they are simple and easy to use. Also, some companies, businesses, and governments would use UNIX if you a programmer or a computer scientist. For school, they like to stay up-to-date, so they would used Windows 7. For individuals, it is up to them what they want to use. If you are the kind of person who likes to play games, watch movies, and TV then you should consider Microsoft Windows. If you are a creative person meaning like to edit music, film, and design fields, then you should consider the MacOS. Overall, many people in the world uses different kinds of Operating System.

Future of Operating System

The future of Operating system would be quite interesting because since many people rely on technology, how would the future be like? One blog that was interesting was by Rafe Blandford. One fascinating thing he said that Social networking could possibility break out and become its own operating system. "Operating systems will become more social as they marry context awareness, the Internet and your social connections. The information broadcast and received by your mobile device will be critical in connecting people in new and more immediate new ways" (Blandford). The thing is we do not how the future is going to be, so you never know what it is going to be in the future (Blandford).

Conclusion

In conclusion, operating system is the one that lead to many different kinds of Operating System today such as UNIX, Microsoft Windows, and MacOs. Without it, then people have difficulties doing their errands. The main credit for doing all these is the mainframe operating system. Basically just one simple thing can lead to multiple things. UNIX is designed for Programmers and the screen is blank. Programmers have to input coding, so they could see the end result (the output). Microsoft Windows started from Windows 1.0 and eventually leading to Window 7 (Current as of now), and MacOS started from Systems 1.0 and working its way up to MacOs X 10.6 (Current as of now). The main idea is to show people that without operating systems, our life would not be the same and will be miserable. This is what helps make our life easier and not complicated.

Work Cited Sources

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